Phobias are quite serious mental aberrations and often disabling, the term should not be used loosely for mere aversions.
Though I don't doubt Napoleon had his superstitions (most of us have if we look closely) and his pecularities (ditto) I think talk of phobias is nonsense. If he had been seriously superstitious he would not have ignored the bad omen before crossing the Niemen.
The story about the dislike of doors being opened widely for instance - as Emperor he was entitled to both doors being flung open open before him and it would have looked most peculiar if he had insisted on squeezing through a crack instead.
It is possible he had an aversion to draughts though!