Military Subjects: Battles & Campaigns


 

The 1799 Campaign in Italy: Verona Defense March 26, 1799

By Enrico Acerbi

Austrian Deployment

Centre – 21,500 men

TOTALS: Jomini gives a total of 20000 men; Clausewitz raises the total to 29000.

Austrian infantry                                                                                                     (20 bns)                              17,054
Jäger                                                                                                                        (2 coys)                     327
Austrian Cavalry                                                                                                     (18 sqns)                3,351
Austrian artillery                                                                                                                                        768

Divisions – FML Paul Kray & GM[1] Conrad Valentin Kaim

Kavallerie Gruppe – GM Friedrich Xavier Fürst Hohenzollern-Hechingen                                  3,351

Advance Guard Brigade – FML Anton Freiherr von Liptay[2] 

In Defensive Line San Massimo - Santa Lucia

K.k. IR[3] 36 Fürst Carl Fürstenberg                                                                   (1st & 2nd Bns)    1,856
Cdr.: Oberst Conrad von Thelen (a small detachment of IR 36 was entrenched at Chievo)

At Outpost Tomba

K.k. IR 14  Freiherr Wilhelm von Klebek                                                        (1 bn)                        800
Jäger Korps Freiherr Constantin d'Aspre                                                         (2 coys)                     350
K.k. 5th Hussars Regiment                                                                                 (3 sqns)                                    534

In Entrenchments Tombetta          

K.k. 5th Hussars Regiment                                                                               (1 sqn)                                     170
Verona Reserve (see Citadel)       
K.k. IR 14 Freiherr Wilhelm von Klebek                                                         (2 bns)                     1,507

Detachment –  Ferdinand Pers (from Minkwitz’s brigade, Kaim’s Division) At Porta Nuova

K.k. Hungarian Grenadier Battalion –  Oblt Ferdinand Pers                                                             767
1st Bn, K.k. IR 48 (Hungarian)                                                                                                                             782
K.k. 5th Hussars Regiment                                                                                 (5th & 6th Sqns)                      350

Brigade – GM Freiherr Ferdinand von Minkwitz  (Kaim’s Division) At Porta Nuova

2nd Bn K.k. IR 48 (Hungarian)                                                                                                                             700
K.k. IR 26 Freiherr Wilhelm Schröder von Lilienhoff                                  (1st, 2nd & 3rd Bns) 2,271
Cdr.: Oberst Rudolph Avemann; will be detached to Bussolengo to support Gottesheim
K.k. 14th Light Dragoons Rgt. Franz Freiherr von Levenehr[4]                     (6 sqns)                    1,162
Cdr.: Oberst  Joseph Zinn; (from Hohenzollern’s Corps)                    

BrigadeOberst Graf Ferdinand Johann Morzin                                                                                 5,895
At Porta Nuova

K.k. IR 40 (Hungarian) FZM Graf Joseph Mittrowsky                                  (1st & 2nd Bns)                     2,032
Cdr.: Oberst Franz Kreyssern

At Porta San Zeno

K.k. IR 39 (Hungarian) Graf Samuel Gyulai                                                   (1st & 3rd Bns)       2,087
Cdr.: Oberst Franz Posztrehowsky von Millenburg 
3rd Bn, K.k. IR 40 (Hungarian) FZM Graf Joseph Mittrowsky                                                      1,000
K.k. Grenadier Battalion Freiherr Georg von Stentsch                                                                       776
Stentsch was wounded and yielded his command (later to Count Anton Schiaffinati). He died in April of his wounds.
K.k. 4th Light Dragoons Rgt. GM Andreas Freiherr von Karacsaj de Vale-Sakam  (6 sqns)     1,085
Cdr.: Oberst Joseph Graf Nimptsch (Hohenzollern’s Corps)

DetachmentOberst Johann Szenássy At the Verona Citadel                                                                                                                                   2,803

K.k. IR 14 Freiherr Wilhelm von Klebek                                                         (2 Bns)                     1,507
3rd Bn K.k. IR 59 FML Alexander von Jordis                                                                                     846
3rd Bn K.k. IR 53 (Croat) GM Johann Jellacic Graf de Buzim                                                         909
3rd Bn K.k. IR 48 (Hungarian)                                                                                                                              721
Jäger Korps Freiherr Constantin d'Aspre                                                                        (2 coys)                       300

French Right Wing

Note: along the right margin are two columns of numbers giving manpower strengths; the left total is taken from Jomini’s order of battle, the right total from Gachot’s.                                                  Jomini   Gachot

Division Gen. Joseph Elie Desiré Perruquet de Montrichard                                                                     9,490[5]

At San Pietro Camp

GdB: Vigne, Gardanne and Richepanse
Adjudants généraux:Pierre-Augustine Hulin,[6] Fabert (detached in Emilia), Jacques-Pierre-Marie-Joseph Vicomte de Puthod,[7] Latache, Amilkar Kosinski (Polish Legion) and Claude Joseph Buget.[8]

Artillery:                                         

Horse artillery (2 Coys)                                                                       (2 Btys)                120        128
Light Foot artillery                                                                               (3 Btys)                               200
Sappers                                                                                                   (1½ platoons)                    180

Advance GuardChef de bataillon Jean Gabriel Fabre
At San Pietro Ú Legnago

Grenadier Bn of the 14e Demi-brigade de Ligne                                                                                         450

Brigade – GdB François-Félix Vignes[9]
San Pietro Ú Angiari

5e Demi-brigade de Ligne[10] Chef Louis-Hyacinthe Le Feron                                  1,940     1,581 

Brigade – GdB Gaspard-Amédée Gardanne[11] 
San Pietro Ú Pozzo

3e Demi-brigade de Ligne[12]  – Chef Pierre Martilliere                   (1 bn)                   1,000     1,104
14e Demi-brigade de Ligne[13]Chef Jean-Claude Moreau                                                          1,500         2,068 Grenadiers included (Gachot)
45e Demi-brigade de Ligne                                                                 (1 bn)                                 949
Others btns. detached to group Vérideau (see Sérurier’s division).      

Sheviakov and Gachot say the 45e DB had only one battalion with Montrichard; it was the 3rd which later went into Mantua after the retreat. He assigns the others two battalions to Delmas’ division.

Cavalry Brigade – GdB Antoine Richepanse (see also before)
Sanguinetto Ú  Zevio – Albaredo (patrolling right bank of the Adige)

Cavalry Total at Sanguinetto                                                                                                   1,900

Cisalpine Hussars (CdEsc. Luigi Campagnola)                                (4 sqns)                340       
3e Régiment Chasseurs à Cheval[14]Chef Charles Augustin Salomon de Moulineuf            700        ??
9e Régiment Chasseurs à Cheval[15] Chef Claude Matthieu Gardane                        400        585
11e Hussards Régiment [16]Chef Pierre Ismert                                 (4 sqns)                460        886
13e Rgt. Chasseurs à Cheval Chef Bouquet (?)[17]                                                                                        835

Lower Adige Detachment – Adjutant-General Pietro Teuliè[18]
At Legnago and on the southern right Adige banks

3rd Piedmontese light artillery Brigade                                                                                         80          
1st Bn, Cisalpine Grenadiers (elite coys of 1st & 3rd Bns of the lst Cisalpine Line Demi-Brigade)[19]
Brescia infantry Guides – Capitaine Jacquet and Cap.no Carlo Gerardi (1 coy)
Cisalpine Hussars                                                                                 (2 sqns)                170       
2nd Piedmontese Line Demi-Brigade – Chef Baron Fontanieaux                               860        788
Polish Detachment – GdB Franciszek Ksawery Rymkiewicz1st Bn, 2nd Polish Legion[20]  (Dembovsky battalion)                                                                          933        883

Brigade – GdB Giuseppe Lahoz[21]  (Cmdr. Of the Cisalpine division) ( Ferrara and Romagna detachments)
Adjudants: GdB Domenico Pino[22] and GdB Pietro Teulié
Gachot refers a total of 1569 Cisalpine infantry and assigns them to the Reserve (Hatry)

Corpo Franco (volunteers) of Emilia Romagna[23]                                                     500 
2nd Bn, 1st Cisalpine Line demi-brigade (or 3rd Cisalpine Legion Bn Fontanelli)
7th Cisalpine Legion[24]                                                                        (3 bns)
Cisalpine Dragoons, 1st Squadron (Cd Brigade Pietro Luigi Viani)                                         150

Notes:

[1] GM = Generalmajor

[2] During the combats on March 26, the austrian generals Minkwitz, Liptay and Kaïm were severely wounded while the old Field Marshal Dewins was killed. In the 1799 campaign, Liptay, promoted to Feldmarschall-Lieutenant on September 1798, was again assigned to the Italienisches Armée leading a division. During the battle of Verona ( March 26, 1799) was again forced to abandon the field for a severe wound. He was carried at Padua, military hospital, where the old general Liptay died on February 17, 1800.

[3] K.k. IR = Imperial and Royal Infantry Regiment.

[4] On March 26, 1799, the Levenehrs charged several time the mixed French columns colonne francesi miste which emerged in front of Santa Lucia aiming to the Verona walls. It always repulsed them into the starting positions. In these combats the regiment lost 4 officers, 56 dragoons and 130 horses (while 3 dragoons were not found on the battlefield – prisoners?). Merits were acquired by Lieut. Col. Prohaska, major Graf Latour, the Rittmeister (captains) Pammer and Wolfskehl and the 2nd under-Lieut. Wiese. Between wounded were also Lieutenants Hahnenbaum and Kafka, 1st under-Lieut.Graf Paar (brother) and baron Karschitzky. The Dragoon Michael Ivaschuw was mentioned for having recaptured a gun lost and taken by the French.

[5] Joseph Elie Desiré Perruquet de Montrichard Born January 24, 1760 in Thoivette (Jura). Was at the artillery school of Metz in 1781. Named second Lieutenant of artillery at Strasbourg, 1783, first lieutenant on June 11, 1786, he became artillery captain (second class) in the Metz regiment. There he was made also captain-commander on June 1, 1792. He was at the higher Rhine army, at the Lower-Rhine, at the North and at the Rhine-and-Moselle armies, fighting the first campaigns of Revolution. He was promoted major adjudant-général on July 30, 1793, continuing to show bravery and talent. In the years II and III, Montrichard, was chef-de-brigade adjudant-général. In year IV, he was at the passage of the Rhine, in front of Kehl fortress. Employed in the year V in the Rhine and Germany armies, he was promoted  (Thermidor 24 year VI) to chief of Staff  général at the Mainz army. When the Directory choosed Joubert to command the army in Italy , Montrichard followed him, and helped to occupy the entire land of Piedmont; having the rank of chief of Staff of the armée d’Italie. Promoted général de division the 17 pluviose, he commanded the place of Bologna few days before Scherer had taken the command in chief of his army. Scherer, having been defeated at Magnano, ordered Montrichard to guard Tuscany and Ligurie, mission which he well conducted.  He defeated the Imperials in several meetings, as Urbino. Howevere the multiple insurgencies occurred in central Italy forced him to guard the line of communication between the armée d’Italie and Macdonalds armée de Naples, at Bologna and Ferrara. So a disagreement intercurred between him and Cisalpine general Lahoz, who escaped with his Staff reaching the enemy’s side with the insurgents. Montrichard leaved him to his fate, and reinforced the right wing of Macdonald fighting on the Trebbia river. From 1800 to 1801 he fought the campaign on the Rhine. He had a great part at the battles of Engen, Mösskirch, Hochstedt; especially distinguishing at Stockach, Memmingen and Oberhausen. In the Thermidor of year X, he was the Governor of the Lunebourg duchy, when he received orders to go again to Italy . The 27 brumaire year XII, Montrichard took the command of the army corps employed in the Kingdom of Naples. Member of Legion-d’Honneur (9 frimaire), the Emperor himself gave him the rank of commander of the Legion. In the month of brumaire year XIV, he had the task, from Gouvion-Saint-Cyr, to command the Ancona fortress. Charged with the blame of having taken around 100,000 golden piastres for his own profit, the Emperor ordered him, on March 16, 1806, to suspend the command of the place and to come to Paris for giving account of his administration. He was condemned and forced to retirement. After a correspondance with general Dejean, who defended him, he was recalled on duty on January 14, 1808 at the armée de Dalmatie. On June 30, 1809, he returned in France where he had the command of the 11 military district (November 12). Due to his experience in Dalmatia, he was charged to organize a new division in Friuli, on 1812. On March 3, 1813, he was at the provinces d’Illyrie and then retired. During the first Restoration the king made him Knight of Saint-Louis giving also the command of the 6th military territorial division at Besançon. On July 1815 he ramained neutral and finally Montrichard obtained his retirement on next 4 September. He died on April 5, 1828.

[6] Adjutant Pierre-Augustin Hulin . Born in Paris on September 6, 1758. His father was a clothes-merchant. He entered the service in 1771 in the regiment of Champagne-Infantry; transferring in 1772 to the régiment des Gardes Suisses. On July 14, 1789, Hulin was at the head of the insurgents, going to the Bastille, and entered the fortress; one of the first to do it. On October 8, he was promoted captain-commander of the eighth company of professional Chasseurs. Having taken service in year II in the army of Italy , he accepted from Bonaparte the rank of adjudant-General. In year II, he was at Nice, Leghorn; in year III at Klagenfurth, on year IV at Milan, and on year V in Ferrara. In Italy began his career of Chief-of Staff with Montrichard acting as his master. Commanded in garrison at Genoa, he took part at the defense of this city. Then he followed Bonaparte at the reserve army and was named chief of staff of Vautrin division. After the battle the Marengo, he organized the place of Milan. In 1800 he also was chief of staff of Richepanse division, senior Palatinate officer on year IX, and chief of the staff of Rivaud division in Spain (1802). The 27 messidor year X, Hulin accepted from the first Consul a secret mission to Algiers by the Bey. The mission was a success in spite of the difficulties. In year XII, he was promoted brigadier general, at the command of Grenadiers of the Consular guard. The 19 frimaire of the same year he received the Cross of Legion d’Honneur. Promoted in year XII also with the rank of Commander of Legion-d’Honneur, he was sent at the Grande Armée of 1805 and was responsible of commanding Vienna. He made, in 1806, the campaign of Prussia , accepting the command of Berlin. On his return in Paris, in 1807, Hulin was named major general (August 9), at the command of a territorial division.

The General count Hulin commanded the place of Paris and the first division at the time of the Mallet conspiracy in 1812. Created Grand Officer on April 3, 1813, count Hulin led to Blois, in March 1814, the regent empress Marie-Louise. Next 8 April, after the Fontainebleau abdication, he was removed from the command of the lst division, which was returned to him on the Hundred-days. Banished by the ordinance of July 24, 1815, Hulin withdrew himself in Belgium and from there in Holland. When the ordinance of December 1, 1819 reopened the doors of France to him, he returned in fatherland, lived a few years in an estate located at Nevers, then in a town named Tail-in-Brie (Seine-and-Oise), where he lived in the retirement. The count Hulin, who in his last years had lost the sight, died in Paris, January 9, 1841.

[7] Jacques-Pierre-Marie-Joseph Vicomte de Puthod Born on September 28, 1769 in Bagèle-Châtel (Ain), entered as volunteer, October 26, 1785, in the regiment of the Crown (become 45e). He became lieutenant in the 3rd battalion of Ain on December 12, 1791, and then in the Colonel General infantry regiment. Puthod was sent on March 10 to the Rhine army, by minister Beurnonville, as police chief of the executive power. Confirmed in his rank on July 30, he fought at the glorious defense of Lille. General Renauld, who commanded that place, named him, in reward of his beautiful behaviour, lieutenant-colonel and then Adjudant-General chief of brigade on year III. Puthod made with much distinction the campaigns of the Rhine and of Italy . General Macdonald promoted him brigadier general, on the battle field of Trebbia,on year VII. He continued to distinguish himself commanding some brigades on year VIII, at the passing of Danube, and at Fussen. Put in non-activity on year X, he was employed at the 5th military division. On year XII, Puthod was member of the Legion – d’Honneur and then commander. In 1807, he led the avant-garde at the combat of Dirschaw and seized this city. In 1808, Pulhod passed to Spain , there was promoted, on November 24, major general. Created baron of the Empire, he took, October 15, 1809, the command of the 4th infantry division (4th corps in Germany ), and that of the 25th military territorial division on April 21, 1810. On January 20, 1813,he led the 2nd division of the observation Elba corps. From May 31, he fought the Prussians at Breslau, Goldberg, Bober, where fording a creek, increased by sudden rains, was taken prisoner. Puthod returned to France only after the Emperor abdicatione. Named, by the king, knight of Saint-Louis, Viscount and general infantry inspector in the department of Haut-Rhin on July 29, 1814, Puthod was charged (May 9, 1815) with the national guards command of the 19th military division. Admitted in retirement by October 1, 1834,  Puthod died on March 31, 1837.

[8] Claude Joseph Buget (baron) born in Bourg, September 10, 1770. His father was an army surgeon at the hospital of this city and had thought to begin the ecclesiastical career; but the revolution drove Buget out of the seminar and threw him in the camps. Enrolled as Private soldier, he was named second lieutenant on April 25, 1793, in a regiment of the army of the North, and was attached to Dugommier staff, charged of the Toulon head office. Buget was so skillful to be named adjudant-General-major. On June 14, 1794, he was sent to the Italy army as provisional chief of brigade. He had his first wound in 1799 under the walls of Legnago, and on 27 floréal he was wounded again at Marengo. The first Consul rewarded him for his bravery and his services by the rank of brigadier general (8 germinal year IX). The following year, he accepted from Bonaparte a sabre of honor and a letter of congratulations. A little later, the Emperor gave him the Commander cross, the baron title and a rich personal estate in Westphalia. General Buget was at Friedland; he lost the right hand crashed by a ball; giving the new of it to his wife in a letter written with the left hand and full of spirit of joke. Buget made the war of Spain and distinguished himself at Sarragoza and Lérida, where he was wounded again. Returned in the interior,he accepted the chief command of Belle-Isle and then that of the Pyrénées-Orientales. Employed at the defense of Paris, in June 1813, after the Restoration he returned to the civil life. The marshal Victor, minister of Louis XVIII, made him lieutenant-General on March 28, 1823. Buget died in Perpignan, his retirement, on October 2, 1839.

[9] Chef-de-Brigade François-Felix Vignes  - He was detached as Brigadier and found his death fighting on March 26, 1799. Born: 5 October 1769 .- Chef-de-Brigade : 28 October 1795 (208e demi-brigade de bataille) . Chef-de-Brigade : 21 january 1797 (56e demi-brigade d'Infanterie). General-de-Brigade : 5 February 1799 . Died: 26 March 1799 (killed at the clash of Legnago).

[10] Chef de Brigade Louis-Hyacinthe Le Feron - Born: 30 November 1765, Chef de Brigade: 21 March 1797 (5e demi-brigade d'Infanterie). General de Brigade: 11 October 1794 (Le Feron however refused the promotion). Died: 23 August 1799

[11] Général Gaspard-Amedée Gardanne (1758-1807) Born on April 24, 1758 in Solliers (Vàr), entered the service, March 1, 1779, as lieutenant in the gunners coastguard, and here remained until September 30, 1780, time of his passage in the King’s Guards. He left the duty in 1784, however, when the Revolution outbroke, he was elected second major of the 1st Vàr battalion, September 16, 1791. Commander of this same battalion on November 31, 1792 he made the campaigns of the Alps. Adjudant-General chief of brigade by decree of the people representatives, on September 13, 1793, he was confirmed in this rank by decree of the 23 germinal year II, and took an active share in the operations at Toulon. Transferred at the army of Italy , the adjudant-General Gardanne distinguished at the camp of Sabion ( Piedmont), near Tende pass. For this he was named temporarily brigadier general, on January 23, 1796. At the passage of Mincio he was with a bunch of 50 grenadiers to hold the Borghetto bridge. General Gardanne, defined by Bonaparte as “a Grenadier by size as by courage” put the Austrians in rout. At the battle of Castiglione, Gardanne put again in rout the enemy and contributed strongly to the success of this combat. Always with avant-guard tasks he was in Tyrol and at la Corona with Vaubois and then at the first day of Arcole, when he made 400 prisoners, at the second, when he captured other 2,300 Austrians, among whose was a general major, taking 11 guns and 2 flags. The 27 Brumaire, when the enemy made a move to seize the bridge,  general-in-chief Bonaparte gave him the order to ambush from a wood, with 2 battalions of the 32e half-brigade. As soon as the Austrians appeared, Gardanne attacked them with impetuosity; and made other 2,000 prisoners rejecting many enemies in Adige, where a great number drowned. There he was wounded by a shot, but he did continue to lead the column. Confirmed brigadier general, by decree of the Directory, on March 30, 1797, he continued the italian campaign. In 1799 he distinguished himself especially at Bassignana. Then Gardanne was blocked in Alexandria where was taken prisoner. At the beginning of the 1800 Gardanne came to Paris and took a very-active part with the events of 18 brumaire. Bonaparte, become first Consul, did not forget the services of Gardanne; he named him division general on 15 nivôse year VIII. Called at the command of the 6th infantry division of reserve army he was at Marengo where he obtained his greatest glory.  Gardanne still contributed, under the orders of Brune, at the Mincio, Brenta and Adige passages. Returned to France he was named commander of the 20th military division. In 1801 the first Consul entrusted to him the command of the French troops employed in the republic of Genoa, and in 1802 he charged him with the comamnd of all French Corps stationed in the Italian republic. He continued to exert his functions until 1805 when he passed to the command of one divisions of the army of Italy under Masséna. Gardanne distinguished himself in the combat of Caldiero. Transferred in 1806 to the 9th army corps, he made the campaigns of Prussia and Poland . After the peace of Tilsit, he returned to France by Silesia, when was ill by a pernicious fever in Breslau, and there he died on August 14, 1807.

[12] Chef de Brigade Pierre Martilliere  - Wounded at Vaprio. Born: 23 March 1759. Chef de Brigade: 20 January 1796 (3e demi-brigade d'Infanterie), General de Brigade: 28 April 1799. Commander of the Legion d'Honneur: 14 June 1804. Died: 20 November 1807 (as a result of wounds suffered at Vaprio)

Chef de Brigade Georges Mouton  - Born: 21 February 1770 à Phalsbourg - Chef de Brigade: 26 May 1798 (99e demi-brigade d'Infanterie)- Chef de Brigade: 14 July 1799 (3e demi-brigade d'Infanterie) - Colonel: 24 September 1803 (3e Regiment d'Infanterie). General de Brigade: 1 February 1805. General de Division: 5 October 1807. Count of the Empire: 19 September 1810. Died: 27 November 1838 à Paris.

[13] Chef de Brigade Jean-Claude Moreau  - Born: 15 January 1755 - Chef de Brigade: 29 October 1797-1803  (14e demi-brigade d'Infanterie). General de Brigade: 29 August 1803. 1812 – Commander of the 3rd brigade – 6th infantry divisiona - II. Corps. Grand Officer of the Legion d'Honneur: 19 March 1813. Baron of the Empire: 3 May 1810. 1813-1814 – Commander of Soissons fortress. Died: 9 December 1828

[14] Chef-de-Brigade Charles-Augustin Salomon de Moulineuf was substituted by Chef dB François-Alexandre Grosjean, promoted chef de brigade, in his place, as Salomon retired on 17 germinal an VII. ( April 6, 1799) the day after Magnano.      

[15] Chef-de-Brigade Claude-Matthieu Gardane  Wounded 26 March 1799. Born: June 11, 1766. Named by Directoire, on 14 prairial an IV, chef de brigade, had the command of 9th regiment of chasseurs à cheval. Chef-de-Brigade: June 2, 1796. General-de-Brigade: October 19, 1799. Count of the Empire: May 1808. Died: January 30, 1818

Chef-de-Brigade François-Augustin Liebault. Mortally wounded 6 November 1799

Chef-de-Brigade Jean-Pierre Thullier . Colonel in 1803.

Claude Mathieu Gardane Born in Marseille on 1766. Aged 14 he was Sous-lieutenant in the 1st Chasseurs regiment, Lieutenant on January 21,   1792, Captain on 1793 and chef d'escadron on 1794. Named by Directoire, on 14 prairial an IV, chef de brigade, had the command of 9th regiment of chasseurs à cheval. Moreau, général in chief of the armée d'Italie, witness oh his valour at Bassignana (23 floréal an VIII), named him général de brigade on the battlefield, rank confirmed on 27 vendémiaire an VIII. Had several wounded and was at the siege of Genoa in 1800 where he suffered a bad shot in the left leg. He was also Gouverneur des Pages on 1805, and aide-de-camp of Napoleon, with whom was ta Austerlitz, léna and Eylau. When King of  Persia , Feth-Aly-Schah, wanted an alliance with France against Russia and England , Napoléon named him “ministre plénipotentiaire en Perse”, on May 10, 1807.  Returned in France on 1809 he was made Count of the Empire and sent to Spain as brigade general, first with the VIII corps and after with the IX. There he was suspended from the duty for having not obeyed to an order to move a force into Portugal . This fact caused the loss of trust of Napoleon and he was no more employed. King Louis XVIII  recalled him on duty on June 12, 1814, but when he reached his command in the duke of Angoulème division, Napoleon was returning from Elba and he reached his Emperor. Napoleon forgave him and placed him at the Somme defences. On September 4, 1815 gardane retired and died on January 1818.

[16] Chef de Brigade Jacques-Phillippe Avice . Born: 27 November 1759. Chef de Brigade: 26 June 1793.); General de Brigade: 6 August 1811.Commander of the Legion d'Honneur: 23 August 1814. Baron of the Empire: March 1808. Died: 26th October 1835. Upon the transformation of the 11th Hussars in 1803 into the 29th Dragoons, General Avice became Colonel of the 29th Dragoons. Avice and Latour, respectively chef de brigade andchef d'escadron, were been suspended from the command on January 17, 1798 (7 nivôse an VI) when the unit leadership was assigned to:

Chef de Brigade baron Pierre Ismert Born on May 30, 1768 in Tetting ( Moselle). He entered the French army with the Swiss regiment Salis-Sarnadeon October 3, 1783 and reached, on July 14, 1789, the Paris National Guard. On September 4, 1792 he was named Lieutenant of cuirassiers in the « légion de cavalerie germanique », was with Dumouriez in the Northern army. On 1794 he was in Vendée where he was wounded by a shot in the face. In 1794 he was attached to the 11th hussars regiment, for the disbanding of the former légion, at the armée du Rhin, in Switzerland and in 1797 in Italy . Was with Schérer in 1799 and wounded by two rifle shots at Magnano, while on 9 prairial an VIII, he fought hardly, on the way from Piacenza (Plaisance) to Parma, with 200 hussars against one battalion of 800 Austrians supported by two guns. Then he was at first Marengo battle. Returned from Italy he was transferred to the 2nd Carabiniers regiment and awarded with the mebership of the Legion d’Honneur. On May 8, 1807 he was Colonel and commander of the 2nd Dragoons with whom he was in Spain (1808). Officer of the Légion-d’Honneur (October 4, 1808), he was at Uclès battle, at Medellin, was wounded at Talavera de la Reina and named Empire baron on 1809. Promoted général de brigade (February 8, 1813), he was at Vitoria and, on 1814, he was named commander of des Landes department, Retired on October 1, 1815 and died in Avengosse (Landes) on September 29, 1826.

[17] Some sources (not Gachot i.e.) assign the 13e Regiment de Chasseurs a Cheval to the Pastrengo OoB, while Jomini listed it  with the “Droit division” Montrichard in March; the same as for the 15e Regiment de Chasseurs a Cheval. See note 59 for a reference.

[18] General Pietro Teulié (Born in Milano on 1763 and dead at the Colberg battle for the wounds suffered – clash of the Kołobrzeg – Colberg fortress on 1807). Attorney-at-law he abandoned the civil life on 1796 enrolling in the Milanese City Guard (republican). In 1799 he was named provisional Général de brigade, but he was in campaign from 1798 leading Cisalpine units (brigades). Was in Central Italy during the French withdrawal and then at Genoa. In 1801 was officially named Général de brigade, being during the same period the Cisalpine War Minister and reorganizing the italian republican troops. In 1803 he had the command of an italian division at the Channel coast (armée d’Ingleterre). In 1805 was general-de-division. In 1806 was at the German campaign and in 1807 led the Italic Kingdom division (VIII Corps) at the siege of the Kołobrzeg (Colberg) fortress where he got a cannonball who killed him.

[19] “… Teulié attacked the Legnago bridge with the Grenadiers of the III battalion of the 1st infantry demi-brigade (and was declared – d’avoir bien merité pour la Patrie – with the April 18 Law) and with the Guides company of captain Gerardi Carlo, vigorously fighting and having the horse dead under him.” Zanoli Alessandro, “Cenni storico-statistici dal 1796 al 1814 sulla milizia cisalpino-italiana”, volume II Borroni e Scotti, 1845 Milano.

[20] Cmdr. Chef de Brigade Baron Fontanieaux of Avignon. 3 Btns (I Monferrato – II Saluzzo – III Alessandria)

[21] General Giuseppe Lahoz Ortiz Born in Mantua on 1773 and dead in Ancona on 1799. In 1796 he deserted from the Austrian army to reach and organize the first Cisalpine units. In 1797 he was General-de-brigade participating in the Romagna expedition (wounded at the Senio combat). When the Directory imposed the creation of the Cisalpine republic he went to Paris to obtain important political and military charges. But he was able only to obtain the rank of General-de-Division (the Cisalpine one). He wsa sent again to Romagna under general Montrichard. Having troubles about the conduct of the rearguard campaign, he deserted again reaching the Papist Insurgents at Fano (Donato de’ Donati) near Ancona and then beginning an hard struggle against that fortress in which there were also the old cisalpine comrades. Mortally wounded he died there without glory and memory.

[22] Général Domenico Pino. Born in Milano on 1767 and dead at Cernobbio on 1828. In 1796 he was Colonel at the Cisalpine Legion (Chef de brigade). In 1799 he followed the Lahoz desertion but, having known the general’s true intentions, reached Ancona where, after some troubles, was forgiven by Monnier and assigned to the fortress defense. When the city capitulated he reached the France and returned in Italy in 1800 with Bonaparte. In 1801 he led the military command of Emilia Romagna and was also War Minister in the Italic Kingdom. In 1806 he led a division in Pomerania and Prussia . At Stralsunda, against the Swedish, he distinguished himself and was awarded with the Iron Crown Order ( Corona ferrea) becoming count of the Empire. He was in Spain from 1808 to 1810, protagonist at the Las Rosas siege and at Palamos. In Russia 1812 led the 15th division and was wounded at Malojaroslawetz. In 1813 made the campaign against Austria and, a year after, when the Italic army was disbanded, he retired in his estate at Cernobbio. For a short period he led the community of Milano passing from the French through the Austrian administrations.

[23] While some authors refer higher ciphers of enrolled volunteers, it is more reliable that they did non reach a number of more 500 italians, willing to fight for the Republicans.

[24] The (former) 7th Cisalpine Legion (battalions I/7 Audifret, II/7 David, III/7 Lasinio) had to organize the new 2nd Cisalpine Line infantry Demi Brigade merging with the 2nd Cisalpine Legion. Being this latter at Naples and the former in Emilia the “amalgamation” resulted impossible to be done and the two units continued to fight with their old names.

 

 

Placed on the Napoleon Series: April 2007

 

 

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