Napoleon Series Archive 2009

Materials and naming

Dear All
Clarrification is required upon materials and naming. [Apologee for the spelling and missing of the special letters]

English / French / Dutch / German
Cast / Fonte / Goot Geut / Guss

Copper / Ciuvre rouge / Roodkoper / Rotkupfer = Pure Copper [Sweden & Hungary for guns. Excellent quality from Japan. Poor quality from Norway and Morocco]
Lead / Plmb / lood / Blei = small amounts were used to improve the machining
Tin / Etain / Tin / Zinn = Makes copper stronger. Too much and the bronze becomes too brittle. Higher levels of tin for mortars. [ORIGIN South East Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia etc..., Cornwall (the best) and Zinnwald in Saxony]

Iron / Fer / Ijzer / Eisen
Cast Iron / Fer fondu / Giertjzer / Gusseisen = used for sea service guns and mortars
Iron Sheet / Tole / Plaatizer / Blech
Tinned iron, white iron / fer blanc / Blik, vertind ijzers / Weissblech = Thin iron sheet coated with a thin layer of tin. This is what was used to make the container for canister or case shot. The literal translation of the French would give white metal or white iron.
Wrought Iron / Fer forge, battu / Smeeddijers / Schmeideeisen

Graphite / Crayon bleu / Pot-loot / Graphite, Pottlot
Charcoal / Charbon de bois / Houtskool / Holzkohle
Saltpetre, Nitre, Petre / Saltpetre / Salpeter / Salpeter = potassium nitrate
Sulphur /

Latten / Laiten / Pot-lood / Graphit Pottlot = Brass [an alloy of Copper with up to 30% Zinc]
Bronze [historically Brass] / Airan / Brons / Bronze = Alloy of copper and tin with minor constriuents of zinc (inhibits oxidation of tin) and lead (improve machining) [e.g. alloy of 90% Cu, 9% Sn, 0.3% Zn, 0.7%Pb] The contemporary discriptions of 90% Cu and 10% Sn is misleading. The "manner kept secret by the founders." [Smith (1779) Military Dictionary] Modern analysis has elucidated the composition.

Tin came from Zinnfeld in Saxony with some probably coming from Cornwall through smuggling. Also there was a 18 month peace c1802 to increase the stocks from Cornwall and the Far East.
Copper from Sweden.
Old guns and captured guns were melted, raw copper added when the furnace approached 1100 C and at the point of pouring Tin was added to avoid oxidation.

DDS (2007), Dartein (1810), De Beer (1991), Jackson and de Beer (1974), Ffoukes (1937), Blackmore (1976) plus numerous books upon material science.