Anglo-Allied Army in Flanders and France - 1815
By Ron McGuigan
When the Duke of Wellington arrived to take to the command of the Allied Army in early April 1815 he found mainly the original Subsidiary Army, commanded by HRH General The Prince of Orange, which had been stationed in the Low Countries since the end of the previous war in 1814. This was a small force of British and Hanoverians kept here to assist with the formation of the new country of The Netherlands and to guarantee its borders. When Napoleon left Elba and landed in France, taking over the government of that country once again, the Allied Nations at the Congress of Vienna resolved to remove him from the throne and this meant that the army in Flanders would have to be reinforced and reorganized for a war.
On 11 April 1815, Wellington issued a General Order assuming the command of the Allied Forces in Flanders and he reorganized the army, merging the British-Hanoverian Forces with those of the Netherlands. The army was reinforced over the next three months (April, May, and June) by Great Britain, The Netherlands, Hanover, Brunswick and Nassau. The army, at this time, was then made up of the forces of Great Britain (including the King’s German Legion of Hanoverians), the Hanoverian Subsidiary Corps in British pay (part of the old Subsidiary Army), the forces of the new Kingdom of the Netherlands (Dutch, Belgians, and Nassauers in Netherlands Service) and the treaty contingent forces of Hanover, Brunswick, and Nassau.
This article will trace the organization of Wellington’s Allied Army from the start of the Campaign in Flanders and France, 15 June 1815 until the end of the war and the creation of the Army of Occupation in November 1815. I have used the more common names of Dutch and Belgian to describe the units of the Netherlands Army, however, officially they were referred to as 'North Netherlands' for the Dutch and 'South Netherlands' for the Belgians. Wherever possible, names of officers have been spelled according to their country of origin, but ranks are given in English.
As sources for the British army were more readily available, I was able to identify the officers and command changes down to replacement commanders of regiments/batteries for that army which I could not do for the Allied units.
It was surprising to discover, that although the Battle of Waterloo is extensively covered, how difficult it was to compile this list. The sources were not consistent and some information almost nonexistent. Any errors and omissions are mine and I would request any corrected or updated information that the reader may possess be posted on the Napoleon-Series.org Discussion Forum for my use, as well as, for the other readers.
Anglo-Allied Army in Flanders and France - 1815
The following is the organization of the army as in General Orders: June 1815
I Corps: General HRH Prince Willem of Orange.
1st British Division: Major General George Cooke.
3rd Anglo-Hanoverian Division: Lt General Sir Karl von Alten.
2nd Netherlands Division: Lt General Hendrik Baron de Perponcher Sedlnitsky.
3rd Netherlands Division: Lt General David, Baron Chasse.
II Corps: Lt General Sir Rowland, 1st Baron Hill.
2nd Anglo-Hanoverian Division: Lt General Sir Henry Clinton.
4th Anglo-Hanoverian Division: Major General [Local Lt General] Sir Charles Colville.
Netherlands Corps: Lt General HRH Prince Frederik of the Netherlands.
Colonel Louis, Graaf van St. Aldegonde.
1st Netherlands Division: Lt General John Stedman.
Netherlands Indian Brigade: Lt General Karl, Baron Anthing.
Chief-of-Staff: Major General Hendrik de Kock .
Netherlands Artillery Reserve: Lt Colonel Godfried Holsman.
Artillery Park: (Lt Colonel Johannes de Frees)
Guides a Cheval, 1 Squadron; (Captain van Heineken)
Constabulary, 1 Squadron; (1st Lieutenant Leutner)
du Bois's Dutch Foot Battery; (Captain Lodewijk Hendrik du Bois)
Reserve Corps: Field Marshal 1st Duke of Wellington.
5th Anglo-Hanoverian Division: Lt General Sir Thomas Picton.
6th Anglo-Hanoverian Division: Lt General Sir Galbraith Lowry Cole
The Brunswick Corps: Lt General HSH Prince Friedrich, Duke of Brunswick.
Major Friedrich von Wachholtz.
Nassau Contingent: Lt General August, Baron von Kruse.
British Reserve Artillery: Major Percy Drummond.
Siege Train: Captain [Brevet Lt Colonel] Sir Alexander Dickson, G Troop, Royal Horse Artillery.
Cavalry: Lt General Sir Henry Paget, 2nd Earl of Uxbridge.
Cavalry: Major General Victor von Alten.
Netherlands Cavalry Division: Lt General Jean-Antoine, Baron de Collaert.
Hanoverian Reserve Corps: Lt General Friedrich von der Decken.
Chief of Staff:
Colonel David Martin, 2nd Light KGL.
Attached: Harzer Schutzenkorps; (Major Claus von der Decken)
Anglo-Allied Army in Flanders and France - 1815: Subsequent Changes in Command and Organization
The Battles of Quatre Bras, 16 June, and Waterloo, 18 June, resulted in grievous losses to the command structure of the Anglo-Allied Army. Additionally, reinforcements were rushed to the army to replace casualties and to increase the British Contingent. The following will detail the changes which occurred within the army between 16 June and 30 November, 1815, when the Army of Occupation was formed.
Major General [Local Lt General] Sir George Murray was appointed the Quartermaster-General from 25 June. He was en-route from British North America (originally in April, Major General Hudson Lowe had filled this position). No one was appointed the Quartermaster-General pending Murray’s return and the position was vacant. The Deputy Quartermaster-General, Brevet Colonel Sir William De Lancey, acted as the Quartermaster-General until he was mortally wound at Waterloo. He was replaced by Lt Colonel Sir Charles Broke. Major General Barnes, the Adjutant-General was severely wounded at Waterloo and would return to duty by 25 July. He was replaced by Lt Colonel John Waters until Brevet Colonel Sir John Elley, the Deputy Adjutant-General, assumed temporary command once he had recovered from his Waterloo wound. Both Lt Generals Sir Edward Paget and Sir George Ramsay, 9th Earl of Dalhousie were suggested for commands in the army in April. Paget for a Corps command and Lord Dalhousie for either a Division or another Corps. Major General Sir Henry Fane was offered a command with the cavalry when the army was forming prior to the battle. Active operations had ceased before they decided to join and they declined to serve in an army of occupation. Attached to the Quartermaster-General's Department were 3 (later 4) companies of the Royal Staff Corps under Lt Colonel [Brevet Colonel] William Nicolay. By 21 June, Major [Brevet Lt Colonel] Sir George Scovell formed the Staff Corps of Cavalry and commanded it as Major Commandant.
General HRH The Prince of Orange was wounded at Waterloo and replaced by Major-General Byng. For a time in July, HRH The Prince of Orange returned; but, he was gone to Brussels by the end of that month. He was replaced in command by local Lt General Howard in August. As General HRH The Prince of Orange was also the Commander of the Netherlands Mobile Army , he had a large number of Netherlands' Officers attached to his Staff. When he was absent from the army, Lt General Baron Chasse exercised the command of the Netherlands Mobile Army, until Prince Frederik replaced the Prince of Orange in August. Until just prior to the Battle of Quatre Bras, the Netherlands Cavalry Division had been under command of I Corps. On the advance to Paris, the I Corps consisted of the 1st British and 3rd Anglo-Hanoverian Divisions, the 2nd and 3rd Netherlands Divisions and The Netherlands Cavalry Division. Officially, the units of the Netherlands Army were referred to as 'North Netherlands' for the Dutch and 'South Netherlands' for the Belgians.
1st British Division:
Major General Cooke was wounded at Waterloo and command was assumed firstly by Major General Byng and then secondly by Major General Maitland. The 1st Brigade of the Division took Peronne on 26 June, assisted by a Brigade of the 2nd Netherlands Division. By 23 July, Major General [Local Lt General] Sir Kenneth Howard came out to command. He assumed command of I Corps by August 22nd and so Major General Byng commanded, again, until he went on leave by 2 October when Major General Maitland took over the command and kept it until the end of November (as Major General Byng had been appointed to a District Command, on the Home Staff, in Essex).
1st British Brigade:
Major General Maitland succeeded to the command of the 1st Division at Waterloo and was replaced by Lt Colonel George Fead, Captain 1st Foot Guards, and in July, probably by Lt Colonel James Dawson-West, Captain 1st Foot Guards. Major General Sir Peregrine Maitland resumed command when Lt General Howard came out. When Major General Maitland took over the Division again in October, Brevet Colonel Henry Askew, 1st Foot Guards, may have commanded the Brigade.
2nd British Brigade:
Major General Byng succeeded to the command of the 1st Division at Waterloo and was replaced by Brevet Colonel Francis Hepburn, 3rd Foot Guards. Major General Byng resumed command when Lt General Howard came out. He again assumed the command of the Division when Lt General Howard took over I Corps. Brevet Colonel Hepburn again commanding the Brigade.
King's German Legion Brigade:
Joined the Division around 7 September. The Brigade Commander remained Lt Colonel Louis von dem Bussche, now Lt Colonel Commandant of the 5th Line Bn. KGL.
3rd Anglo-Hanoverian Division:
Lt General von Alten was wounded at Waterloo and replaced by Major General Halkett and when he was wounded, then by Major General Graf von Kielmansegge. On 18 July, Major General Sir Thomas Bradford was appointed to command, as in June Lt General von Alten had been appointed Commander of the Hanoverian Reserve Corps. As Lt General von Alten was also considered the Field Commander of the Hanoverian Army, he had a number of Hanoverian Officers attached to his staff.
5th British Brigade:
Major General Halkett succeeded to the command of the Division and was replaced by Lt Colonel William Elphinstone, 33rd Foot. On 18 July, Lt Colonel [Brevet Colonel] Sir Charles Belson, 28th Foot, was appointed to command. With Morice killed at Waterloo, Major [Brevet Lt Colonel] George Muttlebury was promoted Lieutenant Colonel to command the 69th Foot, 2nd Bn. in August. In August the 69th Foot, 2nd Bn. was transferred to the 4th British Brigade, the 73rd Foot, 2nd Bn. was transferred to the 12th British Brigade and they were replaced by the 12th (The East Suffolk) Foot, 2nd Bn. (Lt Colonel [Brevet Colonel] Julius Stirke) and the 41st Foot (Lt Colonel William Evans).
2nd Brigade KGL:
Brevet Colonel Freiherr von Ompteda was killed at Waterloo and replaced by Lt Colonel Louis von dem Bussche, 1st Light Bn. Bussche was also appointed the Lt Colonel Commandant of the 5th Line Bn. vice Ompteda killed and Major [Brevet Lt Colonel] Frederick von Hartwig was promoted Lt Colonel to command the 1st Light Bn. in June. Lt Colonel Johann von Schroeder commanded the 8th Line Bn. as Lt Colonel Best was on the staff of the army, although Brevet Lt Colonel Schroeder had been promoted Lieutenant Colonel in May from Major 8th Line Bn. to command of the 2nd Line Bn. On 24 August, the Brigade was amalgamated with the 1st Brigade KGL and remained in the 3rd Division. On 7 September the Brigade was transferred to the 1st British Division.
1st Hanoverian Brigade:
Major General Graf von Kielmansegge succeeded to the command of the 3rd Division and was replaced possibly by Lt Colonel August Klencke, Field Bn. Luneberg. Kielmansegge resumed command when Bradford came out. On 26 July, the Harzer Schutzenkorps and the Landwehr Bn. Bentheim were transferred to the Brigade and the Field Bn. Luneberg was transferred to the 6th Hanoverian Brigade. (On 25 April the 1st and 2nd Hanoverian Brigades had been amalgamated as the 1st Brigade).
16th British Brigade:
Formed 7 September and assigned to the 3rd Division. Commanded by Brevet Colonel Sir John Cameron, 9th Foot.
At Waterloo, Lloyd was mortally wounded, dying in July, and 2nd Captain [Brevet Major] William Power was promoted Captain to command Lloyd’s Company, 10th Battalion in August.
2nd Netherlands Division:
By the end of October, Lt General Perponcher went to Berlin and was replaced by Major General Count van Bylandt.
Major General Count van Bylandt was wounded at Waterloo and replaced by Lt Colonel Wijbrandus de Jongh, 8th National Militia Bn. This Brigade participated in the taking of Peronne. The 5th National Militia Bn. and 7th National Militia Bn. remained in Peronne. When Major General van Bylandt took over command of the Division in October, Colonel Johannes Speelman, 2nd Dutch Line Bn., commanded his brigade
On 15 June , Colonel von Goedecke was injured and Colonel HSH Prince Bernhard took command. In June the 2nd Nassau Light Infantry Regiment was transferred to the Nassau Contingent and the 2nd Dutch Line Bn. (from 1st Brigade/3rd Division) and the 10th National Militia Bn. (from 2nd Brigade/3rd Division) replaced it. In early November, the 28th (Orange Nassau) Regiment was transferred to the 4th Netherlands Division and the 2nd Nassau Light Infantry Regiment was transferred back to the brigade. And so in November, Colonel von Goedecke resumed the command.
On 30 June, Steenberghe’s Belgian Foot Battery (Captain Maximilian Steenberghe) took over the survivors of Stevenart’s Battery which had been decimated, and whose captain had been killed, at Quatre Bras. In July, Steenberghe’s battery joined the 1st Division. On 19 July, Kaempfer's Dutch Foot Battery (Captain Nicolaas L. Kaempfer) joined the Division.
3rd Netherlands Division:
Lt General Baron Chasse remained in command.
The 2nd Dutch Line Bn. was transferred to the 2nd Brigade/2nd Division in June.
The 10th National Militia Bn. was transferred to the 2nd Brigade/2nd Division in June.
Lt General Lord Hill was on leave of absence from approx. August to October, 1815. It is not known if he was replaced in command of the Corps. On the advance to Paris, the II Corps consisted of the 2nd and 4th Anglo-Hanoverian Divisions, The Nassau Contingent and the 1st Hanoverian Cavalry Brigade.
2nd Anglo-Hanoverian Division:
Lt General Clinton remained in command.
3rd British Brigade:
Major General Adam was wounded at Waterloo and replaced by Brevet Colonel Sir John Colborne, 52nd Foot. On 31 July, Brevet Colonel Thomas Reynell, 71st Foot, was appointed to command. Major General Sir Frederick Adam resumed command in September. In July, the 95th Foot, 3rd Bn. (3 Coys), Lt Colonel Dugald Gilmour joined. In August, these 3 Coys of the 95th Foot, 3rd Bn. were transferred to the 12th British Brigade.
1st Brigade, KGL:
Brevet Colonel Du Plat was mortally wounded at Waterloo and replaced by Lt Colonel Friedrich von Wissell, 3rd Line Bn. Major Robertson commanded the 1st Line Bn. as Lt Colonel Rudolf Bodecker was on the staff of the army. Major George Muller commanded the 2nd Line Bn. as Lt Colonel Schroeder was commanding the 8th Line Bn. At Waterloo, Schroeder was mortally wounded and died and in August, Major Charles Aly of the 5th Line Bn. was promoted Lt Colonel to command the 2nd Line Bn. Major Reh commanded the 4th Line Bn. as Lt Colonel [Brevet Colonel] Du Plat was on the staff of the army. As Du Plat was mortally wounded and died, Major George Soest of the 7th Line Bn. was promoted Lt Colonel to command the 4th Line Bn. in June. On 8 August, Colonel Rudolf Bodecker was appointed to command the brigade. On 24 August, the Brigade was amalgamated with the 2nd Brigade, KGL and transferred to the 3rd Anglo-Hanoverian Division.
3rd Hanoverian Brigade:
No changes were reported.
12th British Brigade:
On 24 August, the brigade was transferred to the 2nd Division from the Reserve Corps. Commanded by Brevet Colonel Sir Charles Greville, 38th Foot:
Captain Bolton temporarily commanded Alms’s Company, 9th Battalion at Waterloo. Bolton was killed at Waterloo. Captain Charles Alms joined to take command after the battle.
4th Anglo-Hanoverian Division:
Lt General Colville remained in command. The Division (less 4th British Brigade and Rettberg's Foot Battery) was not at Waterloo, but, was stationed at Hal guarding the right flank of the army. The Division took the town of Cambrai on 25 June. Major General Grant's 5th Cavalry Brigade and Brevet Lt Colonel Webber Smith's F Troop, Horse Artillery, served with the Division for a time shortly after the Battle of Waterloo. (In April/May, the Division had been commanded by Major General Sir Heinrich von Hinuber who resigned from the staff of the army when Colville, his army senior, came out and was appointed to command the 4th Division).
4th British Brigade:
This brigade was detached and served at Waterloo under command of the 2nd Division. It rejoined the 4th Division 24 June. With Ellis killed at Waterloo, Major [Brevet Lt Colonel] Thomas Dalmer was promoted Lieutenant Colonel to command the 23rd Foot in July. On 18 July, the 23rd Foot was transferred to the 11th British Brigade and the 38th (The 1st Staffordshire) Foot (Lt Colonel [Brevet Colonel] Sir Charles Greville) joined. On 24 August, the 5th (The Northumberland) Foot, 1st Bn. (Lt Colonel [Brevet Colonel] Sir Charles Pratt) and the 69th Foot, 2nd Bn. (from the 5th British Brigade) were assigned to the brigade and the 38th Foot was transferred to the 12th British Brigade.
6th British Brigade:
No changes were reported.
6th Hanoverian Brigade:
On 26 July, the Landwehr Bn. Bentheim was transferred to the 1st Hanoverian Brigade and replaced by the Field Bn. Luneberg. (In some sources Major Schnehen is shown as commanding the FB Calenberg. This is incorrect, Major Ernst von Schnehen had left the command by June 1815)
Lt Colonel Hawker with Brevet Major Brome's Foot Battery remained with the Division at Hal. Captain Unett's Foot Battery was attached to the Division. Rettberg's Foot Battery was detached and served at Waterloo under command of the 2nd Division. It rejoined the 4th Division 24 June.
This formation was not at Waterloo, but, was detached to Hal. Lt General HRH Prince Frederik of the Netherlands remained in command. The Corps was reinforced by the 5th Light Dragoons after the Battle of Waterloo and was used to besiege the frontier fortresses in the rear of Wellington's advancing Anglo-Allied Army. On 16 August, Prince Frederik assumed command of the Netherlands Mobile Army replacing General HRH the Prince of Orange who returned home.
1st Netherlands Division:
Lt General Stedman remained in command. In August, he took provisional command of Prince Frederik’s Netherlands Corps.
On 11 November, Major General d’Hauw was ordered to Brussels. Lieutenant Colonel Sibert Rudolf van Hulsteijn, 16th Dutch Jaegers Bn., took command of the brigade.
No changes were reported.
Formed in August to replace the Netherlands Indian Brigade. Commanded first by Colonel Clemens de Favauge and then by Major General Johan M. Behr. By November, Colonel de Favauge was again commanding the brigade. It consisted of the following units drawn from the garrisons of Mons and Tournai:
The 17th Dutch Jaegers Battalion was originally to form part of the brigade. However on 15 August, it was broken up and incorporated in the other battalions.
Captain Steenberghe’s Foot Battery joined the 1st Division in July.
Netherlands Indian Brigade:
By 16 August, it was recalled to The Netherlands in order to prepare for it to be sent to the Colonies. The 7th East
Indian Hussars (Colonel P. A. van Rappard) may have served with the Brigade.
Netherlands Reserve Artillery:
Du Bois's Battery moved to Brussels on 17 June and later went to Mons. By the end of June, Severyns's Dutch Foot Battery (Captain Severyns) and three companies of siege artillery joined (all Dutch companies and commanded by Captain H. Bunnik, Captain W. van der Linden and Captain F. Rommel).
At Waterloo it came under the command of Lt General Picton and when he was killed, it was commanded by Major General Kempt. In July, Lt General Cole exercised command. On the advance to Paris, the Reserve Corps consisted of the 5th and 6th Anglo-Hanoverian Divisions, The Brunswick Corps and the Reserve Artillery.
5th Anglo-Hanoverian Division:
Lt General Picton was killed at Waterloo and succeeded in command by Major General Kempt. It appears that Major General Kempt commanded both the Division and the Reserve Corps.
8th British Brigade:
Major General Kempt succeeded to the command of the Division and was replaced by Brevet Colonel Sir Charles Belson, 28th Foot. On 15 July, Major General Sir John Keane took command. On 3 July, the 32nd Foot was transferred to the 11th British Brigade and replaced by the 43rd (Monmouthshire) Light Infantry, 1st Bn. (Lt Colonel Christopher Patrickson). On 7 July, Brevet Colonel Sir Andrew Barnard, 95th Foot, was appointed the British Commandant of Paris.
9th British Brigade:
With Macara killed at Quatre Bras, Major [Brevet Lt Colonel] Robert Dick was promoted Lieutenant Colonel to command the 42nd Foot in June and with Cameron also killed at Quatre Bras, Major [Brevet Lt Colonel] James Mitchell was promoted Lieutenant Colonel to command the 92nd Foot in June. On 24 August, the 44th Foot, 2nd Bn. was transferred to the 14th British Brigade and replaced by the 1st (The Royal Scots) Foot, 4th Bn. (Lt Colonel Frederick Muller)
5th Hanoverian Brigade:
No changes were reported.
6th Anglo-Hanoverian Division:
The Division was commanded by Major General Lambert at Waterloo, in the absence of Lt General Cole.
Lt General Cole took command by 19 July (perhaps 15 July or as early as 6 July). He may have commanded both the Division and the Reserve Corps at the same time. By 22 August Cole is reported as commanding only the 6th Division.
10th British Brigade:
Major General Sir John Lambert assumed command of the Division at Waterloo and the Brigade was commanded by
Lt Colonel Francis Brooke, 4th Foot. Major General Lambert resumed command when Lt General Cole came out. After Waterloo, Lt Colonel [Brevet Colonel] Lemuel Warren arrived to take command of the 27th Foot, 1st Bn. and Lt Colonel Henry Thornton arrived to take command of the 40th Foot, 1st Bn. The 81st Foot, 2nd Bn. remained in Brussels as its garrison in June and was transferred in August to the 13th British Brigade. On 24 August, the 27th (The Inniskilling) Foot, 3rd Bn. (Lt Colonel [Brevet Colonel] Sir John McLean) was assigned to the Brigade.
4th Hanoverian Brigade:
No changes were reported.
11th British Brigade:
Formed 3-6 July and assigned to the 6th Division. Commanded by Major General Sir Manley Power. It consisted of
Brevet Lt Colonel Bruckmann was neither present at Waterloo nor with Unett's Battery at Hal. At Waterloo Gordon’s Company 3rd Battalion was commanded by 2nd Captain Sinclair. After Waterloo, Captain Frederick Gordon joined, from Canada, to take the command. There are some reports that give Gordon's Foot Battery as serving with the Reserve Artillery at Waterloo and Unett's Foot Battery with the 4th Anglo-Hanoverian Division at Hal. Lt General Colville's report mentions Unett's Foot Battery as being at the taking of Cambrai.
12th British Brigade:
Formed 18 July and assigned to the Reserve Corps. Commanded by Brevet Colonel Sir Charles Greville, 38th Foot. For most of August, as the new regiments arrived, they were assigned to the 12th Brigade until sufficient regiments were available 24 August to form the 7th Division. On 24 August the brigade was reorganized with new regiments and transferred to the 2nd Division. Originally consisted of:
7th British Division:
Formed 24 August and commanded, temporarily, by Major General Sir Thomas Brisbane. It is not known if this Division was assigned to the Reserve Corps or to any other Corps.
13th British Brigade:
Formed 24 August and commanded by Major General Sir Robert O'Callaghan. It consisted of the following:
14th British Brigade:
Formed 24 August and commanded, temporarily, by Brevet Colonel John Alexander Wallace, 88th Foot (acting for Major General Brisbane commanding the Division). It consisted of the following:
15th British Brigade:
Formed 7 September and commanded, temporarily, by Brevet Colonel David Walker, 58th Foot. It consisted of the following:
It is not known if there was any Royal Artillery attached to the Division.
The Brunswick Corps:
HSH the Duke of Brunswick was killed at Quatre Bras and Colonel Johann Elias Olfermann succeeded to the command. At Waterloo, Colonel Olfermann was wounded and Colonel Sir Friedrich von Herzberg, from the staff, assumed command. When Colonel Olfermann recovered, he resumed command about 5 August.
No changes were reported.
No changes were reported.
Lt Colonel von Specht absented himself on the retreat from Quatres Bras. On 17 June, Major Friedrich von Wolffradt, 2nd Major in the 2nd Line Battalion and serving in the Adjutant General’s Department was appointed to command the brigade. Von Specht showed up several days later. It is not known if he resumed command?
The newly formed Hussar Regiment is sometimes referred to as the 2nd. The original Hussar Regiment (raised in 1809) was still in British pay, serving with the Mediterranean Garrison, with a depot in Britain.
Lt General Baron von Kruse remained in command. In June, the 2nd Nassau Light Infantry Regiment was transferred to the contingent from the 2nd Brigade of the 2nd Netherlands Division and the contingent was now numbered as the 4th Division of the Netherlands Mobile Army. In early November, the 28th (Orange Nassau) Regiment was transferred to the 4th Netherlands Division and the 2nd Nassau Light Infantry Regiment was transferred back to the 2nd Brigade of the 2nd Netherlands Division. However, by 7 November the units of the division left Netherlands Service and the division was broken up.
The Reserve Artillery at Waterloo consisted of Ross's A Horse Artillery Troop and Bean's D Horse Artillery Troop. Later Ross's Troop was transferred to the 1st Cavalry Brigade. Some reports give Gordon's Foot Battery of the 6th Division as serving with the Reserve at Waterloo. Hutchesson's Foot Battery was in Ostend, Morrison's Foot Battery was near Ghent and Ilbert's Foot Battery was in Brussels. These three foot batteries joined later.
After the Battle of Waterloo, the siege train under Brevet Lt Colonel Dickson was detached and sent to co-operate with a Prussian Siege Corps (II Corps under Major General von Pirch I, North German Corps under Lt General von Hake and Luxembourg Garrison under Lt General HSH Prince Ludewig von Hessen-Homburg) commanded by General HRH Prince Augustus of Prussia in besieging the frontier fortresses along the flank of the advancing Allied Armies.
By September the field operations of the siege train ended and the siege artillery companies were place in garrisons.
Lt General Lord Uxbridge was wounded at Waterloo and succeeded in command by Major General Vandeleur. Major General von Alten was not at Waterloo. On 11 July, Lt General Sir Stapleton Cotton, 1st Baron Combermere was appointed to the command. On the advance to Paris, Major General Vivian's 6th Cavalry Brigade, later joined by the 7th Cavalry Brigade, formed the advance guard.
1st British Cavalry Brigade:
This Brigade was also known as The Household Brigade. With Ferrior killed at Waterloo, Major Henry B. Lygon from the 16th Light Dragoons was promoted Major and Lieutenant Colonel to command the 1st Life Guards in June and with Fuller also killed at Waterloo, Major [Brevet Lt Colonel] George Teesdale was promoted Lieutenant Colonel to command the 1st Dragoon Guards in September. In November, Major General Lord Edward Somerset was on leave and Lt Colonel George Teesdale, 1st Dragoon Guards commanded the Brigade. (Originally in April, it was to have been under the command of Major General Terence O'Loghlin.)
2nd British Cavalry Brigade:
Major General Ponsonby was killed at Waterloo and command was assumed in turn by Brevet Colonel Joseph Muter, 6th Dragoons and when he was wounded, then by Lt Colonel Arthur Clifton, 1st Dragoons. With Hamilton killed at Waterloo, Major [Brevet Lt Colonel] Isaac Clarke was promoted Lieutenant Colonel to command the 2nd Dragoons in July. Brevet Colonel Muter may have resumed the command of the brigade at some point as he was back by/in November 1815. This Brigade is sometimes referred to as The Union Brigade.
3rd British Cavalry Brigade:
Major General von Dornberg was wounded at Waterloo and replaced by Major Peter Latour, 23rd Light Dragoons. That night (or the next day) Brevet Colonel the 2nd Earl of Portarlington, 23rd Light Dragoons took over the command. In July, Major General von Dornberg resumed command. The Duke of Cumberland's Hussars operated with this Brigade at Waterloo.
4th British Cavalry Brigade:
At Waterloo, Major General Vandeleur succeeded to the command of the cavalry and he was replaced by Lt Colonel James Sleigh, 11th Light Dragoons. In July, Major General Vandeleur resumed command.
5th British Cavalry Brigade:
At Waterloo the 13th Light Dragoons joined the Brigade. The 2nd Hussars KGL were detached to patrol the frontier near Courtrai and did not rejoin until later. In June, the Brigade with Webber Smith's F Troop, Horse Artillery co-operated with the 4th Anglo-Hanoverian Division at the taking of Cambrai and remained with it for a time. In July and August, Major General Grant was on leave and replaced by Brevet Colonel Sir Edward Kerrison, 7th Hussars.
6th British Cavalry Brigade:
No changes were reported. This Brigade was the Advance Guard of The Anglo-Allied Army on the advance to Paris.
7th British Cavalry Brigade:
At Waterloo, the 13th Light Dragoons were transferred to the 5th British Brigade. They rejoined the brigade later. In June this brigade was ordered to join the Advance Guard. At Waterloo, Lt Colonel Meyer was killed and Lt Colonel Charles von Maydell of the 2nd Light Dragoons KGL was appointed Lt Colonel of the 3rd Hussars KGL. In July, the Depot Troops, Duke of Brunswick Oels's Hussars (Major Carl von Temsky) from England, joined the Brigade.
8th British Cavalry Brigade:
Formed by 18 August and commanded by Major General Lord George Beresford. It consisted of the following:
1st Hanoverian Cavalry Brigade:
The Brigade was not at Waterloo, as it was detached to Hal. The Brigade had joined the II Corps in May. Only the Duke of Cumberland's Hussars served at Waterloo. Due to misconduct at Waterloo, Lt Colonel Georg von Hake was removed from command of the Cumberland Hussars and Major [Brevet Lt Colonel] Philip von Gruben, 1st Hussars KGL was appointed to the command 2 August.
2nd Captain Mercer commanded G Troop as Captain [Brevet Lt Colonel] Dickson commanded the Siege Artillery. With Ramsay killed at Waterloo Captain [Brevet Lt Colonel] Sir John May was appointed to command H Troop (although May remained on the staff of the army) and with Beane also killed at Waterloo, 2nd Captain Mercer was promoted Captain to command D Troop.
By the end of the campaign, the Horse Artillery Troops were attached to the following:
Netherlands Cavalry Division:
Lt General Baron de Collaert was mortally wounded at Waterloo and replaced by Major General Trip.
Heavy Cavalry Brigade:
Major General Trip succeeded to the command of the Cavalry Division and was replaced by Colonel Jean de Bruyn, 2nd Carabineers. This brigade with Petter's Battery went to Peronne. It rejoined the main army on 27 June. The 6th Hussars joined the brigade after the Battle of Waterloo.
1st Light Cavalry Brigade:
After the Battle of Waterloo, the 5th Light Dragoons joined the brigade. This brigade served for a time with HRH Prince Frederik's Corps.
2nd Light Cavalry Brigade:
Major General Baron van Merlen was killed at Waterloo. He was succeeded in command by Lt Colonel Willem Boreel, 6th Hussars. The brigade was disbanded after the battle. The 5th Light Dragoons were transferred to the 1st Light Cavalry Brigade and the 6th Hussars were transferred to the Heavy Cavalry Brigade.
These Troops were used to garrison the following cities:
7th British Brigade:
No changes were reported.
Independent British Battalions:
A reorganization, which occurred in the British Army in 1815, resulted in the 13th Royal Veteran Battalion being
renumbered as the 7th. The 2nd Garrison Battalion arrived at Ostend 12 June with 9 coys. 5 coys from Bermuda arrived in October. Some accounts have the 2nd Garrison Battalion stationed at Tournai. On 9 July, the 3rd Staff Garrison Company arrived at Ostend.
Unattached Artillery Companies:
Jones's Company went to St. Denis, Tyler's Company went from Antwerp to Villeron, Younghusband's Company went from Ostend to Fontenoy, Dyas's Company went to Montmarte near the 7th Division, Hunt's Company went from Tournai to St. Denis, Durnford's Company went to Mons and Munro's Company went from Ostend to Brussels.
The following unattached artillery companies joined the army in July and August and were stationed at:
Hanoverian Reserve Corps:
By 21 June, Lt General Sir Karl von Alten was appointed to the command. Lt General von der Decken returned to Hanover, mainly due to the fact that he was senior in army rank to von Alten and to many of the Division Commanders with the army.
On 18 July, the Harzer Schutzenkorps was transferred to the 1st Hanoverian Brigade, 3rd Anglo-Hanoverian Division.
Lt Colonel Bennigsen died on 1 September, 1815 and may have been replaced later that month by Colonel Rudolf Bodecker. At least one authority has Lt Colonel [Brevet Colonel] von Wissell assuming the command and Colonel Bodecker replacing him in command of the 4th Brigade.
No changes were reported
No changes were reported.
In July, Colonel Bodecker was transferred to command of the 1st Brigade KGL and replaced by Lt Colonel [Brevet Colonel] Friedrich von Wissell, 3rd Line Bn. KGL. In September, Colonel Bodecker may have resumed command and Brevet Colonel von Wissell may have transferred to the commmand of the 1st Brigade. (In April, the 4th brigade had been commanded by Colonel Hartwig Hedemann, Field Bn. Calenberg).
Royal Engineers and Royal Sappers and Miners:
The Royal Engineers were command by Lt Colonel James Carmichael Smyth. Later, Brigadier General Alexander Bryce arrived and was placed upon the staff. The following companies of Sappers and Miners were in Flanders constructing defences around the fortresses in Belgium and providing a pontoon train for the army: in the Netherlands already were the 4th & 5th Companies, 2nd Battalion and 4th Company, 3rd Battalion, joining between 24 March and 10 June were the 3rd & 6th Companies, 1st Battalion; 2nd & 7th Companies, 2nd Battalion; 1st & & 7th Companies, 3rd Battalion and 1st Company, 4th Battalion. After 20 June, the 2nd Company, 4th Battalion joined. Hal was the depot for the engineer's stores.
Royal Waggon Train:
The Royal Waggon Train was commanded by Lt Colonel Thomas Aird. In April, one troop was in the Netherlands; by the end of June there were 3 troops and at the end of December there were 11 troops with the army. Of the 8 troops of the British Royal Waggon Train and the 4 troops of The Foreign Waggon Train, it is not known how many of each were with the army.
Other Allied Contingents:
Had the campaign continued past the armistice of 3 July, it was planned that the Duke of Wellington's Anglo-Allied Army was to have been reinforced by the forces of other nations:
British Army of Occupation: 30 November 1815
In a General Order of 30 November 1815, Field Marshal the Duke of Wellington broke up his Anglo-Allied Army and formed the British Contingent of the Army Of Occupation in France. This Occupation Army, made up of the different contingents of the Allies, was also to be commanded by the Duke of Wellington. The British and the Hanoverian Contingents were to come under the personal command of the Duke.
Marshal 1st Duke of Wellington.
Cavalry: Lt General Sir Stapleton Cotton, 1st Baron Combermere.
Infantry: Lt General Sir Rowland Hill, 1st Baron Hill.
1st Division: Lt General Sir Galbraith Lowry Cole.
2nd Division: Lt General Sir Henry Clinton.
3rd Division: Lt General Sir Charles Colville.
Royal Engineers and Royal Sappers and Miners: Lt Colonel John Burgoyne.
Attached to Divisions:
Belgium: Major General Kenneth Mackenzie.
By 1 December 1815, the British Regiments garrisoned in Belgium were reported to be marching to leave. They may have remained at Antwerp until after 25 December.
Officer Commanding: Lt General Sir Karl, Graf von Alten.
Infantry: Major General Sir James Lyon.
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Placed on the Napoleon Series: October 2001; updated November 2009 and November 2010.