Military Subjects: Battles & Campaigns

The 1799 Campaign in Italy: The Last Battles & the End of the Directory’s Wars August-December 1799

By Enrico Acerbi

Reorganization of the Right Wing – Battle at Bracco Pass

On September 24, the mixed Dąbrowsky Division (Gallo-Polonaise) went to its new line around Sassello (where the Legion’s grenadiers stood with the HQs), more on the left than the previous positions. The line of Sassello was a triangle with angles pointed to Sassello, Ponzone and Squaneto. The division had the 3rd Legion Battalion in reserve at Voltri and Arenzano, near Genoa at the sea, the Legion chasseurs in vanguard duty at Cartosio and Malvicino, the 2nd Legion Battalion at Ponzone, while the Polish cavalry was at Mioglia (the 1st Battalion, as told, was attached to another division). Dąbrowsky’s French troops occupied Morbello and the Monte Acuto extending the right wing to link with Watrin’s left at Ponte Molare. At the left, the link with Laboissière was at Ponti; there were also many outposts along the Erro Creek almost until Acqui. In this line the skirmishing was constant because of the need for food, in particular near Cartosio and Cavatore (this two villages being seized together by French and Austrian vanguards).

In the so called Riviera di Levante, the coast between Genoa and la Spezia, General Klenau had deployed his troops in several starting points linked together by hussars patrols: at Chiavari were the d’Aspre Jägers with the 6th Banat Battalion and one squadron of Nauendorff Hussars, the 4th Banat Battalion and the Light Battalion Bach were at Lavagna, the 2nd Banat Battalion was at Cogorno and the Light Battalion Am Ende was at Sestri (Levante). The main targets of the coastal force were the passes and the road, which linked the ligurian army group with the northern plains, and above all:  Torriglia, a village at the head of the Trebbia valley road, Scoffera the key pass for the causeway, which could link with the Gavi road (Novi) and the Bracco, the pass on the hillway to Genoa, alternative to the rough coastal road well defended by the French.

On September 26, Klenau drove toward the mountains and, with the support of Karacsaj at Novi, occupied the village of Torriglia but, the day after, General Watrin, leading his 97th Line, took back the town, while his brigades Petitot, Darnaud and Gauthrin pushed back the Austrians between Acqui and Novi.

Before moving his left wing, Championnet made some changes also on the right. Miollis was ordered to defend against Klenau, Watrin had to watch the Bocchetta Pass, the Adjudant-général Gauthrin moved to Ponzone in order to alarm the Austrian outposts. The main bodies of the Riviera troops were gathered at Cairo, Savona, Finale ,and Vado, waiting to know which unit had to march northwest.

In effect, the Austrians were rather alarmed and ordered General Karacsaj to send a strong reconnaissance (one infantry regiment and some cavalry squadrons) toward Cairo and Saliceto, passing through Acqui which was occupied. In addition they organized a large camp (8000 men) at Alba, ready to run in support of Karacsaj, if needed.  This, in effect, happened almost immediately and the French advanced occupying Novi and Pozzolo Formigaro, taking advantage of Karacsaj’s maneuvers (see details in the Bosco battle section).

In order to develop an attack plan against the Piedmont, Championnet, had the necessity to have a quiet right wing The fight at Torriglia had convinced him it was necessary to attack on the Riviera, in order to drive away Klenau, far from Genoa. He ordered  Miollis and Watrin to attack and to Dąbrowsky to cover the right flank along the sea. Gauthrin’s Brigade marched till Bobbio in the Trebbia valley, to cover the other flank of the attack. 

Between Sori and Torriglia the 3000 men of Miollis controlled Klenau’s Corps, scattered along the line in small detachments, often entrenched over the mountains which surrounded Genoa. The key of that defensive line was Monte Cornua (not to be confused with Monte Cordona, an 803 meter hig hill often called also Monte Corona), which was the highest mount and which protected the Miollis camp. Not so far from there passed the ancient Roman road, which was the pilgrims way to Tuscany and Rome. From Sori once they reached Genoa raising the steep slopes of the Monte Santa Croce, Monte Cordona, Monte Fasce and those who wanted to travel in the ligurian inner land had to cross Monte Becco and Monte Cornua. Klenau had his outposts behind Recco, at Uscio, Ognio and Barba gelata. The second line were at Rapallo, Madonna della Negra and Ponte Cicagna; the main body was between Chiavari and Carasco.

On 3 October, the Polish Division had order to abandon the line and to reach San Pier d’Arena near Genoa. All the cavalry gathered at Cornigliano while the HQs and the infantry occupied the village of San Pier d’Arena. Finally it was clear the reason for that movement. The division had to occupy Sori in order to cover St. Cyr’s attack, done by Miollis’ Division along the coast. The infantry marched by 11 October, reaching Sori the day after, but the same evening it was ordered to return to its previous positions. The grenadiers from the 106th Line were embarked on light boats in order to coast the shores and to disembark at Moneglia, in the Klenau rear. Saint Cyr gave orders to attack Barbagelata, repulsed the small outposts there and advanced to Borzonasca, a very deep penetration, north of the Klenau coastal deployment, which had not detachments in the Appennins. This fast advance by the French could have really cut in two their opponents, in the Magra valley. The French did not have to worry about anything coming from Piacenza and the Trebbia valley, because Gauthrin controlled also Santo Stefano (d’Aveto).  St. Cyr’s vanguards (Watrin) reached Varese (ligure) near San Pietro di Vara, this having completely outflanked the Klenau disposition. San Pietro was occupied on 12 October.

Realizing the great danger, the Austrian general marched back in a real hurry, leaving behind only a rearguard formed by the Mihanovich Battalion and some d’Aspre jäger companies. So began a race toward the Bracco Pass, the point on which the Austrians could stop St. Cyr. Prudently the main Austrian force withdrew to Mattarana and then Klenau was at the pass, arriving before the French column. In the meanwhile, the rearguard could have not resist the fast advance of Miollis to Chiavari and fell prisoners of war (the Mihanovich light Battalion and 3 d’Aspre companies).

Although the French troops of Watrin had lot of fatigue, they attacked Klenau at the Bracco Pass, beating the Austrians and taking over 400 prisoners.  This blocked the retreat way of the Austrian rearguard, which, pushed by Miollis, was withdrawing along the Corniche Road to Bracco. Engaged by Watrin’s troops at Sestri the rearguard gave up; over800 prisoners remained in the French hands (the Austrian source referred of a total of 940 prisoners). After the battle, St. Cyr deployed Watrin at Sestri Levante, while Miollis went up to the mountains watching the valleys of Nure, Trebbia and Tidone. Laboissière, with his right, blocked Serravalle and covered the territory till Ovada and Prasco. So did also Dąbrowsky, who had eventually to give up the advanced occupation, and returned to his former positions. At the Bracco clash the French lost around 100 men killed or wounded, the Austrians 1200 men, mainly taken prisoner. Worried about the French initiative, the Austrian Kommando recalled from home Prince Hohenzollern, who came with the Number 53 Jellačić Infantry Regiment, which was at Florence, and the Iordis infantry, in order to give support to Klenau, now at Sarzanello, very far from Genoa, in his former line of the Magra River.

On October 20, t Championnet’s (St. Cyr) new organization took a definitive form. General Dąbrowsky lost the 55th Line Demi-Brigade and the 17th Line, receiving the 3rd Line and the first two battalions of 106th Line (the third being with the Alps Corps).  He also had his 1st Polish Battalion. The new joint Army of Italy now had around 54053 men, without including the Pouget Corps (Briga and Tenda) and the 7th Territorial Division (Grenoble and Briançon) under General Pellapra (in total 6500 French conscripts and 2500 Italians and Poles; these last troops were employed to watch the alpine passes and to stop deserters). The new 3rd Division (Dąbrowsky) gathered on October 21 at Campomorone and went to Voltaggio two days after, front to Gavi. There Gouvion St. Cyr organized his headquarters waiting to advance toward Novi.

Right Wing: Général de Division Gouvion Saint-Cyr – about 16000 men (Situation at the end of September 1799)

Commander: Marquis Laurent Gouvion de Saint-Cyr

Chief of Staff Guyot –

 

1st Division Miollis (extreme right Wing)  - former Brigade de la Riviére de Levante - * infantrymen

4134 *

 
 

Général Sextius-Alexandre-François de Miollis – Miliutin

4153

 
       
 

Left Wing Brigade (Scoffera Pass and Torriglia)

   
 

1st Hussars Regiment Detachment

30

 
 

41st Line Infantry Demi-Brigade –3 Battalions - Chef de Brigade Marie-Nicolas-Louis Pechaux

   
 

29th Light Infantry Demi-Brigade (rebuilt)

   
       
 

Center Brigade (from Scoffera till the sea)

   
 

15th Light Infantry Demi-Brigade

   
 

11th Line Infantry Demi-Brigade

   
       
 

Right Wing Brigade: Sori and Panesi (troops detached from Watrin’s division)

   
 

55th Line Infantry Demi-Brigade - 2 Battalions. - San Pier d’Arena

   
 

97th Line Infantry Demi-Brigade – Chef de brigade Claude Nérin - Torriglia and Scoffera pass

   
 

1st Sappers Battalion

62

 
 

Artillery Company – 5th Regiment Foot artillery – with 2 guns

19

 
       

2nd Division Watrin

7599 *

 

General of division François Watrin - * infantrymen (7252 as for Miliutin)

Brigadiers: Général-de-Brigade Jacques Darnaud - Général Pierre-Etienne Petitot – General Pierre-Edme Gauthrin

   
     
 

8th Light Infantry Demi-Brigade - Chef-de-Brigade Jacques-François Brun – only one Battalion

 

16th Light Infantry Demi-Brigade –

 
 

12th Line Infantry Demi-Brigade - Chef-de-brigade François Vergez

 

73rd Line Infantry Demi-Brigade – Monte Cordona

 

62nd Line Infantry Demi-Brigade – Chef-de-Battalion Villeneuve provisional commander

 

78th Line Infantry Demi-Brigade – Chef Jean-Joseph-Henri Cassine (Bde Petitot former Chef)

 

7th Chasseurs Regiment Detachment – la Bocchetta pass

49

19th Chasseurs Regiment

60

25th Chasseurs Regiment

83

1st Sappers Battalion – la Bocchetta

155

Artillery detach. – 5th Regiment Light artillery –

27

Artillery detach. – 8th Regiment Light artillery –

34

3rd Division Dąbrowski – merged its troops with Miollis/St.Cyr and Victor in early October offensive
General of division Général Jan Henryk Dąbrowsky - * Miliutin

Brigadiers: vanguard brigade - gen.Władysław Jabłonowski

4652 *

3rd Line Infantry Demi-Brigade –3 Battalions –

 

106th Line Infantry Demi-Brigade – grenadiers –

 

106th Line Infantry Demi-Brigade –2 Battalions.– Chef Jean-Baptiste Perrin

 

1st Polish Legion -

 

Polish Legion Uhlans -

 

4th Division – General Laboissiére

4998 *

Général de Division Pierre Garnier de Laboissière - * Miliutin

From Cairo-Dego to Voltaggio, then to Campofreddo.

Brigadiers: Chef-de-brigade François Roguet till September 22 - Général Jean-Baptiste du Torpt baron de Quesnel - Marc-Antoine Beaumont comte de la Bonninière

18th Light Infantry Demi-Brigade – Cadibona then Ponzone. Ovada (Oct 21)

 

14th Line Infantry Demi-Brigade –2 Battalions – Cairo, then Calissano and Ponzone

 

21st Line Infantry Demi-Brigade – 2 Battalions. – Squaneto then Serravalle (21 Oct)

 

24th Line Infantry Demi-Brigade –2 Battalions – Dego then Gavi, M.Rotondo (21 Oct)

 

68th Line Infantry Demi-Brigade –2 Battalions – Dego then Gavi (21 Oct)

 

6th Hussars Regiment – Chef-de-brigade Pierre-Claude Pajol – (21 Oct at Gavi)

93

16th Dragoons regiment

98

19th Dragoons regiment

57

7th Chasseurs regiment

44

25th Chasseurs regiment

47

3rd Company detach. – 8th Regiment Light artillery –

32

9th Company detach.– 2nd Regiment Foot artillery –

14

Artillery Company – 3rd Regiment Foot artillery –

65

Brigade General Gaspard-Amédée Gardanne – from Laboissière to Lemoine

 

17th Light Infantry Demi-Brigade – from Labossière division - Chef Croisier (killed at Genola)

 

63rd Line Infantry Demi-Brigade –2 Battalions – from Labossière  division at Ponzone

615

6th Hussars Regiment – detachment

50

 

Center: Général de Division Victor – HQ at Genoa San Pier d’Arena -  * Miliutin

8469 *

 

Commander: général Claude Victor Perrin

 
 

Brigadiers: baron Charles-Louis-Dieu Donné Grandjean - Général-de-brigade Pierre Poinsot [i]- général Jean Louis Gaspard Josnet de Laviolais [ii]

 
 

26th Light Infantry Demi-Brigade II Battalion – Chef Hyacinthe   

 

26th Line Infantry Demi-Brigade – 1 and ½ Battalions.

 

33rd Line Infantry Demi-Brigade – 2 Battalions.-

 

39th Line Infantry Demi-Brigade – 2 Battalions. –

 

92nd Line Infantry Demi-Brigade –I, II Battalions. – the III Battalion prisoner at Pizzighettone siege in May – depot at Briançon and Queyras, then at Grenoble at Christmas day

 

93rd Line Infantry Demi-Brigade – 2 Battalions. –

 

99th Line Infantry Demi-Brigade – 3 Battalions. -

 

105th Line Infantry Demi-Brigade – 3rd Battalion –  Chef Cardon

 

Detachment 8th Company 2nd Sappers Battalion –

74

Artillery “canonniers volontaires” – with the division

18

1st Division – General Lemoine

7715 *

Général de Division Louis Lemoine - * only infantry inclusive of Gardanne brigade  - * Miliutin (7829)

Brigadiers: Général-de-brigade Philibert Fressinet [iii] Général-de-brigade Jean-Mathieu Seras - Général-de-brigade Bertrand Clauzel -

 

5th Light Infantry Demi-Brigade 2 Battalions - Chef-de-Brigade Antoine Chatagnier 

 

20th Light Infantry Demi-Brigade – 3 Battalions.

 

17th Line Infantry Demi-Brigade - 3 Battalions. – San Pier d’Arena Chef de Brigade Jérôme-Joseph Goris

 

30th Line Infantry Demi-Brigade - I – II Battalions ? coast - Chef de Brigade François Valterre was at Rome

800

34th Line Infantry Demi-Brigade –3 Battalions.

 

74th Line Infantry Demi-Brigade –3 Battalions – Chef Antoine-Alexandre Rousseax

 

 1st Hussars Regiment Detachment

64

2nd Sappers Battalion -

129

Artillery Company detach. – 3rd Regiment Foot Artillery –

25

Cavalry Division (Reserve) Général Antoine Richepance  - * Miliutin

1200 *

Brigadiers: Général-de-brigade Jean-Baptiste (Andrè) Carvin called Calvin (then attached to Grenier at Coni)

1st Cavalry Regiment - Chef-de-Brigade (provisional) Pierre Margaron [iv]

 

14th Cavalry Regiment - Chef-de-Brigade Georges-Jacques Wolff  [v]

 

21st cavalry Regiment - Chef-de-Brigade Ythier-Sylvain Pryvé [vi]

 

9th Regiment Chasseurs-à-cheval  - Chef-de-Battalion Jean Pierre Thuillier (confirmed Chef-de-brigade on October 6, 1799)

182

2nd Regiment Chasseurs-à-cheval  - Chef-de-brigade Jean-Baptiste Croutelle

??

10th Hussars regiment- Général-de-brigade Julien-Augustin-Joseph Mermet [vii]

600

Division des Alpes Maritimes – General Pouget

 

General-de-brigade Jean Pierre Pouget [viii]

 

Right Wing Brigade

 

18th Line Infantry Demi-Brigade – 1 Battalion. Bis – Viel, Aspremont, Isola

411

32nd Line Infantry Demi-Brigade – 1 Battalion. Bis – Drap, Permaldo

430

61st Line Infantry Demi-Brigade – 1 Battalion. Bis – Puget, Villard

300

85th Line Infantry Demi-Brigade – 1 Battalion. Bis – Isola, Saint Etienne

300

2nd Line Infantry Demi-Brigade – 1 Battalion – Saint Martin de Lantosque

448

Left Wing Brigade

 

3rd Cisalpine Line Infantry Demi-Brigade – Rimplas, Saint Salvador

386

2nd Line Infantry Demi-Brigade

Chef-de-brigade Joseph Perrin - arrived later from Switzerland to Nice, after having participated to the battle of Zürich (September). It will be employed in 1800 with Gazan division.

2516

5th Line Infantry Demi-Brigade – (old Victor’s unit) Chef-de-brigade Louis Hyacinthe Le Feron and then Francois Antoine Teste – I and II Battalion -  rebuilt after the Trebbia, was with Pouget until the end of october and then was transferred to the Danube Army (Division Leonard Müller). In September, October it fought in some clashes around Coni (at Fossano with Pouget and in October at Chiusa di Pesio, Roccaforte and Brunetto). On November 6 it went to the german front.

??

1st Battalion de l’Haute Loire – Bouches-du-Rhône

341

Battalion “auxiliaire de la Drôme” – Nice

535

Battalion “des Alpes Maritimes” - Nice

272

1st Battalion de Vaucluse - Nice

400

Polish Legion Depot troops - Villefranche

558

Artillery “canonniers sédentaires” – Nice, Villefranche

303

7th Territorial Division Grenoble – General Pellapra

 

General of division Jean-Louis Pellapra [ix]

 

106th Line Infantry Demi-Brigade – III Battalion. – from Switzerland - Chambery

??

10th Line Infantry Demi-Brigade –from Switzerland – July 24 at Chambery - Chef Jean-Baptiste Rivet. [x]

??

1st “auxiliaire” Battalion Gers – Alpes-Maritimes

827

1st Battalion de l’Haute Garonne - Alpes-Maritimes

876

2nd Battalion de l’Isère - Grenoble

878

1st Battalion du Leman - Genève

389

 

Poles  and Helvetians

853

 

14th Cavalry regiment

 

Departmental Forces as for Miliutin (8500 men). Note these numbers were heavily influenced by the persistent increasing number of deserters and the listed are those of the units not directly or heavily involved in the last month’s combats, being some excerpts from an army situation of December 16, 1799, after the battle of Genola, which will appear later in the article.

The Austrian Order of battle comes from original source.

16 September 1799 - Coalition Army (Austria) (source Carl Mras, hauptmann)

Austrian Commander – FML Michael Friedrich Benedikt von Mélas

Chief of Staff OberstAnton Freiherr von Zach (from Kray Mantua Korps)

Quartiermeister Generalmajor Johann Gabriel Chasteler Marquis de Courcelles

Austrian army

Battalions

Companies

Squadrons

Total

Heavy Guns

Horses

Italienische Armée

136

28

90

92033

--

12767

Gruppe Generalmajor Johann Graf von Klenau und Freiherr von Janowitz 

Staff – Captain von Stutterheim, Oberst Eljeben

Johann Graf von Klenau

Battalions

Companies

Squadrons

Total

Heavy Guns

Horses

Right Wing (Liguria-Levante)

5

10

8

4914

10

1153

Jäger Korps Freiherr Constantin d'Aspre  10 companies           

875

K.K. 15th Light Battalion. Oberst Bonaventura Mihanovic

602

VI Battalion Grenzregiment Banat – Commander Major Paulić

586

I Battalion. of 10th Banal GrenzRegiment of Glina -  (2nd Banal Battalion)  Commander: Oberst Daniel von Oreskovic

698

IV Battalion Grenzregiment Banat – Commander Major Jović

355

II Battalion of 5th Warasdiner-Kreuzer Grenzregiment – Commander Major Maretić

645

8th Hussar Régiment (later Nauendorff) –8 Squadrons.

Cmdr: Commander: Oberst Freiherr Emanuel Schusteckh (in 1800 promoted Generalmajor)

Obst.Leutn.: Freiherr Anton Graffen; 2nd Colonel Thimoteusz Kerekes - Majors: count Emanuel Benjowsky (dead from a wound suffered at Mantua, on May 8, 1799); Franz von Borocziczky; Johann von Klebelsberg.

1033

Austrian Corps - Generalmajor Freiherr Michael von Fröhlich

 
   

Division Generalmajor Friedrich Xavier Fürst Hohenzollern-Hechingen 

 

Fürst Hohenzollern-Hechingen

Battalions

Companies

Squadrons

Total

Heavy Guns

Horses

Left Wing (Tuscany-Florence and Ancona)

11

 

6

7490

10

787

K.K.  43  Line Infantry Regiment  Graf Anton Thurn-Val Sassina – I,II,III Battalions.

1623

K.K.  59  Line Infantry Regiment FML Alexander von Jordis – I, II Battalions

1775

K.K.  53  Line Infantry Regiment GM Johann Jellacic Graf de Buzim – I, II Battalions

1221

Combined Battalion of 3rd Carlstädt-Ogulin Grenzregiment

– former  I Battalion of 3rd croat Grenzregiment Carlstädt-Ogulin - III Battalion 3rd Grenzregiment Carlstädt-Ogulin former 7th Carlstadt Battalion.- Commander Freiherr Carl von Letzenyi

1127

K.K. 3rd Light Battalion. Am Ende - Commander: Oblt (Lieut. Col.) Carl Freiherr von Am Ende

266

Feldbrigade Generalmajor Freiherr Ferdinand von Minkwitz 

 

K.K. 4th Light Infantry Battalion. Bach Commander:  Major Johann Nepomuk Freiherr von Bach

685

K.K. 12th Kürassier Regiment FML Moritz Graf Cavanagh

787

(Had the I and II Divisions with 6 Squadrons.) Commander: Oberst Heinrich Bersina von Siegenthal – former commander Count Oberst Leopold Pálffy de Erdöd and, after the Pálffy promotion to Generalmajor, Oberst Heinrich Bersina von Siegenthal

Austrian vanguard Brigade - GM Friedrich Heinrich Frh. Gottesheim

 

GM Gottesheim

Battalions

Companies

Squadrons

Total

Heavy Guns

Horses

Austrians

3

 

14

3090

 

2045

K.K.  45  Line Infantry Regiment  Freiherr Franz von Lattermann – II and III  Battalions.

2476

I Battalion. of 4th Grenzregiment Carlstädt Szluiner (1st Szluiner Battalion)

614

 

K.K. 1st Light Dragoons Regiment “Emperor” Kaiser Franz II  - 6 Squadrons

They had 6 Squadrons. on three divisions. Commander: Oberst Franz Freiherr von Pilati.

II Division ObstLt. Baron Karl Kölbel – III Division Major Bernard Kees

888

Main Army Center - Hauptarmée

FZM Paul Kray de Krajowa et Topolya

Staff – Lieut.Colonel De Pest, Obersten Beschinnyi, Herlitz, Neugebauer, Captains Hippert, Troyer– Oberst Marchetti, major Bicking, Obersten Hirsch, Erden, Odelke, major Volkmann, Captains Foyt, Mumb

FZM Paul Kray

Battalions

Companies

Squadrons

Total

Heavy Guns

Horses

Austrians

54

 

38

35075

20

5490

Austrian Division -  FML Johann Zoph

 
 

Grenadiers Brigade Generalmajor Christoph Freiherr von Lattermann

 

Substituting Generalmajor Lusignan prisoner of war

 

K.K. Grenadier Battalion Graf Carl Paar

499

K.K. Grenadier Battalion Oblt Franz Xavier Weber von Treuenfeld

602

 

K.k Grenadier Battalion Graf Anton Schiaffinati

598

 

K.K. Grenadier Battalion Major Johann Graf Morzin

521

 

K.K. Grenadier Battalion major Franz Wouwermanns

492

K.K. Hungarian  Grenadier Battalion OberstLeutnant Johann Pértussy

592

 

K.k Grenadier Battalion Oberleutnant Ferdinand Pers

482

K.K. Grenadier Battalion Freiherr Carl von Görschen

615

 

Grenadiers Brigade FML Johann Ludwig Alexander Alformerius Frh. von Loudon

 

K.K. Grenadier Battalion Oberleutnant Carl Soudain

358

K.K. Grenadier Battalion Graf Otto von Hohenfeld

575

K.K. Grenadier Battalion Graf Nikolaus Weissenwolf

646

K.k Grenadier Battalion Oberleutnant Franz von Neny

579

 

Feldbrigade General-Major Freiherr Anton von Mittrowsky

 

K.K.  36  Line Infantry Regiment  Fürst Carl Fürstenberg  I, II, III Battalions.

2157

K.K.  18  Line Infantry Regiment  Graf Patrick Stuart - I II III Battalions.

2363

Austrian Division -  former FML Joseph Johannes Heinrich Graf Bellegarde [xi]

 
 

Feldbrigade Generalmajor Friedrich Bellegarde

 

K.K.  33 Line Regiment. Graf Anton Sztaray – I,II and III  Battalions.

1802

K.K.  32 Hungarian Line Regiment. Graf Samuel Gyulai - I,II,III Battalions.

1785

Feldbrigade Graf Ferdinand Johann Morzin and, after, Generalmajor Carl Adorján [xii]

 

K.K.  28  Line Infantry Regiment Freiherr Michael von Fröhlich – ½ III Battalion

713

K.K.  19 Hungarian Line Regiment. Freiherr Jozsef Alvinczy de Berberek – 3 Battalions.

2171

K.K.  15 Line Regiment. Oranien Prinz Wilhelm- I,II  Battalions.

1721

Feldbrigade Generalmajor Friedrich Freiherr von Seckendorff

 

K.K.  8 Line Regiment. (former Huff Regiment) - I,II,III Battalions.

1809

K.K.  16 Line Regiment Freiherr Ludwig Terzy

Commander: Graf Franz Khevenuller-Metsch – I,II and 1/3 of III Battalion

832

Austrian Division -  Generalmajor Carl Peter Ott de Batorkéz

He will leave to Gottesheim the command of the center-left (front of Coni)

 

Feldbrigade Generalmajor Johann Graf Alcaini

 

K.K.  40 Hungarian   Line Infantry Regiment  GM Graf Joseph Mittrowsky – I, II, III Battalions

1106

K.K.  13  Line Infantry Regiment Freiherr Franz Wenzel Reisky von Dubnitz – I, II, III Battalions

1638

Feldbrigade GM Graf Johann Franz Seraphin von Saint Julien Walsee

 

K.K.  4 Line Regiment Hoch und Deutschmeister – Erz. Maximilian von Köln

Commander: Obst Carl von Brixen - I, II, III Battalions. – the Grenadiers being with Hohenfeld Battalion

1090

K.K.  48  Hungarian  Line Infantry Regiment Frh. Philipp von Vukassovich – I, II Battalions

659

Feldbrigade Generalmajor Anton Graf Mignot de Bussy

 

K.K.  39  Line Hungarian  Infantry Regiment Graf Támas Nádasdy – I, II and III  Battalions

1131

K.K.  10  Line Infantry Regiment  (former  Regiment Kheul) –I and III   Battalion.

1011

Austrian Cavalry Division -  Generalmajor Fürst Johann von Liechtenstein

 

Feldbrigade Generalmajor Anton Freiherr von Elsnitz

 

K.K. 8th Light Dragoon Regiment Friedrich Wilhelm Carl Herzog Württemberg- 6 Squadrons

Commander: Oberst Johann Festenberg Freiherr von Hassenwein, (1 - 2 – 3 div. - 6 Squadrons) – II div. Oberstlieutenant Johann Wodniansky – III div. Oberstlieutenant Isaias ritter von Janding – Major David Hilscher

978

K.K. 4th Light Dragoons Regiment GM Andreas Frh. von Karacsaj de Vale-Sakam - 6 Squadrons

Had 6 Squadrons. Commander: Oberst Joseph Graf Nimptsch.

914

Feldbrigade Generalmajor Graf Johann Nobili

 

K.K. 10th Light Dragoons Regiment GdC Joseph Fürst Lobkowitz - 6 Squadrons

(had 6 Squadrons. on 3 divisions I II and III ) Commander: Oberst Marquis Hannibal Sommariva – Second Oberst and Commander Max Joseph Fürst Thurn und Taxis. II Division ObstLt. Alois Graf Harrach – III Division Major Ignatz Molitor

827

K.K. 14th Light Dragoons Regiment Franz Freiherr von Levenehr 6 Squadrons.

Commander: Oberst  Joseph Zinn.  promoted Generalmajor in 1799 (it had 6 Squadrons On 3 div. I – II - III)

II Division ObLt. Josef Prohaska – III Division Oblt Franz Graf Latour - Majore: Quirin Bommer; the former Major count Albert Unverzagt had been missing at Cassano.

663

Feldbrigade Generalmajor Nikolaus Joseph Pálffy von Erdöd

 

K.K. 3rd Light Dragoons Regiment FM Erzherzog Johann Baptist – 6 Squadrons

Commander: Count Charles De La Motte (in 1799 promoted Generalmajor) - Obst.Leutn.: Count Joseph Gavre (in 1800 promoted Oberst) - Major: Hermann Nesslinger

1030

K.K. 2nd Hussar regiment Erzherzog Joseph Anton – 8 Squadrons

The «Light Blue Hussars» had 8 Squadrons. and four divisions. Commander: Oberst Vincenz Freiherr Knesevich

II Division ObstLt. Gabriel von Hertellendy – III Division 1st Major Emmerich Dobay – IV Division 2nd Major  Ignaz baron Splenyi

1078

Austrian Rearguard Sicherung Corps - Alessandria

 

GM Karacsaj

Battalions

Companies

Squadrons

Total

Heavy Guns

Horses

Austrians

9

 

8

4966

 

1073

Feldbrigade Generalmajor Andreas Freiherr Karacsaj de Vale-Sakam

 

K.K.  28 Line Regiment. Freiherr Michael von Fröhlich I – II and ½ III Battalions.

1641

 

(the former Regiment Wartensleben)  Commander: Oberst Franz Eder von Hartenstein – some companies at Brà with Kray

   

K.K.  34 Hungarian   Line Infantry Regiment (the former Regiment Esterházy) – I, II, III Battalions. with Grenadiers

??

 

(no Inhaber. The future  Frh. Kraj de Kraiova) Commander: Oberst Johann Hillinger

   

VII Combined Battalion Grenzregiment Warasdiner of Varazdin

   

K.K. 5th  Hussar Regiment 2 Squadrons Commander 2nd Major Wilhelm Fulda - It had 6 Squadrons. On 3 Divisions I, II and III  in reserve. The IV div. was in Croatia as garrison. Commander: Obst Anton Freiherr von Révay – II Division ObstLt. Freiherr Andreas Szörenyi – 2nd Major Wilhelm Fulda

175

Army Right Wing and Turin

FML Conrad Valentin Kaim

FML Valentin Kaim

Battalions

Companies

Squadrons

Total

Heavy Guns

 

Austrians

9

 

12

6412

 

1691

Feldbrigade Generalmajor Freiherr Josef Philipp von Vukassovich           

   

Oberst Sebastian (Sava) Prodanovich or Brodanovich) from regiment of Rumenian Banat

   

KK  52  Hungarian Regiment Erzherzog Palatin Anton Viktor - 2 Battalions.

1715

 

K.K. 7th Hungarian  Light Infantry Battalion. Oberst Wilhelm Ludwig Otto

203

III Battalion Grenzregiment of Banat (or II/12 GR Deutschbanater - Major Anton Zedtwitz)

748

 

II Battalion Grenzregiment of Banat (I/13th GrenzRegiment) – Siebenbürgen-Wallachen

335

 

V Battalion Banater Grenzregiment

614

 

Feldbrigade Generalmajor Graf Joseph Johann Saint Julien-Wallsee

 

½ Battalion. K.K. 6th Light Infantry Major Carl Freiherr von Trauttenberg (serbian-croatian)

 

K.K. Jäger Korps Major Johann Le Loup (2companies - Dutch)

 

K.K. 13th Hungarian Light Infantry Major Jozséf de Munkátsy - ½ Battalion.

 

K.K. 1st Light Dragoons Regiment “Emperor” Kaiser Franz II  - 2 Squadrons

 

K.K. 7th ?? Hussar Regiment 3 Squadrons

Commander: Oberst Carl Freiherr von Schauroth. With 4 Squadrons

II Division (see after) Obstlt. Graf Thomas Dessöffy (dead at Parona) then Major Franz Szabo – III Division 1st Major Szabo then Major Joszef Meszko – IV div. 2nd Major Joszef Meszko then Major Felix Graf Montecuccoli

   

Feldbrigade Generalmajor Oberst Ludwig Wolff de la Marseille   

 

K.K.  58 Line Regiment. Freiherr Peter von Beaulieu – combined Battalion

251

K.K.  9 Line Regiment. (former Clerfayt) I Battalion - Commander: Obst Ludwig Wolff de la Marseille

274

K.K. 9th Hussar Regiment FML Johann Nepomuk Graf Erdödy de Monyorókerek 4 Squadrons

Commander: Freiherr Franz Stephaics – II div. – ObstLt. Constantin von Ettingshausen – III div. major Graf Franz Sermage

607

 

Turin Besetzung Korps

 

K.K.  38 Line Regiment. Herzog Ferdinand von Württemberg - ½ I Battalion.

 

K.K.  30  Infantry Regiment Fürst Carl Joseph de Ligne - ½ III Battalion.

 

Milizia Reale Piemontese – (Piedmontese Royal Milice) 10 Battalions.

??

(Heertheil) Schweizerische Grenze Sicherung Korps

FML Karl Joseph Graf Hadik von Futak [xiii]

FML Hadik

Battalions

Companies

Squadrons

Total

Heavy Guns

Horse

Austrians

20 ??

6

4

14491

 

528

Oberwallis Sicherung Korps – 6 Battalions – 3 companies - 1 squadron

 

Feldbrigade Oberst Gottfried Freiherr von Strauch 

 

K.K. Jäger Korps Major Johann Le Loup (3 companies - Dutch)

 

K.K. 11th Light Infantry Battalion. Obst Graf Georg Simon de Carneville (istrian)

 

K.K.  11  regiment  (former Graf Michael Wallis) – I and II Battalions.

 

K.K.  46 Line Regiment. Freiherr Franz von Neugebauer – combined Battalion

 

IV Battalion 6th Grenzregiment Warasdiner-St.Georger or II Battalion/6th GR Major Vukassovic ?

 

I Battalion Banal Grenzregiment or I Battalion - 11th Banal Regiment of Petrinja

 

K.K. 9th Hussar Regiment FML Johann Nepomuk Graf Erdödy de Monyorókerek 1 Sqn.

 

Aosta-tal Sicherung Korps (Aosta valley) – 7 Battalions – 3 Squadrons and ½ - 14 guns

Gruppe Generalmajor Karl Joseph Graf Hadik von Futak 

 

K.K. 2nd Light Infantry Battalion Oberst Carl Prince of Rohan (Italian Battalion)

 

K.K.  23 Line Regiment. Grossherzog Ferdinand von Toscana – I, II and III  Battalions

 

K.K.  47 Line Regiment. Graf Franz Kinsky– I, II Battalions

 

K.K.  37 Line Regiment. (former De Vins) – I, II Battalions

 

K.K. 7th  Hussar Regiment 3 Squadrons Commander: Oberst Carl Freiherr von Schauroth. With 4 Squadrons  II Division (see after) Obstlt. Graf Thomas Dessöffy (dead at Parona) then Major Franz Szabo – III Division 1st Major Szabo then Major Joszef Meszko – IV div. 2nd Major Joszef Meszko then Major Felix Graf Montecuccoli

 

Simplon pass Sicherung Korps – 2 Battalions – 3 companies -  ½ Squadrons

Feldbrigade Oberst Prinz Victor von Rohan 

 

K.K. 14th Light infantry Battalion. Oberst Prince Ludwig (Louis) Rohan 

 

K.K. Jäger Korps Major Johann Le Loup (3companies - Dutch)

 

K.K.  52 Hungarian Line Regiment. Erzherzog Palatin Anton Viktor - III Battalion.

 

K.K. 7th  Hussar Regiment detachment

 

Austrian Garrisons

Garrisons

Battalions

Companies

Squadrons

Total

Heavy Guns

Horse

Austrians

25

12

 

15595

   

Piedmont

K.K.  38 Line Regiment. Herzog Ferdinand von Württemberg - ½ I Battalion.

Alessandria

427

K.K.  44  Line Infantry Regiment (former Belgiojoso) Commander: Oberst Freiherr Philipp von Brentano-Cimaroli  I Battalion.

Alessandria

776

K.K.  44  Line Infantry Regiment (former Belgiojoso) Commander: Oberst Freiherr Philipp von Brentano-Cimaroli  II Battalion.

Tortona

776

K.K.  44  Line Infantry Regiment (former Belgiojoso) Commander: Oberst Freiherr Philipp von Brentano-Cimaroli  III Battalion.

Ceva ??

776

K.K.  30 Infantry Regiment Fürst Carl Joseph de Ligne - ½ III Battalion.

Serravalle

399

Lombardy - Venetia

K.K.  55  Infantry Regiment Graf Joseph Murray de Melgum – ½ I Battalion.

Pavia & Piacenza

403

K.K.  24  Line Infantry Regiment  (former von Preiss Regiment) Commander: Oberst Carl Philipp von Weidenfeld

Milan

1839

K.K.  48  Hungarian  Line Infantry Regiment Frh. Philipp von Vukassovich

1 Company of the III Battalion.

Peschiera

154

K.K.  45  Line Infantry Regiment  Freiherr Franz von Lattermann – I Battalion.

Mantua

434

K.K.  59  Line Infantry Regiment FML Alexander von Jordis  - III Battalion – 1 Company

of the regimental Depot at Verona

Mantua

160

K.K.  53  Line Infantry Regiment GM Johann Jellacic Graf de Buzim – III Battalion, 2 companies

Mantua

194

K.K. 17th Light infantry Battalion. Buonaccorsi - Major Giovanni Giuseppe Cavaliere de Buonaccorsi – former regular piedmontese troops – 6 companies

Mantua

900

K.K. FeldJäger-Corps Brentano-Cimarolli Commander: Oberst Freiherr Philipp von Brentano-Cimarolli - former regular piedmontese troops – 6 companies

Mantua

900

K.K.  15 Line Regiment. Oranien Prinz Wilhelm- III  Battalion.

Verona

523

K.K.  37 Line Regiment. former Freiherr Joseph de Vins – I, II Battalions.

Verona

655

K.K.  46 Line Regiment. Freiherr Franz von Neugebauer – I,II Battalion

Tirol

527

K.K.  26 Line Regiment. Freiherr Wilhelm Schröder von Lilienhoff – 3 Battalions.

Venice

1667

I Battalion 2nd Grenzregiment Carlstädt-Otoschatz (Otočac) former 2nd Carlstadt Battalion.

Istria

2314

II Battalion 2nd Grenzregiment Carlstädt-Otoschatz (Otočac) former 3rd Carlstadt Battalion.

« 

« 

IV Battalion Banal Grenzregiment or II Battalion 10th GrenzRegiment of Glina

Istria

783

I Battalion 1st Grenzregiment Carlstädt-Liccaner (Lika)

Istria

988

Notes:

[i] General brigadier Pierre Poinsot, was born at Châlons (Saône-et-Loire) on February 7, 1764. Had the first military duty in Corsica under Marboeuf and then was Dragoon at the 11th regiment. On May 31, 1792 he asked to join the republican army becaming a captain of the Legion du Nord. Fought under Dumouriez and became adjoudant-général on February 25, 1793, going, four months later, in the Pyrénées-Orientales army. For a brilliant attack against the Spanish troops he was promoted brigadier general (August 7) and fought at camp de la Perche, in the Cerdagne campaign and in other minor clashes. He was prevented from the service for having had been a Garde du Roi (cavalry royal Home Guard) before the revolution, but general Dugommier was able to maintain him on duty as brigadier in the Rhine front. He retired in 1798 serving in the Mainz army. The necessity to employ superior officers with the Alps corps determined his recall to duty, in 1799, serving under Championnet and then under Massena at Genoa. Leading a Gazan division brigade he distinguished himself at Campofreddo, Sassello and other guerrilla fights; then Massena gave him the command of the Reserve division (??). After the end of the Genoa siege, he remained in Italy under Brune and Moncey, ceasing the activity in 1802. He was soon recalled and charged with territorial or colonial commands (18th terr. Division, Santo Domingo Rochambeau expedition, Walcheren island, corps d’observation de la Gironde). In 1808 he was named baron of the Empire with the name of Chansac. On November 13, 1809 he was at Paris and then in Spain, with the army od Spain (1809) and Portugal (1810). On July 2, 1811 he was put in retirement and continued to serve organizing cavalry squadrons for the territorial units and in the Grande Armée (2nd cavalry Corps - 1812). Taken prisoner he returned in France in 1814, retiring again on December 24. He died on July 30, 1833.

[ii]Général-de-brigade Jean Louis Gaspard Josnet de Laviolais (1753-1822). Born on January 22, 1753, he was named général-de-brigade on March 2, 1794 and inscribed for being employed in the colonial armies. For some years he fought in the Vendée. In 1799 he was part of the Alps’ staff like the “ancient” generals Pellapra and d’Anselme. In 1810 he was place commander in the 12th military district, then he retired. Died: January 9, 1822

[iii] Général-de-brigade Philibert Fressinet. Born: 21 July 1767,Adjudant General Chef de Brigade: 10 June 1796. In campaign against Piedmontese Insurgency 1798-1799. Promoted General de Brigade: 25 March 1799. He had some administrative and military tasks during the campaign and was ordered to lead a brigade after Novi battle. General de Division: 6 September 1813. Commander of the Legion d’Honneur: 8 August 1813. Baron of the Empire: 3 May 1813. Died: 2 August 1821

[iv]In the place of chef.-de-brigade Jean Juignet, the unit was under Chef-de-Brigade Pierre Margaron, wounded at Novi. Born at Lyon (Rhône: May 1, 1765, he was in the armies du Nord and of the Sambre-et- Meuse. Named provisional Chef-de-Brigade of the 1st Cavalry, on December 23, 1798 (he was officially confirmed in this rank on December 3, 1799) he fought in Italy at the Trebbia and Novi, where he suffered a wound. Later, at Fossano, while performing a mission given by Championnet, he suffered a second severe wound which fractured his right leg. He was General-de-Brigade on August 29, 1803 after a brilliant 1800 campaign. Wounded at Austerlitz he retired until 1806, when he was recalled on duty. In 1807 was in the Observation Corps of Gironde and then in the French Portugal army under Junot. He became General de Division on August 16, 1813 in the ranks of the Grande Armée. Commander of the Legion d'Honneur: June 14, 1804, Baron of the Empire: January 29, 1809, Died at Paris on December 16, 1824.

[v] On May 4,1798, the adjudant général Georges-Jacques Wolff, of the armée d'Italie, was named chef de brigade of the 14th Cavalry in place of the dismissed Grieu, confirmed on May 16, 1798.

[vi] On September 3, 1799, Ythier-Sylvain Pryvé, chef d'escadron attached to the 13th dragoons and future general, replaced, in the 21st Cavalry Regiment, a second commander of the Versailles Training Cavalry School named Maurice Dufort, and became chef de brigade and commander of the unit.

[vii] général de brigade Julien-Augustin-Joseph Mermet, Born: 9 May 1772. Provisional Chef de Brigade: 5 March 1797. General de Brigade: 1 January 1796. Chef of 10th hussars, from August 22, 1797 confirmed in the rank of general brigadier with the treatment of a chef de brigade. General de Division: 1 February 1805. Grand Officer of the Legion d'Honneur: 23 August 1813. Baron of the Empire: 2 August 1811. Died: 28 October 1837.

[viii] General of division Jean Pierre Pouget (1761-1825). Really not an outstanding commander, he was brigadier on November 16, 1793, provisional general of division on April 3, 1794. He had the command of the Susa garrison in 1796 and then was also a provisional commander at Milan, before taking the staff of the Alpes maritimes department (November 31, 1796). He maintained this charge till 1799 and after, being often criticized for his military clumsiness. In 1810 he was transferred to the 2nd military district of the Marne. Died in 1825.

[ix] Général Jean-Louis Pellapra (Montelimar 1739-1808) The Sixty years old general Pellapra was an old glory of the War in the Alps, serving and sometimes provisionally commanding the armée des Alpes from December 23, 1793 till January 21, 1794. In 1799 he was at Grenoble with another “old glory”, the general D’Anselme. Died on March 25, 1808.

[x] Chef de Brigade Jean-Baptiste Rivet. Born: 14 November 1748, Chef de Brigade: 31 December 1794 (53e demi-brigade de bataille); Chef de Brigade: 12 May 1796 (10e demi-brigade d'Infanterie) General de Brigade: 9 February 1796 (Rivet however refused the promotion). Fought at Morozzo and Genola. Died: 1805

[xi] By order of the Hofkriegsrat (August 13) Bellegarde was recalled to Vienna. He received the written paper at Asti on August 20 and gave the command of his troops to the prince Liechtenstein; the units, however, were distributed between Ott and other Corps. After the viennese period he reached Prague at the Suvorov’s headquarters, as Austrian attaché.

[xii] Former commander of the K.K.  19 Line Hungarian , was promoted provisional brigadier (Generalmajor) on October 2 and confirmed in rank on October 13. After having substituted general Morzin in the command of his brigade, he unluckily died at the Genola battle.

[xiii] On September 13 the French advanced through Chatillon and Ussel and sent a column of about 2000 men on the Ayasgebirg in order to link with a second column going down the Sesia valley from Domodossola through Bogogna, with the task to attack the prince Rohan. Hadik, worrying to be outflanked, gathered his troops in the Champorciere valley marching to Pont Saint Martin to defend the lower Gressoney valley. However, for the opponents superiority he was forced to retreat till Ivrea, leaving back only the fort Bard garrison.

 

Placed on the Napoleon Series: May 2009

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