Military Subjects: Battles & Campaigns

The 1799 Campaign in Italy: August 1799 -- A Very “Hot” Summer

By Enrico Acerbi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Author’s free variation from Google Earth - 2005

“Some Heroes have unpleasant Fortunes”

After the Novi (Ligure) battle, the French were definitively out of Northern Italy and in that terrible clash found thedeath of the hero of the Tirolese front, the General Barthélemy Catherine Joubert. In fact, the Directory (Seyes), worried about the consecutive defeats, suffered by the French armies, decided to appoint General Joubert as the commander in chief of the army of Italy and to send as reinforcements around 20000 French draftees (conscripts). When Joubert took his command, the armée d’Italie had around 35,000 men fit to fight, while the Coalition army of Suvorov had about 70,000 men. The Austro-Russians, however, were able to deploy only 45,000 soldiers for the upcoming battle. There, Suvorov, was less brilliant than at the Trebbia. Nervous and angry by the Austrian confrontation, conscious he had to leave Italy for political motives, the future prince of Italy (kniaz Italikski) undervalued the French danger, showing an unusual arrogant behaviour. It was reported he said “C’est un jouvenceau qui vient à l’école, nous allons lui donner une leçon “, (He’s a young boy who comes to school, and let we go to give him a lesson!)  speaking about Joubert, being then around thirty years old. Above all, Suvorov, made some tactical mistakes, which could have compromised his numerical advantage. First he dispersed his corps on various directions, without concentrating a one and only large mass of troops, then he allowed all the Coalition army groups (it is incorrect to call them as corps) to gather separately and in different times. Finally, the inaccurate attribution of superior commands (wings and center), clearly caused by the necessity to deploy Austrians and Russian side by side, which created a lot of confusion amid the troops.

The target of the Austro-Russian headquarters was the surrounding of Joubert’s army. In order to do this, it was crucial to block the escape ways through the Appennines.  This would be difficult to realize in the Coalition right wing (through Acqui or the Orba valley), but easier on the left side (the main road of the Scrivia valley and the secondary pass at Gavi).  

First Act of a Drama: Serravalle

Serravalle (Scrivia) once known as Libarna was the strategic junction between the Po lowlands and the Ligurian Sea and the tactical control over the main road traffic to and from Genoa. It had an old castle which was destroyed in 1155. During the Second Coalition war, the French garrisoning Serravalle, besieged by the Austro-Russians, were forced to surrender (August 7, 1799).

Gavi - In the years 1626 - 1629 the old Castle of Gavi assumed the characters of a modern fortress, by the amplification works planned and directed by Vincent of Fiorenzuola. Toward middle 1700 the fortress of Gavi was for a short period under the Austrian dominion. During the Napoleonic period it was a theater of battle between the French troops and the Austrians. The fortress could lodge a garrison of about 1000 men. The fortifications on the near Monte Moro were finished between the end of 1600 and the beginning of 1700.

Serravalle garrison – capitulated on August 7, 1799

Officers

6  

Cast iron guns

2

Troop

180 

Bronze pieces

9

Wounded

10

Mortars

3

Refugees

25    

   

Total

221

totale

14

Besiegers Group

Russian engineers officers

5                       

Austrian artillerymen

52

   

Austrian pioneers

123

Imperial Russian Regiment  Jäger Prince Bagration

380

Imperial Russian Combined Grenadier Battalion  Lomonosov       

75

Imperial Russian Combined Grenadier Battalion Dendriughin       

279

Imperial Russian Combined Grenadier Battalion Sanajev   

281

Imperial Russian Combined Grenadier Battalion  Kaliemin           

285

Russian Infantry Total                       

1300

K.K. 18th Infantry Regiment  Graf Patrick Stuart

300  (2 Companies)

K.K. 36th Infantry Regiment  Fürst Carl Fürstenberg

300 (2 Companies)

Austrian Infantry total

600

 

Siege artillery

12 pdrs. guns

6

6 pdrs. guns

2

10 pdrs howitzers

4

The ancient fort of Serravalle (Scrivia) was the key for the defense of communication routes to Genoa. Serravalle was seized by  Coalition troops on August 7, after two days of bombardment. It was a really easy affair to manage. While Prince Bagration moved back to Cassano Spinola, the fort was garrisoned by companies of the Stuart and Fürstenberg Austrian Regiments.

First Moves – Joubert is Unaware of the Surrender of Mantua

General Joubert was strongly convinced and motivated to give battle against the Russians, considering the Austrians dispersed in sieges and multiple garrisons.  His first objective  was to free Tortona blocking the road that connected the enemy troops between Mantua and Alexandria.  In July, he summoned a war council with Generals Moreau, Gouvion-Saint-Cyr, Pérignon, and Dessolle. All there agreed unanimously to wait, before acting, the arrival of the General Championnet, who was to emerge from the Alps with a new army. Should Suvorov  oppose this last movement, it was decided General Pérignon could operate with a body of 12000 men to support  Championnet in the Stura Valley, facilitating the link with the Army of Italy, at Mondovi and Acqui.

On the other side, if the chief of the Austro-Russians decided to go himself against the new army of the Alps, and whereas would have left an observation Corps of the Rivers Orba and Scrivia, Championnet could lure him into the mountains by yielding ground to him.  During this time Joubert would free Tortone, go to Po, and even to try the passage of the great river, which would force Souvarov then to abandon Championnet and to run back to help Lombardy, where he had all his depots. If the Field-marshal did send towards Turin all but a detachment and continued to cover Tortone, the council wanted to try to attract the “Generalissimo” into the mountains, with delaying actions.  There Suvorov, not being able to use his copious cavalry, would be obliged to fight against the French infantrymen with all the disadvantages of a rough ground. Such was the decision of the war council held by General Joubert; and this decision was the wisest of all, for, as it took place, the French army was hardly above 40000 fighters, and could not receive, before August 20th, the reinforcements of the Army of the Alps.

But, while recognizing  the wisdom of the generals, Joubert though it would be impossible to follow them. Since the surrender of Alexandria and Mantua, Suvorov (or probably the Austrian Hofkriegsrat), determined in his plan to leave no fortified town behind, and to have a complete control of all the country to his rear country, before advancing against Genoa state or the French borders, strongly raised the tempo of the siége of Tortone and stiffened the forces very closely. He restricted himself to observing the French outposts at the beginning of the gorges of the Apennines, and had posted the Klenau division at the gate of the East Riviera, giving to Klenau the order to seize the Forts Lerici and Sarzana and all the defences of the Gulf of Spezia. These last operations were successful, so the French did not have any strongholds, in the gulf, other than the single post of Santa-Maria. [i]

Brigade Miollis (extreme right Wing)  - Brigade de la Riviére de Levante

5 Battalions

3461

Général-de-brigade Sextius-Alexandre-François de Miollis controlling the roads from Tuscany and the Austrian Korps Klenau.
Chef-de-brigade « à titre provisoire » Pierre-François Mont-Serraz at La Spezia

16th Light Infantry Demi-Brigade I Battalion éclaireurs the II and III Battalions were at the Ancona Siege with Allix de Vaux

450

73rd Line Infantry Demi-Brigade (1 Battalion)

660

97th Line Infantry Demi-Brigade I-II Battalions - Chef de brigade Claude Nérin

921

II Ligurian Line Battalion Genova – Savona 6 companies 

480

IV Ligurian Line Battalion Riviera Ponente 1 Battalion  8 companies 

500

 

 

 

 

Brigade de la Riviére de Ponente – Controlling the Ligurian-Piedmontese roads and with its HQ at Savona

Général Joseph-Hélie-Désiré Perruquet de Montrichard                     

2300

41st Line Infantry Demi-Brigade - Chef de Brigade Marie-Nicolas-Louis Pechaux – at Nice    

600

34th Line Infantry Demi-Brigade III Battalion - Chef de Brigade Louis Prix Varé [ii] Came from Nice and was attached to Lemoine division at Novi. On 22 Sept 1798 was at 8th Division (Marseille) with I Battalion  (former 85th Demi-Brigade ) II Battalion  (former 148th Demi-Brigade  ) III Battalion  (various units).

700 ?

45th Line Infantry Demi Brigade de Ligne ??  - Chef-de-Brigade Jean Baptist Philip – Battalions I and II

remnants

Remnants of the 5th Line Lnfantry  Demi-Brigade - Chef-de-Brigade Guilliot              

400

79th Line Demi-Brigade Detachment – 2 companies (from Corfù)

117

Brigade de la val Bormide - Controlling the Ligurian-Piedmontese roads and with HQ at Genoa Chef-de-brigade François Roguet        

2900

 

 

33rd Line Infantry Demi-Brigade - Chef-de-brigade François Roguet             

350

29th Light Infantry Demi-Brigade Detachment the rest of Demi-Brigade (I-II Battalions and the Chef Balleydier) were at Mantua (after prisoners) 

250

Detachments, Ligurian troopers and garrisons         

2150

Ligurian Infantry Detachments - Major De Calissano - « Levée en masse » Battalions

2000

1st Ligurian Legion Battalions Finale and Pietra – Colonnello Traverse 

 

2nd Ligurian Legion Battalions Albenga and Alassio

 

Column Ligurian independant Battalions Laigueglia and Diano – Chef Bardero Ligurian Nat. Guard

 

Polish Legion Detachment Chasseurs à pied

150

The Directory, which knew these details, had immediately ordered Joubert to attack Suvorov and to make all efforts to free Tortone. This order was so imperative, that Joubert did not believe he could ignore it, unless he resigned his command. He reluctantly gave up the operations plan which had been decided in the council he had summoned in July.

General Saint-Cyr had the command of the right wing. General Pérignon commanded the left, and received orders to go ahead. This General at first occupied the position of Millesimo, known for the 1796 battle, and advanced until Murialdo and Calissano, near Ceva, to clear the valleys of Bormida and Tanaro. Unfortunately, Ceva had been taken by the allies. The commander of this place, accused of laziness and treason, had been judged and shot at Genoa. The right and the center of the French army, passing from Montenotte to Campofreddo, advanced its outposts in the Erro valley and in that of Orba, extending the screen till the Scrivia, with the central strong point chosen with la Bocchetta. Joubert had his headquarters in Campo-Morone, in the rear of his left, between Montenotte and Savona. He was determined to make, very soon, a general effort against the allied army, thus forcing  Suvorov to lift the siége of the Tortone Citadel. On 8 and 9 August, his right advanced on la Bocchetta, and occupied the position of mount Brisco, above Mornese,  which had  been abandoned by the allies.

First Column – attack against the eastern Ligurian Riviera (Riviera di Levante)
Generalmajor Johann Graf von Klenau und Freiherr von Janowitz
Staff – Captain von Stutterheim, Oberst Eljeben

Johann Graf von Klenau

Battalions

Companies

Squadrons

Total

Heavy Guns

Left Wing (from Tuscany)

11

10

16

9408

10


Jäger Korps Freiherr Constantin d'Aspre  10 companies       

1023

K.K. 4th Light Infantry Battalion Bach Commander:  Major Johann Nepomuk Freiherr von Bach

526

K.K. 3rd Light Battalion Am Ende - Commander: Oblt (Lieutenant Colonel) Carl Freiherr von Am Ende

635

K.K. 15th Light Battalion Oberst Bonaventura Mihanovic (Croat-Slavonian)

438

VI Battalion Grenzregiment Banat – Commander: Major Paulić

445

IV Battalion Grenzregiment Banat – Commander: Major Jović

345

II Battalion 5th Warasdiner-Kreuzer Grenzregiment – Commander: Major Maretić

294

I Battalion 10th Banal Grenzregiment of Glina  (former 2nd Banal Battalion)  Commander: Oberst Daniel (Danilo) von Oreskovic

905

K.K.  59th  Line Infantry Regiment FML Alexander von Jordis – I, II Battalions

1775

K.K. 53rd Croatian Line Infantry Regiment GM Johann Jellacic Graf de Buzim – I, II Battalions

1221

8th Hussar Régiment (later Nauendorff) –8 squadrons.

1033

Bussy Freiwillige Jägers zu Pferd (Chasseurs-a-Cheval)  - 8 squadrons

768

First Moves – Suvorov is Unaware of Joubert’s Intentions

The Coalition army’s camp was at Bosco, near Alexandria. There, Fieldmarshal Suvorov and the other Staff officers, were busy putting into action their plans for the offensive against the Ligurian Passes. An official authorization from Vienna was awaited (the time for a quick answer was to be predictable around August 10). There were some differences between Mélas (he wanted Genoa) and Suvorov (he wanted to drive directly towards Nice), but all agreed that it was the proper moment to attack. Therefore a possible French attack (knowing Moreau’s difficulties in men, munitions, food, clothes and money) was very far from all Coalition minds and totally unexpected. Nobody had yet realized the presence of General Joubert, known since few days, at the Bocchetta Road. After the Mantua capitulation, Suvorov had ordered Fieldmarshal Kray to leave 5000 men at the fortress, to send other 5000 men with Klenau (actually in Tuscany) and to march with the 18000 men of the main Corps, towards Tortona. Kray’s Corps was waited until 16 August, but by August 11, the cavalry vedettes brought the news of Kray’s arrival. The Austro-Russian offensive was arranged to start by August 15th. In the meanwhile Suvorov moved some pieces on the chessboard: Corps Rozenberg was transferred from Broni to Vighizzolo (Viguzzolo), the outpost were organized at Arquata and, obviously, at the Serravalle fort, Bellegarde Corps was sent to Gamalero on the road to Acqui by August 9. Moreover, in those days, the main group of the French army was signaled as being between Savona and the valleys of Mondovì and Ceva. [iii]

Coalition Army (Austro-Russian)

Headquarters at Bosco Marengo – August 4, 1799
Coalition Commander - Feld Marschal Leutnant Aleksandr Vasilievich Suvorov
Chief of Staff-Quartiermeister Generalmajor Johann Gabriel Chasteler Marquis de Courcelles

Austrian Commander – FML Michael Friedrich Benedikt Mélas

Chief of Staff OberstAnton Freiherr von Zach (from Kray Mantua Korps)

2nd Column - attack against la Bocchetta pass – link with Klenau at the Scoffera pass (Val Scrivia) and Torriglia (val Trebbia)
Cavalry General Otto Wilhelm Hristoforovich Derfelden
Staff – Major MacDermott, Captains Meziers, Quosdanovich, Reinich, Neuschann, Colonels Bittner, Zorich and Haterburg

 

Battalions

Companies

Squadrons

Cossacks

Total

Heavy Guns

Russians

24

-

 

4

14712

10

Austrians

8

-

9

 

5263

 

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Russian Vanguard Division
Generalmajor Pjotr Ivanovich Prince Bagration

4865

Imperial Russian 7th Jäger  Regiment GM Bagration – I and II  Battalion

571

Imperial Russian 8th Jäger  Regiment GM Ivan Ivanovich Miller (former Chubarov) - I and II  Battalions

618

Imperial Russian Grenadier Battalion (GB) Sanajev

430

Imperial Russian Grenadier Battalion (GB) Dendrjugyn

405

Imperial Russian Grenadier Battalion (GB) Lomonosov

409

Imperial Russian Grenadier Battalion (GB) Kalemin

484

8th Don Cossacks Regiment Grekov

476

5th Don Cossacks Regiment Denissov

476

2nd Don Cossacks Regiment Sujchev

495

Don Cossacks Regiment Semernikov (Semjornikov)

501

Russian Division - Lt. General Jacob Ivanovich Povalo-Shvejkovsky 1st

5012

Imperial Russian Grenadier Regiment GdI Rozenberg or Moskowsky (Moskow) – 2 Battalions

1132

Imperial Russian Musketeers Regiment GM Baranowsky II or Nizowski Musk. Regiment – 2 Battalions

1474

Imperial Russian Musketeers Regiment GM Baron Ivan Ivanovich Dalheim

1266

Imperial Russian Musketeers Regiment LG Povalo-Shveikovsky or Smolensky (Smolensk) – 2 Battalions

1140

Russian Division - Lieut. General Ivan Ivanovich Förster

4835

Imperial Russian Musketeers Regiment GM Tuyrtov or Tug’lsky (Tula) – 2 Battalion s

1152

mperial Russian Musketeers Regiment GM Mihail Andrejevich Miloradovich

1237

Imperial Russian Musketeers Regiment Lieut. General  Förster (Ferster) or Tambowski (Tambov)

1229

Imperial Russian Musketeers Regiment Young-Baden or molodo-Badensky – 2 Battalions

1217

   

Korps General-Major Freiherr Anton von Mittrowsky

 

K.K. Grenadier Battalion Major Franz Wouwermanns

268

K.K. Grenadier Battalion Freiherr Carl von Görschen

627

K.K. Grenadier Battalion Oberleutnant Carl Soudain

286

K.k Grenadier Battalion Graf Anton Schiaffinati

508

K.k Grenadier Battalion Oberleutnant Ferdinand Pers

341

K.K.  36th  Line Infantry Regiment  Fürst Carl Fürstenberg  I, II, III Battalions

2081

K.K. 5th  Hussar Regiment 3 Squadrons.

312

K.K. 4th Light Dragoons Regiment GM Andreas Frh. von Karacsaj de Vale-Sakam

840

3rd Column – flank attack through Acqui against the passes, Cairo and Millesimo toward Savona
FML Michael Friedrich Benedikt Mélas 
Staff – Oberst Marchetti, major Bicking, Obersten Hirsch, Erden, Odelke, major Volkmann, Captains Foyt, Mumb,

FML Mélas Right Wing

Battalions

Companies

Squadrons

Total

Heavy Guns

Austrians

19

-

8

12992

20

Chubarov’s Russians

 

-

 

4000

 

Austrian Division - Generalmajor Freiherr Michael von Fröhlich

 
 

Vorhut (Vanguard)

 

K.K. 5th  Hussar Regiment 2 Squadrons.

208

 

Feldbrigade Generalmajor Franz Joseph Marquis de Lusignan

 

K.K. Hungarian Grenadier Battalion OberstLeutnant Johann Pértussy

399

K.K. Grenadier Battalion Oblt Franz Xavier Weber von Treuenfeld

275

K.K. Grenadier Battalion Count Johann Morzin

393

K.K. Grenadier Battalion Graf Carl Paar

324

K.K. Grenadier Battalion Graf Otto von Hohenfeld

221

K.K. Grenadier Battalion Graf Nikolaus Weissenwolf

673

K.K. 18th Line Infantry Regiment  Graf Patrick Stuart - I and IV Battalions. III Battalion At Serravalle

1516

   

Feldbrigade FML Johann Ludwig Alexander Alformerius Frh. von Loudon

 

K.K.  33rd  Regiment Graf Anton Sztaray – I, II,and III Battalions

2517

K.K.  32nd Hungarian  Regiment Graf Samuel Gyulai - I, II, and III Battalions

2000

K.K.  8th  Regiment (former Huff Regiment) - I, II, and III  Battalions

2161

K.K.  15th  Regiment Oranien Prinz Wilhelm- I and II  Battalions

1417

   

Rearguard Feldbrigade Generalmajor Friedrich Bellegarde

 

K.K. 1st Light Dragoons Regiment “Emperor” Kaiser Franz II  - 6 squadrons

888

   

Cavalry Brigade Generalmajor Fürst Johann von Liechtenstein

 

K.K. 10th Light Dragoons Regiment GdC Joseph Fürst Lobkowitz - 6 Squadrons.

598

K.K. 8th Light Dragoons Regiment Friedrich Wilhelm Carl Herzog Württemberg- 6 Squadrons.

667

The 4th Column was that of FML Kray.

5th Column – Piedmont Sicherungs Korps
FML Conrad Valentin Kaim  - FML Heinrich Joseph Johannes Graf von Bellegarde
Staff – ??

FML Valentin Kaim

Battalions

Companies

Squadrons

Total

Heavy Guns

Austrians

??

       

Avantgarde Brigade Generalmajor Freiherr Josef Philipp von Vukassovich          

 

Oberst Sebastian Prodanovich or Brodanovich) from Regiment of Rumenian Banat

 

KK  52nd  Hungarian Regiment Erzherzog Palatin Anton Viktor - 2 Battalions

1715

K.K. 7th Hungarian Light Infantry Battalion Oberst Wilhelm Ludwig Otto

203

III Battalion Grenzregiment of Banat (or II/12 GR Deutschbanater - Major Anton Zedtwitz)

748

II Battalion Grenzregiment of Banat (I/13th GrenzRegiment) – Siebenbürgen-Wallachen

335

V Battalion Banater Grenzregiment

614

6th Don Cossacks Regiment Pasdejev

464

Don Cossacks Regiment Molchanov

 
   

Feldbrigade Generalmajor Graf Johann Nobili

 

K.K. 9th Hungarian Light Infantry Battalion Major Carl Greth

 

½ Battalion K.K. 6th Light Infantry Major Carl Freiherr von Trauttenberg (serbian-croatian)

 

K.K. Jäger Korps Major Johann Le Loup (2companies - Dutch)

 
   

Feldbrigade Generalmajor Graf Joseph Johann Saint Julien-Wallsee

 

K.K. 13th Hungarian Light Infantry Major Jozséf de Munkátsy - ½ Battalion

 

K.K. 1st Light Dragoons Regiment “Emperor” Kaiser Franz II  - 2 squadrons

 
   

Feldbrigade Generalmajor Oberst Ludwig Wolff de la Marseille   

 

K.K.  58th  Regiment Freiherr Peter von Beaulieu – combined Battalion

251

K.K.  9th  Regiment (former Clerfayt) I Battalion  - Commander: Obst Ludwig Wolff de la Marseille

274

K.K. 9th Hussar Regiment FML Johann Nepomuk Graf Erdödy de Monyorókerek 4 Squadrons.

607

 

Turin Besetzung Korps

 

Milizia Reale Piemontese – (Piedmontese Royal Milice, centuries and Jäger corps) 10 Battalions. [iv]

??

K.K. 7th  Hussar Regiment 8 Squadrons.

844

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Notes:

[i] Santa Maria Fortress, a 1600 military building located on a promontory in front of La Spezia (a future part of the Navy Arsenal port) was a stronghold very hard to seize. It was destroyed on March 1814 by the Anglo-Neapolitan fleet and ruined with its garrison of 68 French.

[ii] Varé was named Chef of the 34e Demi-Brigade d'infanterie on February 16, 1797. Louis Prix Varé (1766-1807) killed in action during the battle at Tzew? (Tczewem). He was also a Commander of the Legion d’Honneur by June 14, 1804. From 1794 till 1796 he acted as the chef-de-brigade of the 43e Demi-Brigade de bataille; in 1796 he was chef-de-brigade at the 54e Demi-Brigade de bataille and, finally, in 1797 he was transferred to the 34e Demi-Brigade de bataille. In 1803 he became Gerneral-de-brigade (August 23) and in 1805 -1807 he led the 2nd brigade of the 1st Infantry division (IV Corps).

[iii] Zach’s report to the Minister Thugut (August 11) (Haus- Hof- und Staatsarchiv, Wien)

[iv] The provincial Piedmontese units were recalled by Suvorov with a proclamation of June 2, assuring that they would not have been employed out the national territory. The call was successful, probably also thanks to the duke of Aosta presence in the national territory, but its political effectiveness was partly weakened by the Regency order to activate immediately 10 regimental centuries (a century about 100 men) to admit, within July 25, to the Austrian forces. To this manifest lack of enthusiasm, the government answered constituting the reserve regimental companies. The reconstitution of the regular infantry was well more hard-working. In June 1799 (Guardie and Piedmont) were formed in Turin 2 centuries, 3 companies (Monferrato) at Chieri and the century Savoia recovered from Tuscany. They immediately followed the companies or centuries of the other national regiments (Saluzzo, Aosta, Marina, Alexandria, Regina, Lombardy and Light infantry) united to the various Austrian divisions.

On July 23, it was officially created the "Corps of Piedmontese artillery." The corps was recruited only partly with provincial elements, recovering, in December, also the 107 ordnance artillerymen, come from Switzerland, under colonel Cappello. The austro-Russians formed also, in the sardinian territory, seven Jäger companies. The recruitment and the command of these seven companies (one Russian and six Austrians, reunited at the end of May in the Feldjäger-corps) was submitted to the Austrian volunteer Oberst baron Phillip Brentano Cimarolli, who fought at Novi with 150 volunteers, former soldiers and officers of the disbanded italian regiment Belgiojoso (IR 44). The century of the old regular regiment of the Truppe Leggiere (Light infantry), commanded by the cavaliere (Ritter) Giuseppe Bonaccorsi, gave life to the K.k. 17 (last) Italienische Leichtes Bataillon (Light Battalion), organized on seven companies, (1 grenadier and 6 fusiliers), and sent to the Mantua garrison after the fortress capitulation. It must be specified, besides all, that this Battalion was the only one, together with the Balegno Legion, to be led by Piedmontese officers.

 

Placed on the Napoleon Series: December 2008

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