Military Subjects: Battles & Campaigns

The 1799 Campaign in Italy: Fate of the Great Citadel: Alexandria (Alessandria)

By Enrico Acerbi

 

Alexandria (Alessandria) a walled town on Tanaro river, where it received, in the middle of a large marshy plain, the river Bormida; 27,000 inhabitants, to the South- East of Turin. It had, on the left Tanaro bank, a great Citadel linked to the town with a stone bridge and defended by fortification “à corne”. The Citadel formed an elongated hexagon, with bastions, was armed with about 300 guns and could contain a garrison of about 6000 men; the hospital, the barracks and other military buildings were armored. All the fortifications were improved by French, making Alessandria one of the stronger fortresses in Europe; in 1814 the Austrians dismantled them.

The fortress is located North-West of the city of Alessandria, from which it is separated by the river Tanaro. It is the lowest zone of the piedmont region, about 90 metres above sea-level; this region was named ‘ Mesopotamia' by humanists and destined to be always a borderland. The Citadel is a huge fortress that spreads over 20 hectares and is in the shape of an elliptical hexagon, whose longer side (1 : 1,235) is parallel to the axis of the river. Its hexagonal shape is due to the need of defending the long borderline. The Citadel is a perfect example of modern-type fortress and consists of six bastions called by the names of the patron saints and was surrounded by moats to be flooded by the river's water. The city-entry was through a long stone-bridge leading to a huge place surrounded by multi-storey buildings placed according to Bergoglio's previous building axes, all covered by resistant vaults and built between 1749 (quarter of San Tommaso) and 1831 (warehouse of fortifications). The construction and state of conservation of Napoleonic buildings are unique. In the first months of 1799 the garrison, until his commitment to the Po survey on April, was under command of :

Général de brigade Bertrand Clauzel [1]

1422

Citadel commander chef-de-brigade Vital

 

24e Demi-Brigade de ligne (1 Battalion other two at Verona)

 

68e Demi-Brigade de ligne III Battalion  (later attached to Montrichard division)

 

12th Dragoons Regiment  2  squadrons

 

National Cisalpine Guard 1 Battalion

 

After the Bassignana and Marengo battles, into Alexandria was left Général Gardanne with his garrison of about 3000 men, tired by the heavy combats of May.

General Gaspard-Amédée Gardanne Commander

Citadel Garrison

3000

14e Demi-Brigade de ligne rests – Chef Jean-Claude Moreau

 

63e Demi-Brigade de ligne – III Battalion

 

II Battalion Aosta - 1st Piedmontese Demi-Brigade 

II Battalion Regina – 3rd Piedmontese demi-brigade

 

Combined Cisalpine Battalion Miloshevic former 3rd Cisalpine demi-brigade

Chef-de-Brigade Andrea Miloshevic and chef-de-bataillon Ippolito Guidetti

400

National Cisalpine Guard 1 Battalion

 

Battalion Suisse 1e Legion

400

2 Piedmontese artillery Companies   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May-June 1799

Valenza and Casale, dismantled by the French, were abandoned. So, on May 21, general Jacob Ivanovich Povalo-Shvejkovsky 1st entered Alessandria beginning the Citadel siege.

May, 23rd 1799 Alessandria Austro-Russian siege group

Division Lieutenant General Jacob Ivanovich Povalo-Shvejkovsky 1st

 
   

Brigade Generalmajor Nikolaj Andrejevich Chubarov

 

8th Jäger Regiment  Major General Chubarov– I - II Battalions

555

chief from 13 May: GM Ivan Ivanovic Miller  - sent to Tortona during the Trebbia days

 

Don Cossacks Regiment  Semjornikov.

416

Brigade Lieutenant General Jacob Ivanovich Tuyrtov

 

Imperial Russian Musketeer Regiment  Lieutenant General Jacob Ivanovich Tuyrtov I - II Battalions

1264

or Tug’lsky (Tula) –Commander:  Major Ivan Fjodorovich Golovin

 

Don Cossacks Regiment  Molchanov

435

6th Don Cossacks Regiment  Pasdejev

409

Brigade Generalmajor baron Ivan Ivanovich Dalheim

 

Imperial Russian Musketeer Regiment  GM Baron Ivan Ivanovic Dalheim – I and II Battalions.

1640

or Archangelogorodsky (Archangelsk). Chief from June 26th General Major Nikolay Mihailovic Kamensky 2nd

 

Commander: Colonel Stjepan Nikolajevic Castelli

 

Imperial Russian Musketeer Regiment  Young-Baden or malado-badensky – I - II Battalions

1236

alias Butyrskowo (Butyrsk) –Cdr. Lieutenant General Karl Ludwig Prince of Baden  - (after May 18 renamed as GM Mihail Mihailovic Veletsky Regiment  its former commander)

 
Brigade Generalmajor Friedrich Freiherr von Seckendorff
K.K. IR 34 Hungarian Infantry Regiment (future Freiherr Kraj de Kraiova) (former Esterházy) (I-II Battalions) Commander:  Oberst Johann Hillinger 926
K.K. 5th Hussar Regiment  5  squadrons 700
K.K. 14th Light Dragoons Regiment  Franz Freiherr von Levenehr  2  squadrons 266
   

 

July, 23 1799 Alessandria Austrian Citadel garrison (after capitulation)

K.K. IR 8 Infantry Regiment (former Huff Regiment )       

1500

Commander:  Obst Johann Schröckinger von Heidenburg (I-II Battalions)

 

 

Capitulation of Alessandria– July 21, 1799

CAPITULATION

de la citadelle d'Alessandrie entre le Lieutenant-General Comte de Bellegarde au service de S. M. l'Empereur et Roi et le Genérat François Gardanne, Comandant de la Citadelle d'Alessandrie.

L'ARTICLE 1.

La garnison sortira avec tous les honneurs de la guerre par la porte d'Asti, tambours battants, drapeaux déployés, mêche allumée, avec 9 pièces de canons et deposeront les armes sur le glacis, se rendant prisonniers gueire pour ètre conduits dans les Etats des de S. M. 1'Empereur.

ARTICLE 1. La garnison de la Citadelle d'AIessandrie sortira par la porte d'Asti avec les honneurs de la guerre, tambours battans, drapeaux déployés, méche allumée, trainera avec elle 2 pièces de 4 avec leurs caissons et attelages  ainsi que les munitions compétentes à ces pièces, de même que leurs Artilleurs. La garnison se formera sur le glacis de la porte d'Asti jusqu'à la porte d'Alessandrie, ne déposera point Ies armes et rentrera en France et ne servira contre les armées de S. M. l'Empereur et ses Aliiés jusqu'à change qui aura lieu le premiér et par préférence coutre les prisonniers Autrichiens et Russes, excepté ceux désignés par l'article 2 qui ne seront pas prisonniers de guerre.

L'ARTICLE 2.

Mr. le Commandant, ainsi que Mr. 1'Adjudant-Genéral Louis avec les Aides-de-camp et Adjoints et tout l’Etat major, suivront le sort de la garnison

ARTICLE 2.

Ne seront point prisonniers de guerre le Général de Brigade Gardanne commandant de la Division du Tanaro,  l'Adjudant-Général Louis, les Aides-de-camp et Adjoints, de même que tous les officiers composant l'Etat major et 300 militaires choisis dans la garnison par le Général Gardaune

L'ARTICLE 3.

Les officiers supérieurs, savoir Mr. le GénéraI Gardanne, Mr. Général l'Adjudant-Louis, le Chef du Génie, celui de l'Artillerie les autres chefs de corps, conserveront leurs épées, et tous les officiers en général, conserveront leurs chevaux et équipages effets et proprietes; les soldats garderont leurs sacs, ainsi que les employés à la suite de l'armée leurs chevaux et equipages. Au reste on aura soin de fournir des chevaux sur la route à ceux qui n'en sont  pas fournis. Les Piémontois, Cisalpins et Helvétiques sont prisonniers de guerre  comme les François.

ARTICLE 3. Tous les officiers garderont leurs épées, leurs chevaux et équipages militaires, effets et propriétés, les soldats leurs sacs, les employes attachés à la suite de l'armée, de même leurs chevaux et équipages. On fournira d'étapes en etapes des chevaux aux militaires, autres officiers ou autres convalescents, ainsi qu'à ceux qui ayant droit à des chevaux et qui seroient démontés.

La garnison Piémontoise, Cisalpine, Helvétique, faisant partie intégrante de l'armée Françoise, jouiront des avantages du meme article concernant les troupes françoises.

L'ARTICLE 4. Les équipages et proprietés et effets étant accordés à un chacun, cet article cessa de soi même et il s'entend que toute caisse militaire ou autres, magazins, dépôts, plans, archives, artillerie, munitions, attirails de guerre et tous effets de quelque dénomination qu'ils puissent être appartenauts au Gouvernement François , Piémontois ou autres, seront rendus fidèlement.

ARTICLE 4. Il sera accordé dix chariots couverts partant les effets de l'Etat-Major de chaque corps et la caisse-militaire; dans le cas où les fourgons et chevaux n'existeroient pas dans les corps, il en sera fourni par l'armée Autrichienne d'étape en étape jusqu'à la frontière de Gènes.

L'ARTICLE 5. Les malades et blessés sont prisonniers de guerre et seront traités avec l'humanité qui nous est propre. On y laissera de la garnison de la Citadelle les chirurgiens et gardes-malades nécessaires, et on choisira un lieu convenable pour l'établissement de l'hôpital.

ARTICLE 5. Les malades et blessés seront humainemeut traités dans les hôpitaux d'Alessandrie. On y laissera les chirurgiens et gardes-malades nécessaires dont on fixera le nombre, et après leur guérison ils jouiront égale ment des articles de la Capitulation; de même ceux qui pour des affaires devront rester à Alessandrie, auxquels on délivrera les passeports nécessaires lorsque leurs affaires seront terminées et les malades ne seront point prisonniers de guerre.

L'ARTICLE 6. Trois heures après la signature les troupes de S. M. l'Empereur occuperont la porte intérieure (l'Asti, ainsi que la garde avancée de cette porte.

ARTICLE 6. Trois heures après la signature de la Capitulation on remettra aux troupes Autrichiennes la garde avancée de la porte Vigne, celle de St. Michel et celle de St. Antoine. L'entrée de la Citadelle ne sera permise qu'aux Commissaires Autrichiens et à ceux qui seront envoyés par le Commandant de l'armée de siége. L'armée Autrichienne n'entrera dans la Citadelle que lorsqu'elle sera évacuée par la garnison Françoise.

L'ARTICLE 7.

Accordé.

ARTICLE 7. Dans le cas où l'armée Françoise ne seroit plus sur la frontière de Gènes, on permettra d'envoyer un officier au Général en chef à son quartier-général avec la Capitulation.

L'ARTICLE 8.

On conviendra en ce cas d'une manière loyale.

ARTICLE 8. S'il se trouvoit un Article douteux dans la Capitulation qui pourroit donner lieu à des contestations, il sera expliqué en faveur de la garnison

L'ARTICLE 9.

La garnison aura une escorte suffisante d'après le sens de la Capitulation et son entière sécurité.

ARTICLE 9. Il sera, fourni une escorte suffisante pour la garnison et une particulière pour le Général Gardanne jusqu'à la frontière de Gènes.

ARTICLE ADDITIONEL.

D'abord après la signature de la Capitulation les otages Piémontois retenus à la Citadelle, seront rendus avec les effets à eux appartenants. On échangera réciproquement deux otages, consistant de chaque part d'un officier d'Etat-Major et d'un Capitaine, jusqu'à l'entière exécution de cette Capitulation. Aussitot après la signature l'armée Autrichienne enverra un officier de Génie, un officier d'Artillerie et un Commissaire, auxquels on remettra tous les magazins, plans, dépots, etc. sans qu'il eu soit détourné ou détérioré la moindre chose, ainsi que les Caisses et autres effets militaires appertenauts aux gouvernements respectifs. Les chevaux de Cavalerie, d'Artillerie et autres appartenants au Gouvernement François ou autres, seront délivrés. La garnison sortira par la porte d'Asti demain 22 de juillet à 4 heures après midi; il s'entend que ceux qui doivent rester dans la Citadelle pour la remise des effets, resteront jusqu'à ce qu'ils auront terminé leur besogne. On fera une liste séparée des non-combattans qui seront rendus à l'armée Françoise. Au reste on rendra tous les chevaux et autres effets appartenantsà  à S. M. l'Empereur ou aux officiers Autrichiens et Alliés de Sa Majesté ou servant aux armées.

En foi de quoi on a dressé deux exemplaires pour être signés et échangés réciproquement.

Au camp devant la Citadelle d'Alessandrie le 21 Juillet a 10 heures du soir 1799.

LE COMTE DE BELLEGARDE

Le Général de Brigade Lieut.-Général Gardanne.

The Race to the Sea

Also the important fortress of Ceva had fallen into insurgent hands, blocking the vital way which linked Piedmont with Savona on the sea. Ceva, during the middle ages was a strong fortress defending the borders of Piedmont towards Liguria, but the fortification on the rock, above the town, were demolished in 1800 by the French, to whom it had been ceded in 1796. In that year, Napoleon, after having left behind Ceva and after having conquered the Bicocca of San Michele and the Bricchetto of Mondovì, found the way to Piedmont opened and carried his HQs to Cherasco. From it he sent an arrogant message to the fort of Ceva governor, Count of Tornafort, imposing him to surrender within 24 hours; on the contrary the fortress and its passages would have been destroyed by batteries fire. His aide-de-camp, Marmont, carried the letter, making all attempts in order to enter by the garrison; but he did not succeded. In 1800, Napoleon gave the order us to dismantle the Fort; six months were employed to prepare mines and charges, finally a simultaneous explosion of one hundred devices made the task out.

On May 18, Moreau received this bad news at Asti: the Ceva’s commander had given up without any resistance. The insurrection at Ceva and Mondovì had begun on May 6 when a great bunch of rioters had forced the republican garrisons to close themselves into the fortresses. Two large columns of armed civilians led by Francolino, a former Sardinian lieutenant, and the other by Doctor Cerrina, a surgeon, besieged the fortress. From May 8 to 11 the fort was bombarded by rebels and, on May 14, the fortress capitulated after a night attack of the insurgents, who destroyed a fortress door. The French commander, Maris, surrendered and was left free to reach Mondovì. Here the whole garrison was disarmed by other rioters and the French were allowed to reach Coni. Maris had a subsequent trial and the Court Martial condemned him to death by shooting. Losing Ceva, the French lost the quickest way to reach Genoa. Moreau immediately activated two “mobile” columns and give their command to the brigadier, “provisional”, Garreau and to the adjudant-général Jean Mathieu Seras, a Piedmontese born in Osasco, who had served only in the French armies. Every column had two battalions; they had to force the march and seize Ceva, but the River Tanaro had a flood and the columns could not pass through and forced to march along its rough right bank. During the same days  Mondovì fell into Insurgents hands forcing the Coni garrison to try and recapture it. Moreau did not lose his self-control. He camped at Poirino and Villa-Nuova, while ordered to adjudant-général Drouot to escort baggage, artillery, and ammunition to France , through the Fenestrelle Pass.

Moreau waited at Savigliano for the results of Garreau’s endeavours (which had rallied at Coni the “mobile” columns of Seras and Fressinet). He occupied Mondovì but, fearing to lose the communications with the main army, returned to Coni, where an angry Moreau changed his orders. Grouchy, and 8 battalions, were sent forwards to open the road to the sea, after having reunited all the “mobile” columns. The advance into the Insurgents’ territory was followed also by Moreau, who brought his HQs at Coni. The Grouchy vanguard, led by Adjudant Garreau, and 1300 men strong, entered Mondovì engaging the Royalists. During that struggle chef-de-brigade Lacalle was killed and 330 French died or were wounded. Mondovì was occupied, the enemy retreating into Ceva fortress. Having heard of the victory of Garreau, Grouchy brought 4 battalions to Lesegno, near Ceva, clearing the location from a bunch of 8000 peasants, badly armed. However the strong fortress resisted and the French decided to leave General Quesnel (who had recovered from his wound) and 2700 men to begin a blockade. But, about May 28, the rebellion of the mountain territory was softened and the French deploy3e on the Appennini Ridge.

During that period, around May 30, the Coalition’s Army reinforced itself gaining a new right wing under General Bellegarde, with 18 battalions and 4000 cavalrymen. Moreau did not pass the Appennines through Col di Tenda, because this could had separated his troops from Victor and Macdonald. After a reconnaissance he decided to pass through Garessio and the Col du Saint-Bernard, a secondary causeway which had become renowned in 1795, with the Sérurier action during the Loano battle. The causeway was improved in three days with the help of 2000 workers, directed by Adjudant Guilleminot. When the road was “artillery-fit”, General Quesnel left the Ceva siege and camped at Murialdo, to control the withdrawal passage. Musnier abandoned Coni marching with the garrison (3000 men) towards Mondovì.

A part of the Grenier division remained in Arriere-garde at Mondovì, the right wing detached along the Tanaro valley. The main army marched towards the mountains, with all materials and artilleries. On June 6 they safely reached Loano, while the cavalry reached Finale and Savona. This ended the long march after the San Giuliano battle.

The new French deployment of June 1799 was the following:

Division Laboissière was at Genoa with the Lapoype Division;

Division Victor guarded the Toscana’s borders at Pontremoli, and in Taro and Magra valleys;

Division Grenier controlled the passes at Savona (Cerisola, Bardineto and Carpi with Partonneaux brigade, linked on its right with Quesnel brigade at Altare and Mallare; the Adjudant Piedmontese Campana stood at San Giacomo del Segno while Adjudant Garreau remained in the hills near Cadibona pass, at Torre and at Madonna di Savona.)

The Coalition’s Army  Occupation of Piedmont

After the fall of the Citadel, the Coalition Army enlarged their occupation reaching all the farthest Piedmont’s territories, the French being on the other side of the mountains until Autumn’s last combats. From June 1, the Austro-Russian moved forward. General Seckendorff blocked Montenotte and the road to Savona, Vukassovich took the control of Ceva and Mondovì, blocking the Col du Tende road, Fröhlich, before his commitment in central Italy , with the 1st brigade occupied Coni, with the 2nd Brigade Lusignan tried to win the resistance of Fort Fenestrelle, but the French garrison resisted. Pinerolo (or Pignerolo) was abandoned by its commander, the Swiss Colonel Zimmermann, place commander, in spite of a winning action against a Russian regiment led by Count Zuccato [2]. Prince Bagration cleared the Susa valley, the important road which led to the Montcenis and Montgenevre passes. An utter brigade blocked the Canton Valais passes, impeding to Masséna to send reinforcement from Switzerland and, finally, general Hadik controlled the St. Gotthard and the Lecourbe troops.

Coalition Army in  Piedmont – June 4-9, 1799

Turin (Torino) HQs with Division Generalmajor Conrad Valentin Kaim

Corps Infantry-general Andrey Grigorjevich Rozenberg     

Russian Corps Artillery

Artillery Battalion. Lieutenant General Ejler

632

(with 1st Artillery Coy Ivanov and 2nd Artillery Coy Kuzmin)

Divisional (regimental) Light Artillery

672

Division Lieutenant General Ivan Ivanovich Förster (alias Ferster in Russian)

Brigade general-major Mihail Semenovich Baranovsky 2nd

 

Imperial Russian Grenadier Regiment  GdI Rozemberg or Moskowsky (Moskow) – I-II Battalions

1255 

Commander: (until June 7) Colonel Petr Petrovich Passek [3] then provisionally led by Rozenberg and Colonel Kushnikov

I Battalion. Imperial Russian Musketeers Regiment  Förster (Ferster) or Tambowski (Tambov)

757

Commander:  Lieutenant Colonel Zaltser [4]

II Battalion. Imperial Russian. Musketeers Regiment  LG Povalo-Shveikovsky or Smolensky (Smolensk)

719

Commander: Colonel Grigoriy Dimitrjevich Kasahovsky [5]

 

Brigade general-major Mihail Andrejevich Miloradovic 1st

 

Imperial Russian Musketeers Regiment  Generalmajor M. Andr. Miloradovic or Apsheronsky (Apsheron)

1372

Commander:  Lieutenant Colonel (from 3.10.1799 Colonel) Stepan Timofejevich Karlov. – I and II Battalions.

II Battalion. Imperial Russian. Musketeers Regiment   GM Baranowsky II or Nizowski Musk. Regiment

698

Combined Imperial Russian Grenadier Battalion Sanajev

515

Pinerolo (or Pignerolo) and Susa Valley

Pinerolo, the town at the head of the Chisone valley, had about 8000 inhab. Its fortifications were destroyed by French after 1796-97 campaign. Likewise at Pinerolo, all Piedmontese border Forts ( Susa and Chisone valleys) were designated to be demolished, as dangerous for the République. This was the destiny of   Exilles in the Susa Valley, Bard in the Aosta Valley, plus those of Ceva, San Giorgio and Demonte, the great Fortress of Fenestrelle; all were considered to be dangerous for France and listed for demolition. Fenestrelle, however, was maintained and changed in a French prison. To save the Fort many villages of the valley were forcibly taxed to cover the cost of this, Meano, Roure, Mentoulles, Fenestrelle, Usseaux and Pragelato being among them. About 14,000 lire were collected (a considerable sum for the time).

Russian Avantgarde Brigade Generalmajor Petr Ivanovich Bagration

Pinerolo Detachment General Major Gheorgy Gavrilovich Zukata

7th Jäger (Jeghersky) Regiment  General Major Prince Petr Ivanovich Bagration [6]

624

– I and II  Battalion Commander: Gen. Bagration

Combined Imperial Russian Grenadier Battalion (GB) Lomonosov

501

8th Don Cossacks Regiment  Grekov

414

2nd Don Cossacks Regiment  Sujchev

465

Suse ( Susa), encircled by walls and towers was (is) at the Mont Cenis feet where streams Cenise (Ginicia) and Dora-Riparia join together. The fortress, one of the most important military buildings, was destroyed by Napoleon's will in 1796 (treaty of Cherasco). Its name was Forte della Brunetta and it was more than a simple fortress. It was the result of the hard digging of a whole hill (80 years of work) with the target to block the Mont Cenis pass road (from France ). It was linked with the old Fort of Santa Maria by a long and well hidden passage. The Paris Treaty of 16 May 1796 imposed on the Sardinian King the demolition of the Fort della Brunetta (Brunette) together with other fortresses like Exilles.

Val di Susa Detachment Colonel Vassilj Aleksejevich Chvitzky

Combined Imperial Russian Grenadier Battalion Dendrjugyn

453

5th Don Cossacks Regiment  Denissov

432

Exilles, on the Dora-Riparia, in Exilles valley, blocked the causeway from Suse to Briançon through the mont Genévre pass. The place, important for its fortifications, had the shape of a lozenge with the long sides watching over the road and the river. It had about 800-1000 inhabitants. The Exilles Fort, one of the oldest monuments in the Susa Valley, now is a rare example of a “street castle”, a defensive structure with several walled circuits in defense of an internal core and an external barrier. Exilles guaranteed the strategic control of the ground axis that went from Piedmont to France through Mont Génevre. At the beginning of the 17th century, the fort was modified from its earlier structure into one fortified with ramparts. During the years 1681 to 1697, it is said the mysterious person known to history as the “Man with the Iron Mask” lived among these walls. In the first years of the 1700’s, the Exilles fortress underwent major reconstruction and modernization, including the renovate of the defensive front facing France . Ruined by the French after the Treaty of Paris in 1796, the Fort was rebuilt to its present structure between 1818 and 1829 by the King of Sardinia, who had taken back his lands.

Lanzo Detachment Colonel Mihail Aleksejevich Chitrov

I Battalion. Imperial Russian Musketeers Regiment   GM Baranowsky II or Nizowski Musk. Regiment

698

Commander:  Colonel Mihail Aleksejevich Chitrov

 

Avigliana Detachment Colonel Kalemin

Combined Imperial Russian Grenadier Battalion Kalemin

557

Chisone valley

Fenestrelle, on Chisone stream, had a significant strategic impact. Anciently its name was Fort du Moulin, which could have had a garrison of about 1000 soldiers. During the Moreau retreat of May-June 1799 it served also as depot for the artillery park of general Debelle, after the departure from Turin. With the Restoration, (after having obtained an evil reputation as French prison), at the place of the abandoned Fort du Moulin, was built a totally new fortress, which blocked the road of the Pràgelato valley. It was on the right bank of the stream and was commanded by an other fortress built on the left bank: San Carlo. San Carlo, with the Tre Denti and Valli fortresses, were placed on rocky crests, almost inaccessible, which ended to the Catinat camp. At its end was the fort Sant’Elmo which, for its own, commanded San Carlo. All that fortresses were linked together with battlements and tunnels.

Brigade Generalmajor Franz Joseph Marquis de Lusignan

K.K. IR 18 Infantry Regiment Graf Patrick Stuart

1627

Commander:  Obst Franz Weber von Treuenfels I-III Battalions Bellegarde Corps - Piedmont -

K.k IR 28 Infantry Regiment Freiherr Michael von Fröhlich

1619

former Regiment  Wartensleben – I-II Battalions)  Commander:  Oberst Franz Eder von Hartenstein – III Battalion at Piacenza

K.K. 14th Light Dragoons Regiment  Franz Freiherr von Levenehr  6  squadrons

841

Commander:  Oberst  Joseph Zinn, (6  squadrons.)

Cuneo (Coni)

Coni, situated between two small streams, and though neither very large nor populous, was significant for the strength of its fortifications. Its name ("wedge") is due to its position on a hill between the two streams, the Stura and the Gesso. It was honoured with the title of the Maiden-Fortress (Virgin), because though several times besieged, it was never taken.

That important fortress was ceded by the treaty of Cherasco (1796), with Ceva and Tortona, to the French. In 1799 it was taken of ter ten days' bombardment by the Austrian and Russian armies, and, in 1800, after Marengo, the French demolished the fortifications.

Division  Generalmajor Freiherr Michael von Fröhlich

 

Grenadiers Brigade

K.K. Grenadier Battalion Graf Carl Paar (former FML Karl Graf von Mercandin)

477

K.K. Grenadier Battalion Graf Johann Morzin (former Graf Joseph Fiquelmont)

476

K.K. Grenadier Battalion Oblt Franz Xavier Weber von Treuenfeld

397

K.K. Hungarian Grenadier Battalion Oblt Johann Pértussy (former Major Joseph Korherr)

526

K.K. Grenadier Battalion Graf Anton Schiaffinati (former Freiherr Georg von Stentsch)

615

K.K. 10th Light Dragoons Regiment  GdC Joseph Fürst Lobkowitz

793

(6  squadrons.) Commander:  Oberst Max Joseph Fürst Thurn und Taxis.

Higher Bormida valley

Brigade Generalmajor Friedrich Freiherr von Seckendorf

 

II Battalion K.K. IR 19 Hungarian Infantry Regiment Freiherr Jozsef Alvinczy de Berberek

859

K.K. IR 34 Hungarian Infantry Regiment (future Freiherr Kraj de Kraiova)

926

(former Esterházy) (I-II Battalions) Commander:  Oberst Johann Hillinger

K.K. 5th Hussar Regiment  7  squadrons

918

 

 

 

Higher Tanaro valley

Mondovì originated on the hill where several rural communities and other little villages sought to free themselves from feudal domination, subject to the emperor and executed by the bishop of Asti. The community spread out at the hill foot due to the settlements that would originate the most ancient quarters of Mondovì. The weakness of Mondovì, in particular in the military field, did not allow it to remain autonomous, especially in external relations. In 1415 the Statuta Civitatis Montisregalis , i.e. the rules of the town, were drawn up in order to establish “defined rules” regarding government and civil life, also with respect to the Savoy. Since then, and especially in 16th cent., Mondovì developed till it became the most populated town in Piedmont. It had a Citadel. This was a military fortification, built between 1572-1574 on the orders of Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy on the ruins of the Renaissance cathedral. The term Mondovì is related to the Napoleonic Period, particularly to what is known as the battle of Mondovì, which took place on 21 April 1796. Napoleon defeated the Austro-piedmontese forces, thus preparing the Armistice of Cherasco and the later victories against Austria .

Avantgarde Brigade Generalmajor Freiherr Josef Philipp von Vukassovich         

II Battalion Grenzregiment of Banat (or I Battalion. 13th GrenzRegiment )

837

III (VI?) Battalion Grenzregiment of Banat (or II Battalion. 12th Deutschbanater GrenzRegiment) Major Zedzwitz

682

K.K. Light Battalion. N. 2 Oberst Carl Prince of Rohan

526

KK IR 52 Rifle Hungarian Regiment  Erzherzog Palatin Anton Viktor

1292

I – II  Battalions. Commander: Graf Johann Nepomuk Khuen de Belasi

K.K. 9th Hussar Regiment  FML Johann Nepomuk Graf Erdödy de Monyorókerek

466

(Erdödy  Husaren) 3  squadrons.

K.K. 7th Hussar Regiment   6  squadrons

773

 

 

 

 

 

Notes:

[1] Général de brigade Bertrand Clausel (more correctly Clauzel, Count) (1772-1842), marshal of France, was born at Mirepoix (Ariege) on the 12th of December 1772, and served in the first campaign of the French Revolutionary Wars as one of the volunteers of 1791. In June 1795, having distinguished himself repeatedly in the war on the northern frontier (1792-1793) and the fighting in the eastern Pyrenees (1793-1794), Clausel was made a general of brigade. In this rank he served in Italy in 1798 and 1799, and in the disastrous campaign of the latter year he won great distinction at the battles of the Trebbia and of Novi. In 1802 he served in the expedition to S. Domingo. He became a general of division in December 1802, and after his return to France he was in almost continuous military employment there until in 1806 he was sent to the army of Naples. Soon after this Napoleon made him a grand officer of the Legion of Honour. In1808-1809he was with Marmont in Dalmatia, and at the close of 1809 he was appointed to a command in the army of Portugal under Massena.  Clausel took part in the Peninsular campaigns of 1810 and 1811, including the Torres Vedras campaign, and under Marmont he did excellent service in re-establishing the discipline, efficiency and mobility of the army, which had suffered severely in the retreat from Torres Vedras. In the Salamanca campaign (1812) the result of Clausel's work was shown in the marching powers of the French, and at the battle of Salamanca, Clausel, who had succeeded to the command on Marmont being wounded, and had himself received a severe wound, drew off his army with the greatest skill, the retreat on Burgos being conducted by him in such a way that the pursuers failed to make the slightest impression, and had themselves in the end to retire from the siege of Burgos (1812). Early in 1813 Clausel was made commander of the Army of the North in Spain , but he was unable to avert the great disaster of Vittoria. Under the supreme command of Soult he served through the rest of the Peninsular War with unvarying distinction. On the first restoration in 1814 he submitted unwillingly to the Bourbons, and when Napoleon returned to France , he hastened to join him. During the Hundred Days he was in command of an army defending the Pyrenean frontier. Even after Waterloo he long refused to recognize the restored government, and he escaped to America , being condemned to death in absence. He took the first opportunity of returning to aid the Liberals in France (1820), sat in the chamber of deputies from 1827 to 1830, and after the revolution of 1830 was at once given a military command. At the head of the army of Algiers, Clausel made a successful campaign, but he was soon recalled by the home government, which desired to avoid complications in Algeria . At the same time he was made a marshal of France (February 1831). For some four years thereafter he urged his Algerian policy upon the Chamber of Deputies, and finally in 1835 was reappointed commander-in-chief. But after several victories, including the taking of Mascara in 1835, the marshal met with a severe repulse at Constantine in 1836. A change of government in France was primarily responsible for the failure, but public opinion attributed it to Clausel, who was recalled in February 1837. He thereupon retired from active service, and, after vigorously defending his conduct before the deputies, he ceased to take part in public affairs. He lived in complete retirement up to his death at Secourrieu ( Garonne) on the 21st of April 1842.

[2] General Major Gheorgy Gavrilovich Zukata or, in Italian, Zuccato (Цукато) – a Russian count, begun general-major,  descendant of an ancient Venetian family which left the service at the Württemberg Court and entered Russian service in 1788. He participated in the Second Turkish war, distinguishing himself at the assault of Prague. During Suvorov's Italian campaign was at the Trebbia and Novi battles. In 1809 - 1810, sent for a command in Little Walachia, organized a regular cavalry regiment from the Serbian cossacks. He died in 1810.

[3] Colonel (Polkovnik) Petr Petrovich Passek (Пaccek) was promoted General-major on June 7, 1799. From July 16, 1798 to that date he had led the Grenadier regiment of Moscow (Rozenberg Grenadiers). From June 7, 1799 to August 6, 1803 he became the Owner of the Grenadier regiment of Kiev, which he commanded from 1803 to November 15, 1804. In 1807 he became the Owner of the Musketeers regiment of Mogilev.

[4] Former Major Zaltser was promoted Lieutenant Colonel on May 6, 1799, after the Adda battles, and became Colonel on September 11, 1800. He led the Tambovsky regiment until February 7, 1806.

[5] Colonel Grigoryi Dmitrjevich Kasahovsky (Кacaгoвckий) became General Major on February 16, 1800 when he left the command of the Smolensk Musketeers Regiment becoming the Chief of the Vitebsk Musketeers Regiment.  

[6] From May 17, 1797 until March 8, 1800 its official number was the 6th Jäger (6-й Егepckий полk – Jeghjerskyi). Only after 1800 it assumed the number 7th; otherwise in all sources it was always related as 7th regiment. Its commander was also its Owner till September 20 (to December 31) when it was under Colonel Vassiliy Aleksejevich Chvitzky who was at Susa with the Prince.

 

Placed on the Napoleon Series: December 2007

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