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Napoleonic military architectures on Elba

Napoleonic military architectures on island of Elba
Dalle Luche, Gian Lorenzo & Karwacka, Ewa Jolanta
In: González Avilés, Ángel Benigno (Ed.). Defensive Architecture of the Mediterranean. XV to XVIII Centuries: Vol. VI: Proceedings of the International Conference on Modern Age Fortifications of the Mediterranean Coast, FORTMED 2017. Alacant: Publicacions Universitat d’Alacant, 2017. ISBN 978-84-16724-76-5, pp. 241-248

In 1810 Napoleon wrote: “Portoferraio is a very important place”. That place on Island of Elba was a central node in the network of military arsenals of the Empire and an important piece on Italian military chessboard. Outside the Renaissance walls of the town, around a crumbling fort built in 1700, Napoleon planned a new military fortification’s system inspired to the model of the “camp retranché”, useful to protect the town against the landing of the enemy. Three forts were built. Two ones were only planned. A total of five fortresses constituted a crown around the town and are, also today, an unique example of the original and direct Napoleon personal architectural overview.