Here for those interested is my work on Bavarian Artillery of the Napoleonic Wars. Completed 26 January 2006
During the 1790s the Bavarian army was reformed mainly due to the influence of the American Benjamin Thompson (later Graf von Rumford) who although mainly a chemist (and inventor of the coffee percolator) altered their uniform and introduced a new small artillery piece. In 1792 he was made a Count of the Holy Roman Empire, and he took the name of his old town American of Rumford. Our main interest in Count Rumford arises out of experiments he made five years later. His interest in field artillery led him to study both the boring and firing of cannons, his artillery designs were so highly regarded that by 1799 US President Adams tried to persuade him to return to America to found a Military Academy. Rumford introduced his own 3lb in 1795, and in the following year introduced Austrian gun tubes of 6lb and 12lb, and the 7lb howitzer to replace the existing equipment.
On the 25 March 1800 the artillery regiment was founded with 9 "Bombardier-Kanonier" companies, 1 Horse Company and 1 "Ouvriers” Company. The bombardier-Kanonier companies were divided into three brigades, each of three companies. The first was commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel, the second by a Major, and the last by a second major. Each company was organised into eight single gun sections, two howitzer troops (bombardieren) and six field gun troops (kanonier-coporalschaften). The ouvriers were under the command of the Director of the Arsenals, and were separate from the artillery regiment, the organisation of the regiment being as follows1:
Upper Staff: 1 inhaber, General von Manson, 1 colonel, Baron Hallberg,
1 Lt Colonel, 2 Majors, 1 General Adjutant, 2 Regimental Adjutants.
Middle Staff: 2 quartermasters, 1 clerk, 1 senior surgeon, 2 junior surgeon.
Junior Staff: 1 gunsmith, 1 drum major, 1 provost, 1 jung.
Bombardier-Kannonier Company: 1 1st Lieutenant, 2 2nd Lieutenants, 1 senior pyrotechnician, 1 Fourier, 2 corporal junior pyrotechnicians, 6 corporals, 6 1st bombardiers, 6 bombardiers, 18 1st gunners, 18 2nd gunners, 32 cannoneers, 1 drummer, 1 probationary surgeon.
A field gun section was commanded by 1 corporal, 3 1st gunners, 3 2nd gunners and 4 cannoneers, the howitzer section was commanded by a corporal junior pyrotechnician, with 3 1st bombardiers, 3 2nd bombardiers, 4 cannoneers.
The ouvrier company, founded by Jakub Manson, based in the arsenal was commanded by a captain, and consisted of of 1 1st Lieutenant, 1 2nd Lieutenant, 1 sergeant-major, 1 Fourier, 5 corporals ( 1 black smith, 1 gun borer, 1 gunstock maker, 1 wheel wright, 1 carpenter-cabinet maker), 5 lance corporals, 6 smiths, 3 gunlock smiths, 1 nail maker, 2 gun borers, 6 gunstock makers, 7 wheelwrights, 1 latheworker, 4 carpenters, 4 cabinet makers, 1 drummer. The company was divided into four sections, one of wheelwright wagon makers, one of borers and gunsmiths, one of black smiths and one of cabinet makers. Each section was supervised by a corporal. The ouvriers were seected by the Colonel commanding the arsenal after he had inspected their work, their daily salary being 10 kreuzer a day. Advancement and promotion was at the direction of the inhaber and the commanding colonel subject to review by the Elector. In the same manner, the commanding colonel chose his staff and their appointments were approved by the Elector and Inhaber. Promotion of officers was dependant on their years of service and on the quality of their service records. The quartermaster was selected by the colonel, but given final approval only by the elector.
In total the regiment had 80 guns and 880men2
When an artillery artificer sergeant was due for promotion, he was subjected to an examination in three subjects prior to advancement. All bombardiers and cannoneers also underwent examination prior to advancement, which was initiated by the company officers, and approved by the Inhaber.
The artillery was inspected and reviewed by a War Commissioner every month. The arsenals of Bavaria were controlled by the Artillery Directory, which was organised as follows:
Munich: arsenal and powder mill, powder magazines of Grunwald and Inglostadt.
Amberg: cannon factory at Forschau and magazine at Rottenberg.
The Artillery Directory at the time consisted of Graf von Rumford, who returned to Bavaria in 1805, the Director General (Manson), the Adjutant General was Baron Zoller, the under director Colonel Comeau, and his assistant was Lt-Colonel Collonge; other members were Heinrich Othon von Schell (1745-1807), (better known as Otto de Scheel who published a commentary on Manson’s 1792 publication of Gribeauvals treatise in 1795), and the Swissman de Pirah. Swissman Lintz was appointed to take charge of the Ouvriers and had been a senior officer with Manson in the Armee of the Condee and was also a French Émigré officer.
In 1801 after defeat at Hohenlinden a year earlier, Bavaria changed sides and were given the free Imperial cities of Passau, Freising, Augsburg, Bamberg and Wurzburg.
In French Service
The decree of 12 March 1804 required that the horse artillery brigade be differentiated in name from the Artillery regiment, and a commission was established to insure the serviceability of officers riding horses and consisted of a 1st Lieutenant, a quartermaster and a blacksmith. The horse artillery was disbanded on 14th March and distributed to the foot artillery. On 23 March 1804, the artillery increased to regimental of 2 battalions (the 1st (Horse) Artillery Battalion and the 2nd (Foot) Artillery Battalion). Each battalion had four companies of 150 men each serving six guns and two howitzers. The organisation was as follows:
Staff: 1 Regimental Inhaber, 1 Colonel, 1 Lt Colonel, 3 Majors, 1 Adjutant General, 2 Regimental Adjutants.
Middle Staff: 1 regimental quartermaster, 1 regimental clerk, 1 regimental surgeon, 3 assistant surgeons, 3 probationary surgeons, 1 munitioner, 1 drum major, 2 provosts.
Company Officers: 6 Hauptman, 6Captains, 11 1st Lieutenants, 22 2nd Lieutenants.
NCO’S and Men: 11 senior pyrotechnicians, 11 Fouriers, 22 Bombardier-Corporals, 88 Cannoneer-Corporals, 22 drummers, 132 1st bombardiers, 88 2nd bombardiers, 231 1st gunners, 462 2nd gunners, 704 cannoneers,
During wartime each company was increased with the addition of four more cannoner-corpoals.
In 1805, fought against the Austrians in Germany and the Tyrol. In 1806, gained the Tyrol, Voralberg, Brixen and Trent from Austria but lost Wurzburg to Grand Duke Ferdinand who relinquished Salzburg to Austria. The order of September 28th ordered the formation of the Artillery and Transport Battalions, each to contain eight companies, each to consist of:
1 Captain, 1 quartermaster, 1 senior smith, 1 adjutant, 9 lieutenants, 8 wachtmeisters, 8 Fourier, 32 corporals, 8 trumpeters, 16 smiths, 16 saddle makers, 960 drivers.
In 1806, Bavaria joined the Confederation of the Rhine. Bavaria was provided a contingent of 30,000 men. In 1806, LG and Chief of Artillery Jakob Manson reduced the companies to 100 gunners serving six guns to improve control. The organisation of the artillery for the 1806 campaign was as foillows 3:
1st Army Division.
Artillery commander Baran Gasoard de Colonge. Major Graf von Spreti
1 Brigade: 6-pdr foot battery: Hauptmann Peters
2 Brigade: 6-pdr foot battery: Hauptmann Goschl
2nd Army Division
Artillery commander Major Colonge, Mjaor Josef Halder.
1 Brigade: 6-pdr light battery: Hauptmann von Caspers
2nd Brigade: 6-pdr light battery: Hauptmann von Tonne.
1 Brigade: 12-pdr foot battery; Hauptmann Torn.
2 Brigade 6-pdr foot battery: Hauptmann Binder
Kombinierte fahrende battery: Hauptmann Koppelt
6-pdr foot battery: Hauptmann Strissl
12-pdr foot battery: Hauptmann Taush.
ParcL Hauptmann Brad.
In 1806. Bavaria fielded two light 6-pdr batterys, 4 6-pdr foot batteries, 2 12-pdr batteries, and a kombinierte battery, which consisted of 4 12-pdr, 2 7-pdr howitzers and 2 6-pdrs, of which all the guns were of Austrian design bar two 12-pdrs.. The 12-pdr batteries acted as position batteries.
In 1807, Napoleon elevated Maximilian Joseph to King Maximilian I of Bavaria who gained the Free Cities of Augsburg and Nuremberg but lost Julich and Berg to form the Grand Duchy of Berg for Marshal Joachim Murat. On 10 January, Wurtemberg and Bavrian troops formed IX of the Grande Armee, the artillery organisation was as follows 4:
Artillery commander: Major Graf von Spreti
Kombinietre battery: Hauptmann Koppelt, assisted by Hauptmann Regnier
6-pdr foot battery: Hauptmann Goschl
6-pdr foot battery: Hauptmann von Hofftetten
12-pdr foot battery: Hauptmann Peters.
Reserve-Parc: Major Josef Halder
6-pdr foot battery: hauptmann Strissl
Artillery commander: Lt-Colonel Baron de Colonge.
6-pdr light battery: Hauptmann von Caspers
6-pdr light battery: Hauptmann von Tonne
6-pdr foot battery: Hauptmann Graf von Leiningen
6-pdr foot battery: Hauptmann Tausch
Reserve-Parc: Major Colonge
12-pdr foot battery: Hauptmann Brad.
As well, a 6-pdr foot battery was stationed in the Tirol, Battery Torn was in the corps of French Marshall Brune in Prussia.
On 24 December 1807 four artillery commands were created, the first in Munchen, the second in Augsburg, the third in Bamberg and the fourth at Innsbrud.
In 1809, fought against the Austrians as VIII Corps in Germany and the Tyrol. In 1809, thirteen artillery companies served in VII (Bavarian) Corps and 1 artillery company in the Tyrol. The artillery having been divided into three divisions for the campaign under the order of February 26 1809, being 1 wurst battery of 6 guns, 2 foot batteries of 6 guns each , and 1 12-pdr battery of 6 guns. The Artillery Directory assumed direct control of the ouvrier company and added an additional NCO and 6 gunstock makers. On 3rd May, the King agreed to the arming of the gunners with muskets. Previously, as in the Prussian army, it had been considered presumptuous for artillery men to carry muskets, except for immediate self defence or doing sentry duty in emergancy’s. Each company was initially issued 25 muskets, later increased to 50.
In 1809, gained Salzburg but lost Trent:
The organisation of the artillery mobilised for the 1809 campaign was as follows 5:
Commander of Mobilised artillery: Baron de Colonge.
Artillery commander: Major Josef Halder
6-pdr light battery: Hauptmann Regnier
6-pdr foot battery: Hauptmann Wagner
6-pdr foot battery: Hauptmann von Tonne
12-pdr reserve foot battery: Hauptmann von Hofftetten
Artillery commander: Major Baron Zoller
6-pdr light battery: Hauptmann von Caspers
6-pdr foot battery: Hauptmann Torn
6-pdr foot battery: Hauptmann Ullmer
12-pdr reserve battery: Hauptmann von Berchen
Artillery commander: Major Lamen
6-pdr light battery: Hauptmann Gotthard
6-pdr foot battery: Hauptmann Bamler
6-pdr foot battery: Hauptmann Rons
12-pdr reserve battery: Hauptmann Dietrich
On 29 April 1811, the “Koniglichtes Artillerie-Corps” (Royal Artillery Corps) formed from the light (horse) artillery, foot artillery and artillery train.
In 1812, Bavaria sent ten batteries into Russia and formed the 19th and 20th Division of VI (Bavarian) Corps (30 6-pdrs, 8 12-pdrs and 20 Howitzers).
19th (Bavarian) Division (Oberst Freiherr von Lamney)
1st Light Battery (OberstLt. Carl Freiherr von Widemann) [3 6-pdr, 1 Howitzer]
3rd Light Battery (Captain Georg Halder III) [3 6-pdr, 1 Howitzer]
1st Foot (6-pdr) Battery (Captain Baptist von Brack) [6 6-pdr, 2 howitzers]
6th Foot (12-pdr) Battery (Captain Bartholomaus Rois) [4 12-pdr, 2 howitzers]
Howitzer Battery [6 Howitzers]
20th (Bavarian) Division (OberstLt von Zoller)
2nd Light Battery (Captain Joseph Gotthard) [3 6-pdr, 1 Howitzer]
4th Light Battery (Captain Carl L. Baron von Gravenreuth) [3 6-pdr, 1 Howitzer]
4th Line (12-pdr) Battery (Captain Maximilian Berchem) [4 12-pdr, 2 howitzers]
5th Line (6-pdr) Battery (Captain Franz von Hofstetten) [6 6-pdr, 2 howitzers]
8th Line (6-pdr) Battery (Captain Peter Ulmer) [6 6-pdr, 2 howitzers]
12-pdr Battery (124 men, 64 horse) of 1812
4 12-pdr, 2 howitzers, 10 12-pdr Caissons, 4 Howitzer Caissons, 1 Field Forge, 1 Coal Wagon and 1 Supply Wagon.
6-pdr Battery (112 men, 68 horses) of 1812
6 6-pdr, 2 howitzers, 14 6-pdr Caissons, 4 Howitzer Caissons, 1 Infantry Munition Wagon, 1 Field Forge, 1 Coal Wagon, 1 Supply Wagon.
The rescript of March 6 1813 re-fomed the artillery regiment with twenty one companies, primarily manned by gunners who had been discharged from the service before 1812. The transport battalion was also reformed, but due to lakc of equipment, men and horses, it was rebuilt one division at a time. By 1813 the Bavarian army had six 6-pdr batteries (two per division) and four 12-pdr batteries forming the artillery reserve. The organisation of the artillery on 6 March 1813 was as follows 7:
Commander of Mobilised Artillery: Major General Baron Colonge
Artillery commander: Lt-Colonel: Goschl
6-pdr light battery: Hauptmann Rudersheim
6-pdr foot battery: Hauptmann Fintenaur
Artillery commander: Lt-Colonel von Caspers
6-pdr light battery: Hauptmann Aign
6-pdr foot battery: Hauptmann Danner
Artillery commander: Major Wagner
6-pdr light battery: Hauptmann Halder
6-pdr foot battery: Hauptmann Achner
Commander: Major Marabini
6-pdr light battery: Hauptman Baron Widnmann
12-pdr foot battery: Hauptmann Weissner
12-pdr foot battery: Hauptmann: Ulmer
12-pdr foot battery: Hauptmann Dietrich
12-pdr foot battery: Hauptmann Bamler.
On March 27th 1813, the artillery establishment was as follows:
Wurst Artillery: 4 officers, 12 NCO’s, 2 trumpeters, 1 smith, 4 train NCO’s, 1 Train trumpeter, 2 7-pdr howitzer, 6 6-pdrs, 8 wurst wagons, 9 munition wagons, 1 field forge, 1coal wagon, 1supply wagon.
6-ppdr Foot Battery: 4 officers, 4 train NCO’s 2 7-pdr howitzer, 6 6-pdr 14 caissons, 1 infantry caisson, 1 field forge, 1 coal wagon, 1 supply wagon.
12-pdr foot battery: 4 officers, 4 train NCO’s, 2 7-pdr, 6 12-pdr, 20 caissons, 1 field forge, 1 coal wagon, 1 supply wagon.
At this time the field artillery consisted of four 6-pdr batteries, four 12-pdr batteries and four wurst batteries. The Wurst Wagons were those designed in 1800 by Manson, replacing those of 1785. The Wurst and 6-pdr batteries had 112 men each and the 12-pdr batteries 124 men each. In addition there was an artillery reserve with two 12-pdr foot batteries and a battery of six 10-pdr howitzers. The transport battalion also formed a pontoon train of 1,078 men and 633 draft horses, the organisaton being 1 field bridge inspector, 1 1st Lieutenant, 1 2nd Lieutenant, 6 corporals, 1 fourier, 2 drummers, 28 1st pontononiers, 58 pontooniers. The force was charged with manning the water, road and bridge building services of the army. The company was raised in Braunau on the River Inn under the orders of General Wrede and outfitted with 25 Austrian Pontoons carried on haquet wagons converted from farm lurries. The corps was finally active on October 17 1813, and its organisation remained unchanged until 1822
A siege park was also formed, commanded by the Artillery Directory, and consisted of 4 24-pdr, 8 18-pdr, 12 12-pdr, 4 10-pdr howitzers, 4 7-pdr howitzers, 4 60-pdr mortars, and 4 30-pdr mortars. The Bavarian artillery remained at this organisation until June 26 1816.
With the Allies
On 12 October 1813, sensing that the tide of war had turned, Maximilian gradually shifted to the side of the Allies in as dignified a fashion as he could manage. Formed 5th Corps of the Army of Bohemia. In 1814, Bavaria handed back the Tyrol to Austria.
In 1815, General Wrede invaded France with his 4th (Bavarian) Corps: Exchanged Salzburg with Austria in return for Wurzburg and much of Frankfurt am Main. The organisation of the artillery in 4th Corps was as follows 8:
Field Artillery Commander: Lieutenant General Baron Colonge
Artillery commander: Lieutenant Colonel von Caspers.
6-pdr battery: Hauptmann Danner
12-pdr battery: Hauptmann Denrer
Artillery commander: Major Wagner
6-pdr battery: Hauptmann Weisshaupt
12-pdr battery: Hauptmann Berueff
Artillery Commander: Major Von Hofftetten
6-pdr battery: Hauptmann Achner
12-pdr battery: Hauptmann Ulmer
Artillery commander: Major von Gotthard
6-pdr battery: Hauptmann van La Rojee
12-pdr battery: Hauptmann: Weisshaupt
1 Cavalry Division.
6-pdr light battery: Hauptmann Rudershelim
6-pdr light battery: Hauptmann von Halder
12-pdr reserve battery: Hauptmann Ott
Commander: Lieutenant-Colonel Marabini
6-pdr light battery: Hauptmann Baron Widnmann
6-pdr light battery: Hauptmann Aign
12-pdr battery: Hauptmann Rathgeber
10-pdr howitzer battery: Hauptmann Baron Gumppenberg
On 26 June 1816, the artillery regiment was expanded to four battalions of six companies.
Bavarian Foot Artillery Uniform (1812-15)
Bavarian Horse Artillery
In August 1799, an experimental Horse Artillery Company was founded Captain von Schweinichen who as served as a Lieutenant in the Prussian Horse Artillery. Special 6-pdr canons were constructed. At Hohenlinden (3 December 1800), this Horse Artillery Company (6 6-pdr and 2 howitzers) got stuck on a road and was taken prisoner by the French. On 14 May 1801, the reconstituted Horse Artillery company was made by the elector independent of the Artillery Regiment.
Horse Battery of 7 April 1802 (113 Mounts, 64 Draft Horses, 24 Pack Horses)
6 6-pdr cannon, 2 7-pdr cannon, 1 Captain, 1 Oberleutnant, 2 Unterleutnant, 2 Oberfeuerwerkers, 1 Furier, 1 Wachmeister, 1 Company Surgeon, 2 Feuerwerkers, 6 Corporals, 3 Trumpeters, 6 Bombardier 1st Class, 6 Bombadier 2nd Class, 18 Gunners 1st Class, 54 Gunners 2nd Class, 10 Gunners 2nd Class (dismounted), 1 Leatherworker, 1 Farrier, 1 Saddlemaker, 1 Cartwright, 2 Foremen, 48 Labourers, 12 Reserve Labourers, 113 Mounts,
The battery was commanded by Captain von Schweinechen.
On 14 March 1804, the horse company was disbanded with its personnel distributed among the foot artillery companies of the Artillery Regiment. With the disbanding the battery the following officers retired from the service:
Major Schweinichen, Captain, Tausch, Oberleutnent von Caspers, and Unterleutnents von Willenfels and Rohr.
The Regimental History of the 1st Field Artillery Regiment “Prinz-Regent Luitpold”, Volume 2 (1806-1824) stated that light batteries were introduced after the experiments made during the 1806-7 war with Austrian “Wurst” Wagons. On 20 October 1808, the King off Bavaria decided to introduce one “light battery” per artillery battalion. These light batteries were provided with 6-pdr guns of the regular foot artillery and “Wurst” Wagons for the transportation and ammunition (6-pdr Wurst carried 70 roundshot and 10 canister shots).
The Riding (Horse) Company of 1812
1 Oberfeuerwerker, 1 Fourier, 2 Corporal-Feuerwerker, 6 Corporals, 12 Bombardier, 18 Gunner 1st Class, 50 Gunner 2nd Class, 1 Trumpet and 1 Praktikant.
Horse Battery of 1812 (112 men, 64 draft horses and 24 pack horses)
3 6-pdr, 1 7-pdr howitzers, 4 6-pdr Wurst Wagons, 2 Howitzer Wurst Wagons, 5 Munition Wagons, 1 Cavalry Munition Wagon, 1 Field Forge, 1 Coal Wagon, 1 Supply Wagon.
Field Artillery Equipment
By 1800. Bavaria had about 80 guns many of which were Rumford designs, In 1805, Bavaria deployed four batteries being deployed against Austria. In 1809, Bavaria had 72 guns in service with Grande Armee and all the 60 guns sent to Russia in 1812 were lost.
From 1785 Austrian 3-pdr, 6-pdr and 12-pdr guns with a 7-pdr howitzer were used in Bavaria replacing the Valliere style guns. A wurst wagon was used by the light artillery.
Rumford System M1791
In 1791, Rumford introduced his own 3-pdr, 6-pdr and 7-pdr howitzer which served as battalion artillery. Rumford’s new carriage designs were based on his observation of British Artillery whilst in England as Under Secretary of State, and his service with the British Army in America in 1784-5 as Colonel of his own Dragoon Regiment. Rumford took the concept of the Desagulier’s block trail, and modified the system for his 3-pdr.
He abandoned limbers, and instead for the light guns (3-pdr and 6-pdr) which he replaced with an ammunition limber which could carry 4 or 6 gunners. Each gun had two limbers and so could carry up to 12 gunners. There was no differentiation it seems between light artillery or horse artillery. Rumford also devised a new howitzer which had a maximum elevation of 86-degrees, and could be fired whilst still attached to the limber. Rumford also designed heavy siege guns, mortars as well as a 12-pdr field gun and 7-pdr howitzer for use with the field artillery. Both the 7-pdr howitzer and 6-pdr field gun shared a common bracket carriage design, the light 3-pdr being mounted on a block trail.
Pfalz Artillery Schweinchen system 1799
The Pfalz artillery consisted of one company of gunners, armed with French Valliere guns. GL von Schweinichen was brought into the service by Elector Max Joseph earlier in the year of 1799. On 30 August 1799, with the intention of improving the artillery of the Pfalz, he instigated the casting of 6-pdr guns, with a total length of 16 calibres based on patterns provided by Berlin for the horse artillery. The Pfalz guns were lost at Hohenlinden. With the union of Bavaria and the Pfalz in 1799/1800, the artillery came under the direction of Jakob Manson in Munich.
In the summer of 1800, Manson led a group that was charged with designing a new system of artillery for the unified Bavaria, The Rumford 3-pdr, 6-pdr and howitzer were retained, along with the 7-pdr howitzer. New limbers were introduced on the Austrian system. Also introduced were new 6-pdr and 12-pdr, which retained the calibres used by Rumford, and were an amalgam of Gribeauval and AnXI French gun tube and carriage designs. The total length of the tube was 18calibres. Carriages were those designed by Manson and used the elevating screw and plate of the Gribeauval system rather than the vertical screw acting on the back-weight of the gun tube of Rumford designs. A new Wurst wagon was introduced to replace the M1785 wagon. In 1805 Rumford returned to Bavaria as director of Artillery.
A total of 76 guns of this type cast by 1806. The calibre of Bavarian guns is shown below:
Two types of caisson were in use the reserve caisson to Gribeauval designs and wurst caisson for light artillery.
Loading for the reserve caissons was as follows:
6-pdr Caisson (one caisson per gun)
In total 115 cartridges and ball were carried, 25 canister, along with 50 balls and their powder bags, 200 fuses, 25 porte-fires and 12 toises of slow match.
Partition 1: 6 bricoles, 2 charge bags, the rest of the contents being as for a 12-pdr.
Partitions 2 and 6: 6 cartridges and ball.
Partitions 3 and 5: 6 cartridges and ball
Partitions 7 and 8: 8 cartridges and ball
Partition 9: 8 cartridges and ball
Partitions 10 to 17 and 21: same as Partition 7 and 8
Partitions 18 to 20: same as Partition 9.
Caisson for a 12-pdr (two caisson per 12-pdr gun).
In total 48 cartridges and ball were carried, 20 balls, 22 powders balls, 100 fuses, 11 porte-fires, 12 toises of slow match. Caisson 1 also carried 10 bricoles.
Partition 1: 3 sacs a charge, 1 fuse pouch, one linstock, three hand spikes, two porte-lance, two finger stalls, two spatulas for making the fuses with.
Partitions 2 + 3: 4 cartridges and ball and two bags of powder in each.
Partition 4: 6 bags of powder.
Partition 5 and 16: 4 cartridges and ball
Partition 17: same as partition 4
Partition 18 and 20: same as 2 and 3
7-pdr Howitzer Caisson (one caisson per light howitzer, two per heavy howitzer)
In total 42 bombs and their powder charges were carried along with 6 cannister
Partition 1: 2 hand spikes, two porte-lance, two fingerstalls, two powder measures, four fuse chasers, two mallets.
Partition 2 and 3: 25 powder bags.
Partition 4: 3 powder bags and balls, 70 fuses, 9 porte-fires, two pairs of bombardier’s cuffs, 12 toises (24-m) of slow match.
Partition 5: 10 bricoles.
Loading for the wurst caissons was as follows:
6-pdr (one caisson per gun). On caisson limber 40 round shot and 10 cannister, in caisson, 50 round shot and 10 cannister.
7-pdr light howitzer: on limber 18 shells and 6 cannister, in the caisson, 24 shells and 6 cannister,
Each battery also had a tool wagon that carried tools for general repairs. All the tools needed to carry out field repairs were carried in one of the caissons of the battery, which in action was kept at the rear with all the other spare wagons. Smaller tools were kept in a series of wooden boxes inside the caisson along with the other spare items and larger tools.
The 1800 Wurst Wagon based on contemporary prints could carry 12 gunners, and appears to have been an improved version of the 1785 equipment. Like the caisson it too carried a forage rack on its rear. By 1812 limbers for the light artillery, and foot artillery could carry three drivers mounted on the ammunition box. These limbers replaced both the Rumford designs of 1791 and Manson’s 1801 design which was copied by the French in 1803. Rumfords design was based on the British 1788 Desaguliers system, and Mansons on the 1774 limber design of Austria. This new limber design was universal to all guns and rolling stock.
Austrian Wurst Horse Artillery 1806
As a reward for the support of Bavaria during the 1805 campaign, during the occupation of Vienna, Napoleon presented the Elector Max Joseph with two batteries of Austrian 6-pdr cavalerie artillery guns and support vehicles, which were used to mobilize two more batteries [16 Austrian Cavalerie Artillerie guns added. 6-pdr (x12) 7-pdr Howizter (x4). In 1806, Lieutenant-General of Artillery Jakob Manson, removed the Wurst seats from the guns, the gunners riding on the M1800 wurst wagon.
Napoleon also presented the Bavarian artillery with cannon boring machines and other equipment used in the manufacture of cannon from the Vienna arsenal, which were set up in Munich and Amberg. With this machine, once the gun tubes had been cast, the tubes were bored in a two stage process. The first stage was carried out at the place of casting, Munich and finished at Amberg. The basic shape of the tube was making a mould either in lime or sand. Six men could cast a 12lb from raw metal in five hours. The cold tube was placed on a giant water powder lathe (invented by Maritz) where it was rotated around a static cutting head to cut the bore of the tube. The outside of the tub was also finished on a lathe to remove any imperfections. Once the bore was finished, the vent was drilled out. Initially this was a narrow diameter bore cut from the outside of the tube to the bore at an angle of some 7 degrees. . The machine was driven by water power, like that of furance, with a force of 6-8 horsepower, which turned the wheels 16times a minute. The trunnions were then finished after the vent had been drilled. The bore was then drilled to the full width. A 3lb required 20hours of boring, a 6lb 24, a 7lb howitzer 22 and 12lb 258 to complete the process.
A paid gun founder was appointed. Gun production was handled by the Ouvrier company, which had four squads, one of wheel-wrights, one of canon borers, one of smiths, and one of carpenters, which was commanded day by day by Colonel Lintz, and from 21st June 1807 was directly commanded by the Director of the Arsenals. With this equipment cannon production could be increased, the gun tubes being the same calibre as Austria.
With Manson’s death on 5 January 1809, directorship of the arsenal was taken over by Colonel Comeau and Captain von Reichenbach. New Wurst wagons were introduced by 1812.
Organisation of a Bavarian 6-pdr Battery in 1809 was 4 6-pdr and 2 7-pdr Howitzer. In 1812 the equipment organisation was a follows:
Bavarian 6-pdr Battery of 1812 (112 men, 68
horses) 6 6-pdr, 2 7-pdr howitzers, 14 6-pdr
Caissons, 4 Howitzer Caissons, 1 Infantry
Munition Wagon, 1 Field Forge, 1 Coal Wagon, 1 Supply Wagon.
Bavarian 12-pdr Battery (124 men, 64 horse) of
1812 had 4 12-pdr, 2 howitzers, 10 12-pdr
Caissons, 4 Howitzer Caissons, 1 Field Forge, 1 Coal Wagon and 1 Supply Wagon.
Bavarian Horse Artillery Company had 4
6-pdr, 2 7-pdr howitzers, 4 6-pdr Wurst Wagons, 2
Howitzer Wurst Wagons, 5 Munition Wagons, 1
Cavalry Munition Wagon, 1 Field Forge, 1 Coal Wagon, 1 Supply Wagon.
French Guns (M1808).
Most of the Kingdoms artillery material was lost in 1812, and the field artillery had to be rebuilt around surviving guns. By March 1813, 120 field guns and 436 caissons were in service of the French pattern. A report of the 1st August 1813 lists the Bavarian artillery having 10 foot batteries armed with 6 6-pdr and two 5.72-inch howitzers, 4 light (Wurst) batteries armed with 4 6-pdr (in theory 6 6-pdr according to Rescript of March 1813 which does not seem to have been acted upon due to shortages of equipment and French guns had been used in the place of Bavarian Manson M1800) and two 5.72inch howitzers, and 2 reserve batteries armed with 6 12-pdr and two 6.32inch howitzers.
These French guns were of the M1808 system. Artillery in France had undergone major changes since 1803, which were not the benefit of the artillery. The new artillery of 1803 in France was based on Bavarian designs of Manson, but were an un-happy compromise between Bavarian designs, Gribeauval designs and Piedmont designs.
Napoleon ordered Gassendi on 14th April 1806 to sort out the chaos then prevailing in the artillery equipment. Napoleon noted that he would raise the matter with the first inspector in person when they met in the field, and ordered Gassendi to construct at Mayence, Landau, Strasbourg, Neuf-Brisach and Alessandri 1750 new field guns and carriages, as well as 1700 new caissons to replace all of the current equipment then in use. In order to discuss any changes a second committee was formed that reported on 10 January 1808 that the innovations of the An XI System were disappointing and had created a logistical nightmare in having two systems in use at the same time and in some cases within the same battery. They concluded that it was impossible to abolish all the of the Gribeauval material and replace it with AnXI as the French army was distributed throughout Europe. They voted to return to the Gribeauval system, converting where possible exisiting carriages or rolling stock or making new.
In 1807, the Grande Armee had 104 Gribeauval (85 8-pdr and 19 4-pdr) compared to 166 An XI 6-pdr. The 6-pdr was acting as a universal gun for foot and horse batteries. The army as a whole had 40x 12-pdr, so the bulk of the artillery consisted of medium guns rather than heavy.
The committee recommended that the failings with the AnXI equipment were to be remedied with modifications to Gribeauval material, and to AnXI equipment where possible. To this end the Gribeauval field forge and caisson were modified and introduced back into service. The carriages for the 6.32-inch howitzer, 5.72-inch howitzer, and heavy 6.32-inch howitzer were redesigned on the Gribeauval principals. The tubes of the howitzers were also re-designed to have the same ‘tron-conique chamber’ as the mortars designed by Gomer. The ammunition box on the Limber ‘a la Bavaroise’ was abolished, and the Gribeauval limber re-introduced. New carriages were to have recesses for the ammunition box and where possible existing carriages converted or replaced. The 12-pdr carriage production was stopped, and all carriages were to be replaced with those of the Gribeauval design by 1812. The 7-pdr howitzer, a copy of the Austrian 7-pdr howitzer with a calibre of 151.5-mm, and tube length of 101-cm mounted on a carriage that enabled vertical shooting was abandoned.
Napoleon was fundamentally in favour of the new carriage and 5.72-inch howitzer:
The 6.32-inch howitzer is too wasteful: it consumes as much powder as a 24-pdr shot. They have correctly been replaced by 5.72-inch howitzers... The wagon holds 75 rounds, whilst that for the 6.32-inch only holds 50 and in supposing that the 5.72-inch shells are inferior to the 6.32-inch the question comes to this which would you rather have, one 6.32-inch howitzer or two 5.72-inch ones. But the 5.72-inch shell is already preferable to the 6.32-inch one. Gribeauval's carriage was altogether faulty. It has been altered, and rightly so, for there has been a gain of 100% in transport, and lightness given to both the carriage and the howitzer. But the latter still requires improvement: it should have a greater range that might be obtained by lengthening it. There should be two sorts of howitzers, one to combine with the 6-pdr and the other with the 12-pdr The latter must have the inconvenience of greater weight so as to obtain the greatest possible range from the form of the chamber, length, thickness of metal, &c. All these drawbacks are amply compensated in a reserve howitzer by the range being increased. The field howitzers of the Boulogne Camp had that advantage.
It is equally necessary that the existing 12-pdr should have an increased range, not that changes in the gun are necessary, but in the carriage, which should admit of greater elevation being given to the gun. Parks should also have 12-pdr Grenades to be used with the 12-pdr Every wagon should contain some of these grenades in place of common shell.
This is contrary to Gribeauval's principle, which however is false. There are a thousand circumstances in war where it is requisite to open fire at a very long range, whether from one bank to the other of a wide river, or to hinder the enemy from encamping and occupying a position which can only be attacked from a distance. Finally, it is a real disadvantage not to reply to an enemy's fire. We look however to artillery officers not to fire uselessly, for we pretend in no way to attack the fundamental principal that to open fire at a long range under ordinary circumstances are to burn ammunition and to destroy its effect. Guns of higher calibre than 12-pdr are very useless. We have acted wisely in suppressing the 16-pdr that the Prussians and Austrians still drag about.
Gassendi and others had complained that the 6-pdr tube was too light and not strong enough at 130 weight of metal per lb of ball, and increasing this to 150 lb per lb of ball was decided along with lengthening the bore to 17 calibres. This in essence created a lightweight version of the Gribeauval 8-pdr A new carriage based on the principal of Gribeauval was introduced. The ammunition box on the Limber ‘a la Bavaroise’ was abolished, and the Gribeauval limber introduced. New carriages were to have recesses for the ammunition box, and old carriages were either to be converted or replaced. The committee also introduced new ordnance as well.
In Russia Napoleon lost more than 1000 barrels. Due to the edict of Tsar Alexander I of 14 November 1813, 875 trophy barrels were collected in Moscow.
With the defection of General von Wrede in 1813, the Bavarian artillery was hampered by the lack of ammunition as the French guns were of a different calibre to those of the allies. Non French ammunition could be fired, but with greater windage, reducing the effectivness of the guns. This was a major contributing factor to the defeat of Wrede at Hanau. French guns were used after the decree of December 1806 which made the French calibre standard throughout the French Empire, and of vassal states serving with the Grande Armee. French guns were probably also used until sufficient Bavarian equipment could be produced.
Battery organisation and munitions.
Each light artillery battery had the following vehicles:
6x 6pdr, 2x light 7-pdr howitzers, 9 wurst caissons (1 spare), 3 reserve caissons, 1 spare gun carriage, 1 forge, 2 munition wagons. Total 26 vehicles. Each battery also had 6 riding horses and 164 draft horses.
The ammunition allocation was as follows:
8 limber ammunition boxes 300 6pdr rounds and 48 howitzer shells, 8 wurst caisson limber boxes, 300 6-pdr round shot and 48 howitzer shells, 8 wurst caissons, 300 6-pdr roundshot, 48 howitzer shells, limber box on spare gun carriage 50 6-pdr rounds, 5 reserve caissons, 260 6-pdr round shot and 198 howitzer shells.
12-pdr heavy battery had the following vehicles:
6x 12-pdr, 2x heavy 7-livre howitzer, 17 caissons, 1 spare gun carriage, 1 forge, 2 munition wagons.Also, each battery had 9 saddle horses and 156 draft horses.
Siege Artillery Equipment
A siege train was re-established in October 1813. The bronze guns included long 6-pdr, 12-pdr, 24-pdr and the short French AnXI 24-pdr. Long and short 10 and 25 livre howitzers, 10, 25, and 60 livre mortars. In Iron, were 6-pdrs, 12-pdrs, 18-pdrs a 60 livre pierrier and a 12-livre coehorn mortar. The gun carriages and support vehicles were all to Gribeauval system design. The Gribeauval system of siege artillery as devised in 1765, and based on the 1732 artillery system of Lavalliere in France was based on 8-pdr, 12-pdr, 16-pdr and 24-pdr guns supported by an 8inch (223mm)howitzer.
Gribeauval’s sieges guns, relying on designs of 1732 were less obviously superior to the system that they replaced, when compared to the modifcation’s to the garrison and field artillery, and performed little better than their predecessors. Few of these guns were produced until further tests were carried out in 1786, but the guns performance was very unsatisfactory, the gun tubes lasting some 100rounds.
The gun carriages were similar to those of 1732, retained the wooden axel, but the wooden wedge for aiming the piece was replaced with a richstmachine of Austrian inspired designs.
The siege train was a lot slower to move than the field artillery, the heavier ammunition being carried in special carts rather than caissons. On campaign the gun carriages were moved seperatly to the gun tubes, which were carried on a sling cart, both vehicles being drawn by four horses each..
A mountain artillery company was raised armed with 3-pdr guns and a short 7-livre howitzer.
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