"The effects on Portugal, and the extent of devastation, would need to include the number of people who emigrated never to return, men recruited to military service, wounded, killed and missing in action. They would also need to include the losses to the agricultural sector, land, crops, and supporting infrastructure. Finally, there would need to be an estimate for the losses caused both directly and indirectly by the war, malnutrition, starvation, disease, increased rates of morbidity and mortality and, from a counter factual perspective, the children who would have been born had the war not taken place. The existing literature has put forward estimates, albeit largely unsubstantiated, for the total loss sustained by the population of Portugal. Analysis of available data from the census of population, clerical and military estimates undertaken to support conscription and taxation, the various estimates for lives lost as a result of the war, and the surfeit of deaths over live births and unfulfilled births, suggest a total in excess of 200,000 (perhaps as high as seven per cent of the Portuguese population in 1801)."
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