If you take a look at Friedland which is probably the best documented artillery action that I have found, Senarmont personally commanded the battery, with his chief of staff, Colonel Forno commanding one half of the battery, and Chef de Bataillon Bernard was second in command and took over when Col Forno was killed. Bernard was also wounded in the action. The other 15-gun element was commanded by Major Raulot. Subordinate to them were the individual gun company commanders and company officers.
So, there was a chain of command in the large artillery batteries used in combat by the French. The material is readily available on Friedland and a little digging would undoubtedly find information on the other artillery actions of the period. Corps and division after action reports would undoubtedly be very helpful.