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Autumn 1808

Changes

14 November 1808

Craddock Takes Command 

6 January 1809

Re-inforcing General Moore

More Changes

Re-inforcements

Spring 1809

6 April 1809


The British Army in Portugal and Spain: Its Order-of-Battle (June 1808 - April 1809)

Part IV: The British Garrison in Portugal

By Ron McGuigan

Autumn 1808

The garrison in Portugal on 26 September 1808, was to consist of:

Commanding the force: Lieutenant General Sir Harry Burrard

Appointed to the Staff:

Major General John Murray

Major General John Randoll Mackenzie

Brigadier General Richard Stewart

Brigadier General George de Drieberg

Brigadier General Ernest Baron Langwerth

Brigadier General Alan Cameron

Deputy Adjutant General: Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Carey

Deputy Quarter Master General: Colonel Rufane Donkin

Lieutenant Colonel Carey and Colonel Donkin had served as the Deputies of these departments with Burrard's force.

Units:

Cavalry
4 Troops, 20th Light Dragoons (327)

Detachment 3rd Light Dragoons King's German Legion(145)

Infantry

2nd Regiment (771)

1/3rd Regiment (940)

1/9th Regiment (925)

2/9th Regiment (644)

20th Regiment (578)

29th Regiment (777)

1/40th Regiment (926)

1/45th Regiment (872)

1/50th Regiment (937)

1/82nd Regiment (932)

97th Regiment (695)

1st Line Battalion King's German Legion (930)

2nd Line Battalion King's German Legion (756)

5th Line Battalion King's German Legion (745)

7th Line Battalion King's German Legion (671)

Garrison Company (49) King's German Legion

Artillery: Lieutenant Colonel William Robe and Major Julius Hartmann

Bredin's Company

Lawson's Half-Company

1st Company [Gesenius] King's German Legion

2nd Company [Tieling] King's German Legion

4th Company [Heise] King's German Legion

The guns of which were 5 brigades of spare guns consisting of one brigade of 12 pounders, three brigades of light 6 pounders and and one brigade of 3 pounders with some howitzers.

Changes

Due to the high number of sick in the regiments chosen to go into Spain, Lt General Burrard added the 2nd Regiment, 1/9th Regiment, an the 20th Regiment to Lieutenant General Moore's Army. On 13 October, Lt General Burrard received orders to retain in Portugal eight regiments [including 4 of the King's German Legion], 20th Light Dragoons and artillery. The remainder were to go with Lieutenant General Moore's force. On 18 October, Brigadier General John Sontag [Sontag being one of a number of officers used by Lord Castlereagh to report on the affairs in Portugal] was left in Lisbon to look after the sick and forward supplies to the army in Spain.

By 22 October, Moore had ordered the 1/3rd Regiment and the 1/50th Regiment to join his army.

Lieutenant General Burrard was recalled by 1 November. He resigned the command and left Lisbon on 18 November, leaving Brigadier General R. Stewart in temporary command in Portugal. (Two officers who were senior to him were not available. Major General Murray was not in Portugal at this time and Major General Mackenzie was serving with Baird's Corps.) Mackenzie was recalled to Lisbon, taking command by 29 November. Lieutenant General Sir John Cradock was appointed to the command in early November. He sailed for Portugal on 3 December 1808.

The 3/27th Regiment and 2/31st Regiment from Baird's Corps arrived on 1 November. On 20 November, an order was received to send two weak battalions [3/27th and 2/31st] to Gibraltar in exchange for the 1/48th and 1/61st Regiments which were to join Moore's army. Cradock was informed that another cavalry regiment was being sent out and that the detachment of the 20th Light Dragoons could be sent to join their regiment [in Sicily].

On 1 November, Lieutenant Colonel Robe reported the artillery in Portugal consisted of nine light 6 pounders and three 5½ inch light howitzers in two brigades [originally landed with Wellesley's force]; five medium 12 pounders, five heavy or long 6 pounders and two 5½ inch heavy howitzers in two brigades which were still on board ship, never having been landed; four medium 12 pounders, twelve light 6 pounders, two 5½ inch heavy howitzers and two 5½ inch light howitzers in three brigades for the King's German Legion artillery and four light 3 pounders and two [actually four] 5½ inch light howitzers in one brigade from Gibraltar. This made a total of 52 guns available to be horsed and sent forward to Moore's army, if requested by Colonel Harding. Harding had thought that he might require the heavy guns sent forward.

14 November 1808

On 14 November the stations of the garrison were reported as:

Lisbon:
2/9th Regiment

3/27th Regiment

1/29th Regiment

2/31st Regiment

1st Line Battalion King's German Legion

2nd Line Battalion King's German Legion

5th Line Battalion King's German Legion

7th Line Battalion King's German Legion

Garrison Company King's German Legion

20th Light Dragoons

Detachment 3rd Light Dragoons King's German Legion

Artillery:

Bredin's Company

Lawson's Half-Company

2nd Company King's German Legion

4th Company King's German Legion

Oporto:

1/45th Regiment

1/82nd Regiment

97th Regiment

1st Artillery Company King's German Legion

Elvas: 1/40th Regiment

Craddock Takes Command

When Lieutenant General Cradock assumed command on 14 December 1808, the garrison consisted of:

The Staff:

Major General John Murray

Major General John Leveson Gower

Major General John Randoll Mackenzie

Brigadier General Richard Stewart

Brigadier General John Sontag

Brigadier General George de Drieberg

Brigadier General Ernest Baron Langwerth

Brigadier General Alan Cameron

Deputy Quarter Master General: Colonel Rufane Donkin

Deputy Adjutant General: Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Duncan Darroch

Units:

20th Light Dragoons

Detachment 3rd Light Dragoons King's German Legion

2/9th Regiment

29th Regiment

1/40th Regiment

1/45th Regiment

97th Regiment

1st Line Battalion King's German Legion

2nd Line Battalion King's German Legion

5th Line Battalion King's German Legion

7th Line Battalion King's German Legion

Garrison Company King's German Legion

Major Generals Murray and Leveson Gower were not in Portugal at this time. Other units in the garrison included:

1/3rd Regiment

5/60th Regiment which arrived back from Spain

3/27th Regiment and 2/31st Regiment from Baird's Corps.

Major General Stapleton Cotton and 8 Troops 14th Light Dragoons (672) from England arrived on 21/22 December.

On 24 December, six light 3 pounders with limbers were embarked in England for service in Portugal.

6 January 1809

The stations of the Portuguese Garrison on 6 January 1809 were:

Lisbon: Lieutenant General Cradock; Major General Cotton; Brigadier General Sontag and Brigadier General Baron Langwerth.

One-half of the 20th Light Dragoon

One-half of the 14th Light Dragoons

Detachment 3rd Light Dragoons, King's German Legion attached

29th Regiment

5 companies 5/60th Regiment

1st Line Battalion King's German Legion

2nd Line Battalion King's German Legion

Garrison Company King's German Legion

Artillery: Lieutenant Colonel William Robe and Major Julius Hartmann

Bredin's Company, 8th Battalion

Lawson's Half-Company, 8th Battalion

1st Company [Gesenius] King's German Legion

2nd Company [Tieling] King's German Legion

4th Company [Heise] King's German Legion

Almeida:Brigadier General Cameron

1/3rd Regiment

1/45th Regiment

97th Regiment

Santarem:Brigadier Generals Stewart and Drieberg

one-half 20th Light Dragoons

2/31st Regiment

5th Line Battalion King's German Legion

7th Line Battalion King's German Legion

Sacavem: Major General Mackenzie

one-half 14th Light Dragoons

2/9th Regiment

3/27th Regiment

5 companies 5/60th Regiment

Elvas: Colonel James Kemmis and 1/40th Regiment

Re-inforcing General Moore

Lieutenant General Cradock had tried to reinforce Moore's army in early December by sending forward Brigadier General Cameron with the 1/45th Regiment, 1/82nd Regiment, and the 97th Regiment. Only the 1/82nd Regiment got through and the others turned back. Sometime betwen 26-29 December, Brigadier Generals R. Stewart and Drieberg with the 29th Regiment, 2/31st Regiment, 5th Battalion and 7th Line Battalion King's German Legion, and half-brigades of light 6 pounders under Lawson and Rettberg were sent to reinforce Moore' s army; however, they only reached Castello Branco and on 8 January they turned back to Abrantes. On 5 January, Brigadier General Cameron, with 1/45th Regiment 97th Regiment and the convalescents of Moore's army, advanced again into Spain, but on 9 January news of Moore's retreat caused him to return. Lieutenant General Cradock, on 14 January, ordered a Brigade [probably commanded by Major General Mackenzie] of 14th Light Dragoons, 2/9th Regiment, and 3/27th Regiment to embark for Vigo and try to reach Moore's army from there. While still in the Tagus, news of Moore's retreat caused them to disembark.

More Changes

In February 1809, Major General Mackenzie was despatched to Cadiz with the 2/9th Regiment, the 29th Regiment, the 3/27th Regiment, and Major Hartmann with Bredin's Company Royal Artillery and the 4th Company [Heise] King's German Legion Artillery. They were again refused permission to land and returned 11March. Colonel Kemmis with the 1/40th Regiment was sent to garrison Seville.

In January and February 1809, Brigadier General Cameron had organized two battalions of detachments from soldiers of Moore's army left behind when that army went to Spain. Later more of the sick and the stragglers from Moore's army in Spain were added. On 6 February, they numbered about 1,463 rank and file.

Reinforcements continued to arrive. On 4 March, more Royal Artillery landed:

May's Company 1st Battalion (127)

Sillery's Company 7th Battalion (120)

Glubb's Company 10th Battalion (93)

Re-inforcements from Home

The Government had ordered out more reinforcements in December 1808 for Spain [they sailed 15 January 1809]. With news of Corunna, they were sent to Cadiz instead. Refused admittance they went to Lisbon, arriving by 13th March 1809. The force consisted of:

Commanding the force: Major General John Sherbrooke

Guards Brigade: Brigadier General Henry Campbell
1/Coldstream Foot Guards (1120)

1/3rd Foot Guards (1361) [This was the 2nd Guards Brigade as organized in Great Britain since 1803]

Tilson's Brigade: Major General Christopher Tilson

2/87th Regiment (710)

1/88th Regiment (758)

[The 2/83rd Regiment was also ordered, but did not embark with the other units and May's Company 1st Battalion Royal Artillery had been sent, from Lisbon, to meet this force at Cadiz and returned with it in March]

The Spring of 1809

On 18 March the British Garrison in Portugal stood as:

Commanding the force: Lieutenant General Cradock

Second-in-command: Major General Sherbrooke

Brigades of Major General Cotton and Brigadier General Stewart; 14th Light Dragoons with detachment 3rd Light Dragoons King's German Legion; 2/9th Regiment, 29th Regiment, 97th Regiment, and 5 companies 5/60th Regiment

Guards Brigade: Brigadier General Campbell; 1/Coldstream Foot Guards and1/3rd Foot Guards

Brigades of Major General Mackenzie and Brigadier General Cameron; 3/27th Regiment, 2/31st Regiment, 1/45th Regiment, 5 companies 5/60th Regiment, and the 1st Battalion of Detachments

King's German Legion: Major General Murray with Brigadier Generals Drieberg and Langwerth; 1st Line Battalion; 2nd Line Battalion; 5th Line Battalion; 7th Line Battalion; detachments Light Battalions, and the Garrison Company

Brigades of Major General Tilson and Brigadier General Sontag, 20th Light Dragoons; 1/3rd Regiment 2/87th Regiment 1/88 Regiment 2nd Battalion of Detachments

At Seville: 1/40th Regiment

The Artillery: On 23 March, the artillery under Lieutenant Colonel William Robe and Major Julius Hartmann was: 

May's Company 1st Battalion (light 6 pounders with the Guards)

Sillery's Company 7th Battalion (light 6 Pounders)

Bredin's Company 8th Battalion (reserve 6 pounders in Lisbon)

Lawson's Company 8th Battalion (light 3 pounders with the cavalry)

Glubb's Company 10th Battalion (in Cascaes)

1st Company [Gesenius] King's German Legion (Fort St Julian)

2nd Company [Tieling] King's German Legion (Light 6 pounders)

4th Company [Heise] (heavy guns or position artillery as required) King's German Legion

The garrison continued to be reinforced as the British were reluctant to give up Portugal. In April, Colonel Edward Howorth arrived to command the artillery. On 2 April, Lieutenant Colonel Hoylet Framingham and Lieutenant Colonel George Fisher of the artillery also arrived.

On 5 April reinforcements from Cork arrived under Major General Rowland Hill and Brigadier General Alexander Campbell:

2/7th Regiment

2/30th Regiment

2/48th Regiment

2/53rd Regiment

2/66th Regiment

2/83rd Regiment

The Re-organization of 6 April 1809

the force was re-organized 6th April as:

First Line:

King's German Legion: Major General Murray with Brigadier Generals Drieberg and Langwerth
1st Line Battalion King's German Legion (748)

2nd Line Battalion King's German Legion (801)

5th Line Battalion King's German Legion (765)

7th Line Battalion King's German Legion (721)

Garrison Company King's German Legion (49)

detachment Light Battalions King's German Legion (144)

Guards Brigade: Brigadier General H. Campbell,

1/Coldstream Foot Guards (1198)

1/3rd Foot Guards (1229)

Mackenzie's Brigade: Major General Mackenzie

3/27th Regiment (811)

2/31st Regiment (784)

1/45th Regiment (856)

Tilson's Brigade: Major General Tilson

1/3rd Regiment (856)

2/87th Regiment (710)

1/88 Regiment (758)

Stewart's Brigade: Brigadier General Stewart

29th Regiment (726)

1st Battalion of Detachments (828)

 

Second Line:

Sontag's Brigade: Brigadier General Sontag
97th Regiment (660)

2nd Battalion of Detachments (731)

Campbell's Brigade: Brigadier General A. Campbell

2/7th Regiment (576)

2/53rd Regiment (699)

Cameron's Brigade: Brigadier General Cameron

2/30th Regiment (630)

2/83rd Regiment (850)

Reserve:

Cavalry Brigade: Major General Cotton
8 Troops 14th Light Dragoons (672)

Detachment 3rd Light Dragoons King's German Legion (123)

4 troops 20th Light Dragoons (304)

Hill's Brigade: Major General Hill

2/48th Regiment (717)

5/60th Regiment (838)

2/66th Regiment (667)

In Lisbon: 2/9th Regiment (645)

At Seville: 1/40th Regiment (871)

On 10 April, the artillery (949) was organized as: Colonel Howorth, Lieutenant Colonel Framingham, Lieutenant Colonel Robe, Lieutenant Colonel Fisher and Major Hartmann

May's Company [under Baynes] of five light 6 pounders and one 5½ inch howitzer

Sillery's Company [under Lane] of four light 6 pounders and two 5½ inch howitzers

Lawson's Company of six light 3 pounders

Tieling's Company [under Rettberg] King's German Legion of five light 6 pounders and one 5½ inch howitzer

Heise's Company King's German Legion of five heavy or long 6 pounders and one 5½ inch howitzer

Bredin's Company

Glubb's Company

Gesenius's Company King's German Legion garrisoned the Lisbon forts.

On 15 April, 8 Troops 16th Light Dragoons (672) from Falmouth arrived at Lisbon.

 

When the British Government finally decided not to evacuate Portugal, but to continue the struggle, they chose Lieutenant General Sir Arthur Wellesley once again to command. He was to supersede Lieutenant General Sir John Cradock as the Commander-in-Chief in Portugal. Lieutenant General Cradock was appointed, as a Local General, the Commander-in-Chief at Gibraltar. Wellesley was informed on 2 April 1809. He arrived in Lisbon on 22 April.

 

 

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