Napoleon Series Archive 2015

Re: French Revolution - legal reform

You could have looked this up just as easily:
http://napoleon-series.org/research/government/france/penalcode/c_penalcode1.html
Excerpt, with acknowledgements to Tom

>PENAL CODE.

BOOK THE FIRST

Of Penalties in criminal and correctional Matters, and of their Effects.

6. The penalties in criminal matters are either afflictive and infamous, or merely infamous.

7. Afflictive and infamous penalties are:

1st Death.

2d Hard labour (travaux forcés) in perpetuity.

3d Transportation (deportation).

4th Hard labour for time

5th Solitary imprisonment (réclusion)

Branding and general confiscation may be pronounced concurrently with an effective penalty, in cases determined by the law.

8. Infamous penalties are:

1st The Pillory (carcan)

2d Banishment (bannissement)

3d Civic degradation

9. Penalties in correctional matters are:

1st Imprisonment for time in a house of correction (Maison de force)

2d Interdiction, for time, from certain civil or family rights

3d Fine (l'amende)

10. Condemnation to the penalties established by the law, is always pronounced without prejudice to the claims of the injured parties, to the restitutions, damages and costs (restitutions et dommages intérêts), which may be due to them.

11. The placing (le renvoi) under the special superintendence of the high Police; fine and special confiscation, either of the subject of the delict (corps de délit) when the property of it belongs to the condemned person; or of the things produced by the delict, or of those which have been employed, or were intended to be employed, to commit the delict; are penalties common to criminal and correctional matters.

CHAPTER I.

Of Penalties in criminal Matters.

12. Every person condemned to death shall be beheaded.

13. The person condemned to death for parricide, shall be conducted to the place of execution in a shirt, barefooted, and with his head covered by a black veil.

He shall be exposed upon the scaffold, whilst a serjeant (huissier) shall read to the people the sentence of condemnation; he shall then have his right hand cut off, and immediately be pit to death. (For exemptions and causes (moyens) of extenuation, see articles 64, 66, 68, and 319.)

14. The bodies of those who are executed shall be delivered to their families, if their families require them, upon condition of having them interred without any public ceremony.

15. Male persons condemned to hard labour shall be employed in the most severe works; a cannon ball shall be chained to the feet of each such person; or the convicts shall be chained together two and two, whenever the kind of work in which they are employed will permit.

16. Females condemned to hard labour shall not be set to work, except in a House of Correction.

17. The penalty of transportation shall consist in being removed to, and in remaining for life at, a place fixed upon by the government out of the continental territory of the empire.

If the transported person be found within the territory of the empire, he shall be condemned, on the mere proof of his identity, to perpetual hard labour.

The transported person who shall be taken in any country occupied by the French armies, not within the territory of the empire, shall be sent back to the place of his transportation.

18. Condemnation to perpetual hard labour, and transportation shall carry with it the civil death of the person condemned.

Nevertheless, the government shall have power to allow to the transported person, in the place of his transportation, the exercise of civil rights, or of some of them.

19. Condemnation to the penalty of hard labour for time, shall be pronounced for not less than five years, nor more than twenty years.

20. Whoever shall have been condemned to the penalty of perpetual hard labour, shall be branded in the market-place (la place publique) with a stamp of hot iron on the right shoulder.

Persons condemned to other penalties, shall undergo the branding only in those cases where it shall be added by the law to the other penalties inflicted upon them.<

Yes cutting off the hand was immediately pre-execution - it might have seemed a rather inadequate punishment on its own - but it was an ancien regime practice that the Revolution had abolished and reinstating it, as with branding, seems distinctly unenlightened.

regards,

Susan

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French Revolution - legal reform *LINK*
Re: French Revolution - legal reform
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