But the Russian artillery officers were not trained as well as their counterparts in Austria, Great Britain, and France. What was the curriculum the Russian artillery officers studied and who were their instructors. The French artillery officers, for example, were trained in algebra, calculus, drawing, and other scientific disciplines, and the artillery NCOs had a shorter course to go through. Further, French artillery officers were trained to construct gun carriages, cast cannon, build furnaces to heat shot, enlisted crew drill, cast and make ammunition as well as to coordinate artillery with infantry units.
And the training given the Russian gunners was not realistic field training and they did not train to coordinate with their infantry. What was the Russian artillery doctrine? Where was it published? Was there anything in wriitng above the battery/company level? What was the Russian doctrine for command and control of the artillery assigned to the field armies. Their artillery companes had more guns that they could effectively control and the Russians were artillery heavy in the field.
What is generally missed when discussing the artillery of the period, especially with the Russians was to go beyond the guns and supporting equipment and how the artillery was organized and commanded, as well as the education and training of the officers and enlisted men. That is the real issue when comparing and contrasting different armies' artillery arms and the issue that is generally ignored.