Military Subjects: Battles & Campaigns

 

Anglo-Allied Army in Flanders and France - 1815: Subsequent Changes in Command and Organization

By Ron McGuigan

The battles of Quatre Bras, 16 June, and Waterloo, 18 June, resulted in grievous losses to the command structure of the Anglo-Allied Army.  Additionally, reinforcements were rushed to the army to replace casualties and to increase the British Contingent. The following represents the changes which occurred for the army between 15 June and 30 November, 1815, when the Army of Occupation was formed. 

Staff:

The Quartermaster-General, Lieutenant General Murray was enroute from North America and until he arrived, the Deputy Quartermaster-General exercised command of that department.  (Originally in April, Major General Hudson Lowe filled this position). At Waterloo, Lieutenant Colonel [Brevet Colonel] Sir William De Lancey filled that office until he was mortally wound.  He was replaced by Lieutenant Colonel Sir Charles Broke.  Major General Barnes, the Adjutant-General was wounded at Waterloo. He was temporarily replaced by Lieutenant Colonel John Waters until Brevet Colonel Sir John Elley, the Deputy Adjutant-General, could command once he had recovered from his Waterloo wound.  Major General Barnes resumed command by 25 July. Both Lieutenant Generals Sir Edward Paget and Sir George Ramsay, 9th Earl of Dalhousie were suggested for commands in the army in April.  Paget for a corps command and Lord Dalhousie for either a division or another corps.  Major General Sir Henry Fane was offered a command with the cavalry when the army was forming. Active operations had ceased before they decided to join and they declined to serve in an army of occupation. Attached to the Quartermaster-General's Department were 3 (later 4) companies of the Royal Staff Corps under Lieutenant Colonel [Brevet Colonel] William Nicolay.  By 21 June the Staff Corps of Cavalry under Major Commandant [Brevet Lieutenant Colonel] Sir George Scovell was formed.

I Corps:      

General  HRH The Prince of Orange was wounded at Waterloo and replaced by Major-General Byng.  For a time in July, HRH The Prince of Orange returned but, he was gone to Brussels  by the end of that month.  He was replaced in command by Lieutenant General Howard in August until the end of November.  As General HRH The Prince of Orange was also the Commander of the Netherlands Mobile Army , he had a large number of Netherlands' Officers attached to his Staff.  When he was absent from the army, Lieutenant General Baron Chasse exercised the command of the Netherlands Mobile Army. Until just prior to the battle of Quatre Bras, the Netherlands Cavalry Division had been under command of I Corps.  On the advance to Paris, the I Corps consisted of the 1st British and 3rd Anglo-Hanoverian Divisions, the 2nd and 3rd Netherlands Divisions and the Netherlands Cavalry Division.

1st British Division:

Major General Cooke was wounded at Waterloo and command was assumed firstly by Major General Byng and then secondly by  Major General Maitland.  The 1st Brigade of the Division took Peronne on 26 June, assisted by a Brigade of the 2nd Netherlands Division. By 23 July, Major General [Local Lieutenant General] Sir Kenneth Howard came out to command.  He assumed command of I Corps by 22 August and so Major General Byng commanded, again, until he went on leave by 2 October when Major General Maitland took over the command and kept it until the end of  November (as Major General Byng had been appointed to a District Command, on the Home Staff, in Essex).

1st British Brigade:

Major General Maitland succeeded to the command of the 1st Division at Waterloo and was replaced by Lieutenant Colonel George Fead, Captain 1st Foot Guards, and in July, by Lieutenant Colonel James Dawson-West,  Captain 1st Foot Guards.  Major General Sir Peregrine Maitland  resumed command when Lieutenant General Howard came out.  When Major General Maitland took over  the Division again in October, Brevet Colonel Henry Askew, 1st Foot Guards, may have commanded the Brigade. 

2nd British Brigade:

Major General Byng succeeded to the command of the 1st Division at Waterloo and was replaced by Brevet Colonel Francis Hepburn, 3rd Foot Guards.  Major General Byng resumed command when Lieutenant General Howard came out. He assumed the command of the Division when Lieutenant General Howard took over I Corps.  Brevet Colonel Hepburn again commanding the Brigade.

King's German Legion Brigade:

Joined the Division around 7 September. The Brigade Commander remained Lieutenant Colonel Louis von dem Bussche.

3rd Anglo-Hanoverian Division:

Lieutenant General von Alten was wounded at Waterloo and replaced by Major General Halkett and when he was wounded, then by Major General Graf von Kielmansegge. On 18 July, Major General Sir Thomas Bradford was appointed to command, as on 21 June Lieutenant General von Alten had been appointed Commander of the Hanoverian Reserve Corps.  As Lieutenant General von Alten was also considered the Field Commander of the Hanoverian Army,  he had a number of Hanoverian Officers  attached to his staff. 

5th British Brigade: 

Major General Halkett succeeded to the command of the division and was replaced by Lieutenant Colonel William Elphinstone, 33rd Foot.  On 18 July, Lieutenant Colonel [Brevet Colonel] Sir Charles Belson, 28th Foot, was appointed to command.  In August the 69th Foot, 2nd Battalion was transferred to the 4th British Brigade, the 73rd Foot, 2nd Battalion was transferred to the 12th British Brigade and  they were replaced by the  12th (The East Suffolk) Foot, 2nd Battalion (Lieutenant Colonel [Brevet Colonel] Julius Stirke) and the 41st Foot, 1st Battalion (Lieutenant Colonel William Evans).

2nd Brigade KGL:

Brevet Colonel Freiherr von Ompteda was killed at Waterloo and replaced by Lieutenant Colonel Louis von dem Bussche, 1st Light Battalion On 24 August, the Brigade was amalgamated with the 1st Brigade KGL and remained in the 3rd Division. On 7 September the Brigade was transferred to the 1st British Division.  The Brigade Commander remained Lieutenant Colonel Louis von dem Bussche, now Commandant of the 5th Line Battalion KGL.

1st Hanoverian Brigade:

Major General Graf von Kielmansegge succeeded to the command of the 3rd Division at Waterloo and was replaced possibly by Lieutenant Colonel August Klencke, Field Battalion Luneberg.   Kielmansegge resumed commmand when Bradford came out.  On 26 July,  the Harzer Schutzenkorps and the Landwehr Battalion Bentheim were transferred to the Brigade and the Field Battalion Luneberg was transferred to the 6th Hanoverian Brigade.   (On 25 April the 1st and 2nd Hanoverian Brigades had been amalgamated as the 1st Brigade).

16th British Brigade:

Formed 7 September and assigned to the 3rd Division. Commanded by  Brevet Colonel Sir John Cameron, 9th Foot. 

9th (The East Norfolk) Foot, 1st Battalion        (Lieutenant Colonel [Brevet Colonel] Sir John Cameron)
57th (The West Middlesex) Foot, 1st Battalion      (Lieutenant Colonel William Spring)
81st  Foot, 1st Battalion                                     (Major [Brevet Lieutenant Colonel] James Farrer)
90th (The Perthshire Volunteers) Foot, 1st Battalion    (Major [Brevet Lieutenant Colonel] George Burrell)

2nd Netherlands Division:

By the end of October, Lieutenant General Perponcher went to Berlin and was replaced by Major General Count van Bylandt. On 19 July, Kaemfer's Dutch Foot Battery (Captain N. L. Kaemfer) joined the Division.

1st Brigade:

Major General Count van Bylandt was wounded at Waterloo and replaced by Lieutenant Colonel Wijbrandus de Jongh, 8th National Militia Battalion  This Brigade participated in the taking of Peronne. When  Major General van Bylandt took over command of the Division in October, Colonel Johannes Speelman, 2nd Dutch Line, commanded his brigade

2nd Brigade:

On 15 June, Colonel von Goedecke was injured and Colonel HSH Prince Bernhard took command. In November, Colonel von Goedecke resumed the command.  In June, the 2nd Nassau Light Infantry Regt. was transferred to the Nassau Contingent  and the 2nd Dutch Line (from 1st Brigade/3rd Division) and the 10th National Militia (from 2nd Brigade/3rd Division) replaced it.

3rd Netherlands Division:

Lieutenant General Baron Chasse remained in command. 

1st Brigade:

 The 2nd Dutch Line Battalion was transferred to the 2nd Brigade/2nd Division in June.

 2nd Brigade: 

The 10th National Militia Battalion was transferred to the 2nd Brigade/2nd Division in June.

II Corps:

Lieutenant General Lord Hill was on leave of absence from approximately. August to October, 1815. It is not known if he was replaced in command of the Corps. On the advance to Paris, the II Corps consisted of  the 2nd and 4th Anglo-Hanoverian Divisions, The Nassau Contingent and the 1st Hanoverian Cavalry Brigade.

2nd Anglo-Hanoverian Division:

Lieutenant General Clinton remained in command. 

3rd British Brigade:

Major General Adam was wounded at Waterloo and replaced by Brevet Colonel Sir John Colborne, 52nd Foot. On 31 July, Brevet Colonel Thomas Reynell, 71st Foot, was appointed to command.  Major General Sir Frederick Adam resumed the command in September. In July, the 95th Foot, 3rd Battalion (3 companies), Lieutenant Colonel Dugald Gilmour joined. In August, these 3 companies of the 95th Foot, 3rd Battalion were transferred to the 12th British Brigade.  

1st Brigade, KGL:

Brevet Colonel Du  Plat was mortally wounded at Waterloo and replaced by Lieutenant Colonel Friedrich von Wissell , 3rd Line Battalion On 8 August, Colonel Rudolf Bodecker was appointed to command.  On 24 August, the Brigade was amalgamated with the 2nd Brigade, KGL and transferred to the 3rd Anglo-Hanoverian Division.

3rd Hanoverian Brigade:

No changes were reported.

12th British Brigade:

On 24 August the brigade was transferred to the 2nd Division from the Reserve Corps. Commanded by Brevet Colonel Sir Charles Greville, 38th Foot:

3rd (East Kent or the Buffs) Foot, 1st Battalion             (Lieutenant Colonel William Stewart)
36th (The Herefordshire) Foot           (Lieutenant Colonel [Brevet Colonel] Basil Cochrane)
38th Foot                             (from the 4th British Brigade)
73rd Foot, 2nd Battalion      (from the 5th British Brigade)

4th Anglo-Hanoverian Division:

Lieutenant General Colville remained in command.  The division (less 4th British Brigade and Rettberg's Foot Battery) was not at Waterloo, but, was stationed at Hal guarding the right flank of the army. The Division took the town of Cambrai on 25 June. Lieutenant Colonel Hawker and Brevet Major Brome's Foot Battery remained with the Division at Hal.  Captain Unett's Foot Battery was attached to the Division. Major General Grant's 5th Cavalry Brigade and Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Webber Smith's F Troop, Horse Artillery, served with the Division for a time shortly after the battle.  (In April/May, the Division had been commanded  by Major General Sir Heinrich von Hinuber who resigned from the staff of the army when Colville, his army senior, came out).

4th British Brigade:

This brigade and Rettberg's Foot Battery were detached and served at Waterloo under command of the 2nd Division. They rejoined the 4th Division on 24 June.  On 18 July, the 23rd Foot, 1st Battalion was transferred to the 11th British Brigade and the 38th (The 1st Staffordshire) Foot (Lieutenant Colonel [Brevet Colonel] Sir Charles Greville) joined.  On 24 August, the 5th (The Northumberland) Foot, 1st Battalion (Lieutenant Colonel [Brevet Colonel] Sir Charles Pratt) and the 69th Foot, 2nd Battalion (from the 5th British Brigade) were assigned to the Brigade and the 38th Foot was transferred to the 12th British Brigade.

6th British Brigade:

No changes were reported.

6th Hanoverian Brigade:

On 26 July, the Landwehr Battalion Bentheim was transferred to the 1st Hanoverian Brigade and replaced by the Field Battalion Luneberg.

Netherlands Corps:

This formation was not at Waterloo, but, was detached to Hal.   Lieutenant General HRH Prince Frederik of the Netherlands remained in command.  The corps was reinforced by the 5th Light Dragoons after the battle of Waterloo and was used to besiege the frontier fortresses in the rear of Wellington's advancing Anglo-Allied Army. 

1st Netherlands Division:

Lieutenant General Stedman remained in command.

1st Brigade:   

No changes were  reported.

2nd Brigade:

No changes were reported.

3rd Brigade:

Formed in August to replace the Netherlands Indian Brigade.  Commanded first by Colonel Clemens de Favauge and then by Major General Johan M. Behr.  It consisted of the following units drawn from  the garrisons of Mons and Tournai:

8th Dutch Line Battalion
9th Dutch Line Battalion
14th Dutch Line Battalion
15th Dutch Line Battalion
13th National Militia Battalion
16th National Militia Battalion
Spies's Dutch Foot Battery

Netherlands Indian Brigade:

By 16 August it was recalled to The Netherlands in order to prepare for it to be sent to the colonies.  The 7th East  Indian Hussars (Colonel P.A. Rappard) may have served with the Brigade.

Netherlands Reserve Artillery:

Du Bois's Battery moved to Brussels on 17 June and later went to Mons. By the end of June, Severyns's Dutch Foot Battery (Captain Severyns) and three companies of siege artillery joined.

Reserve Corps:

At Waterloo it came under the command of Lieutenant General Picton and when he was killed, it was commanded by Major General Kempt.  In July, Lieutenant General Cole exercised command. On the advance to Paris, the Reserve Corps consisted of the 5th and 6th Anglo-Hanoverian Divisions, The Brunswick Corps,  and the Reserve Artillery.

5th Anglo-Hanoverian Division:

Lieutenant General Picton was killed at Waterloo and succeeded in command by Major General Kempt. It appears that Major General Kempt commanded both the division and the Reserve Corps.

8th British Brigade:

Major General Kempt succeeded to the command of the Division and was replaced by  Brevet Colonel Sir Charles Belson, 28th Foot.  On 15 July, Major General Sir John Keane took command.  On 3 July,  the 32nd Foot, 1st Battalion was transferred to the 11th British Brigade and replaced by the 43rd (Monmouthshire) Light Infantry, 1st Battalion (Lieutenant Colonel Christopher Patrickson). On 7 July, Brevet Colonel Sir Andrew Barnard, 95th Foot, was appointed the British Commandant of Paris.

9th British Brigade:

On 24 August, the 44th Foot, 2nd Battalion was transferred to the 14th British Brigade and replaced by the 1st (The Royal Scots) Foot, 4th Battalion (Lieutenant Colonel Frederick Muller)

5th Hanoverian Brigade:

No changes were reported.

6th Anglo-Hanoverian Division:

The Division was commanded by Major General Lambert at Waterloo, in the absence of Lieutenant General Cole. Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Bruckmann was neither present  at Waterloo nor with Unett's Battery at Hal.  Lieutenant General Cole took command by 19 July (perhaps as early as 6 July).  He may have commanded both the division and the Reserve Corps at the same time.  By 22 August Cole is reported as commanding only the 6th Division.  There are some reports that give Gordon's Foot Battery as serving with the Reserve Artillery at Waterloo and Unett's Foot Battery with the 4th Anglo-Hanoverian Division at Hal. Lieutenant General Colville's report mentions Unett's Foot Battery as being at the taking of Cambrai.

10th British Brigade:

Major General Sir John Lambert assumed command of the division at Waterloo and the Brigade was under Lieutenant Colonel Francis Brooke, 4th Foot.  Major General Lambert resumed command when Lieutenant General Lowry Cole came out.  The 81st Foot, 2nd Battalion remained in Brussels as its garrison in June and was transferred in August to the 13th British Brigade. On  24 August,  the 27th (The Inniskilling) Foot, 3rd Battalion (Lieutenant Colonel [Brevet Colonel] Sir John McLean) was assigned to the Brigade.

4th Hanoverian Brigade:

No changes were reported.  

11th British Brigade:

Formed 3-6 July and assigned to the 6th Division. Commanded by Major General Sir Manley Power. It consisted of

7th (The Royal Fusiliers) Foot              (Lieutenant Colonel [Brevet Colonel] Sir Edward Blakeney)
23rd Foot, 1st Battalion                       (from the 4th British Brigade on July 18th)
29th (The Worcestershire) Foot           (Lieutenant Colonel John Tucker)
32nd Foot, 1st Battalion                      (from the 8th British Brigade)

12th British Brigade:                

Formed 18 July and assigned to the Reserve Corps. Commanded by Brevet Colonel Sir Charles Greville, 38th Foot. For most of August, as the new regiments arrived, they were assigned to the 12th Brigade until sufficient regiments were available 24 August to form the 7th Division. On 24 August, the brigade was  transferred to the 2nd Division. Originally consisted of:

12th (The East Suffolk) Foot, 2nd Battalion            (Lieutenant Colonel [Brevet Colonel] Julius Stirke)
36th (The Herefordshire) Foot           (Lieutenant Colonel [Brevet Colonel] Basil Cochrane)
64th (The 2nd Staffordshire) Foot      (Major [Brevet Lieutenant Colonel] John Macdonald)

7th British Division:

Formed 24 August and commanded, temporarily, by Major General Sir Thomas Brisbane.  It is not known if this division was assigned to the Reserve Corps or to any other corps.  It is not known if there was any Royal Artillery organization attached to the division.

13th British Brigade:

Formed 24 August and commanded by Major General Sir Robert O'Callaghan.  It consisted of the following:

39th (The Dorsetshire) Foot, 1st Battalion          (Lieutenant Colonel Cavendish Sturt)
62nd (The Wiltshire) Foot, 2nd Battalion,           (Lieutenant Colonel [Brevet Colonel] Nathaniel Blackwell)
64th (The 2nd Staffordshire) Foot      (Major [Brevet Lieutenant Colonel] John Macdonald)
81st  Foot, 2nd Battalion                                   (from the 10th British Brigade)                      

14th British Brigade:

Formed 24 August and commanded by Brevet Colonel John Alexander Wallace, 88th Foot (acting for Major General Brisbane commanding the Division).  It consisted of the following:

21st (The Royal North British Fusiliers) Foot, 1st Battalion            (Lieutenant Colonel Charles Maxwell)
44th Foot, 2nd Battalion                                     (from the 9th British Brigade)
88th (Connaught Rangers) Foot, 1st Battalion (Lieutenant Colonel [Brevet Colonel] John Alexander Wallace)          
95th Foot (Riflemen), 3rd Battalion (3 companies)       (Lieutenant Colonel Dugald Gilmour)  

15th British Brigade:

Formed 7 September and commanded, temporarily, by Brevet Colonel David Walker, 58th Foot.  It consisted of the following:

6th (The 1st Warwickshire) Foot, 1st Battalion    (Lieutenant Colonel Archibald Campbell)
16th (The Bedfordshire) Foot, 1st Battalion         (Lieutenant Colonel [Brevet Colonel] Henry Tolley)
58th (The Rutlandshire) Foot                               (Lieutenant Colonel [Brevet Colonel] David Walker)
82nd (Prince of Wales's Volunteers) Foot, 1st Battalion            (Lieutenant Colonel Henry King)

The Brunswick Corps:

HSH the Duke of Brunswick was killed at Quatre Bras and Colonel Elias Olfermann succeeded to the command. At Waterloo, Colonel Olfermann was wounded and Colonel Sir Friedrich von Herzberg, from Wellington’s Staff, assumed command.  When Colonel Olfermann recovered, he resumed command. 

Advance Guard, Light Brigade, Line Brigade 

No changes were  reported for these formations. 

Cavalry & Artillery       

The newly formed Hussar Regiment is sometimes referred to as the 2nd.  The original Hussar Regiment (raised in 1809) was still in British pay, serving with the Mediterranean Garrison.                

Nassau Contingent:

In June, the 2nd Nassau Light Infantry Regiment was transferred to the contingent.

Reserve Artillery:

The Reserve Artillery at Waterloo consisted of Ross's A Horse Artillery Troop and Bean's D Horse Artillery Troop.  Later Ross's Troop was transferred to the 1st Cavalry Brigade.  Some reports give Gordon's Foot Battery of the 6th Division as serving with the Reserve at Waterloo. Hutchesson's Foot Battery was in Ostend, Morrison's Foot Battery was near Ghent and Ilbert's Foot Battery was in Brussels. These three foot batteries joined later.

Siege Train:

After the battle of Waterloo, the siege train under Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Dickson was detached and sent to co-operate with a Prussian Siege Corps (II Corps under Major General von Pirch I, North German Corps under Lieutenant General von Hake  and Luxembourg Garrison under Lieutenant General HSH Prince Ludewig von Hessen-Homburg) commanded by General HRH Prince Augustus of Prussia in besieging the frontier fortresses along the flank of the  advancing Allied Armies. In June, these companies had all been at Ostend.

By September the field operations of the siege train ended and the siege artillery companies were place in garrisons.

Avesnes:                      Wall's Company, R.A.                        
Daussois:                      Carmichael's Company, R.A. and Michell's Company, R.A.

Cavalry:

Lieutenant General Lord Uxbridge was wounded at Waterloo and succeeded in command by Major General Vandeleur.  Major General von Alten was not at Waterloo.  On 11 July, Lieutenant General Sir Stapleton Cotton, 1st Baron Combermere was appointed to the  command. On the advance to Paris, Major General Vivian's  6th Cavalry Brigade, later joined by the 7th Cavalry Brigade, formed the advance guard.

1st British Cavalry Brigade:

This brigade was also known as the Household Brigade.  In November, Major General Lord Edward Somerset was on leave and Lieutenant Colonel George Teesdale, 1st Dragoon Guards commanded the Brigade.  (Originally in April, it was to have been under the command of Major General Terence O'Loghlin.)

2nd British Cavalry Brigade:

Major General Ponsonby was killed at Waterloo and command was assumed in turn by Brevet Colonel Joseph Muter, 6th Dragoons and  when he was wounded, then by Lieutenant Colonel Arthur Clifton, 1st Dragoons.  It is not known if [or when] Brevet Colonel Muter resumed the command.  This brigade is sometimes referred to as the Union Brigade.

3rd British Cavalry Brigade:

Major General von Dornberg was wounded at Waterloo and replaced by Major Peter Latour, 23rd Light Dragoons.  That night [or the next day] Brevet Colonel the 2nd Earl of Portarlington, 23rd Light Dragoons took over the command.  In July, Major General von Dornberg resumed command.   The Duke of Cumberland's Hussars operated with this Brigade at Waterloo.

4th British Cavalry Brigade:

At Waterloo, Major General Vandeleur succeeded to the command of the cavalry and he was replaced by Lieutenant Colonel James Sleigh, 11th Light Dragoons.  In July, Major General Vandeleur resumed command.

5th British Cavalry Brigade:

At Waterloo the 13th Light Dragoons joined the brigade.  The 2nd Hussars KGL were detached to patrol the frontier  near Courtrai and did not rejoin until later.  In June, the brigade with Webber Smith's F Troop, Horse Artillery cooperated with the 4th Anglo-Hanoverian Division at the taking of Cambrai and remained with it for a time.   In July and August, Major General Grant was on leave and  replaced by Brevet Colonel Sir Edward Kerrison, 7th Hussars.

6th British Cavalry Brigade:

No changes were reported.  This brigade was the Advance Guard of the Anglo-Allied Army on the advance to Paris.

7th British Cavalry Brigade:

At Waterloo the 13th Light Dragoons were transferred to the 5th British Brigade.  They rejoined the brigade later. In June this brigade was ordered to join the Advance Guard. In July, the  Depot Troops, Duke of Brunswick Oel's Hussars  from England, joined the Brigade.

8th British Cavalry Brigade:

Formed 18 August and commanded by Major General Lord George Beresford.  It consisted of the following:

2nd (or The Queen's) Dragoon Guards                         (Lieutenant Colonel James Kearney)
3rd (or The Prince of Wales's) Dragoon Guards           (Lieutenant Colonel George Holmes)
3rd (or King's Own) Dragoons                                     (Lieutenant Colonel Lord Charles Manners)

1st Hanoverian Cavalry Brigade:

The brigade was not at Waterloo, as it was detached to Hal.  The brigade had joined the II Corps in May. Only the Duke of Cumberland's Hussars served at Waterloo. 

Horse Artillery:

By the end of the campaign, the Horse Artillery Troops were attached to the following cavalry brigades:

1st Cavalry Brigade:       A Troop (Ross's)
2nd Cavalry Brigade:      I Troop (Bull's)
3rd Cavalry Brigade:      H Troop (Captain [Brevet Lieutenant Colonel] Sir John May)
4th Cavalry Brigade:       2nd Rocket Troop (Whinyates's)
5th Cavalry Brigade:       F Troop (Webber Smith's)
6th Cavalry Brigade:       E Troop (Gardiner's)
7th Cavalry Brigade:       G Troop (Dickson's)
Reserve Artillery:            D Troop (Captain Alexander Cavalie Mercer)

Netherlands Cavalry Division:

Lieutenant General Baron de Collaert was mortally wounded at Waterloo and replaced by Major General Trip. 

Heavy Cavalry Brigade:

Major General Trip succeeded to the command of the Cavalry Division and was replaced by Colonel Jean de Bruyn, 2nd Carabineers. This brigade with Petter's Battery went to Peronne. It rejoined the main army on 27 June. The 6th Hussars joined the brigade after the battle of Waterloo.

1st Light Cavalry Brigade:

After the battle of Waterloo, the 5th Light Dragoons joined the brigade. This brigade served for a time with HRH Prince Frederik's Corps.

2nd Light Cavalry Brigade:

Major General Baron van Merlen was killed at Waterloo. He was succeeded in command by Lieutenant Colonel Willem Boreel, 6th Hussars. The brigade was disbanded after the battle.  The 5th Light Dragoons were transferred to the 1st Light Cavalry Brigade and the 6th Hussars to the Heavy Cavalry Brigade.

Garrison Troops:

These Troops were used to garrison the following cities:

Anderlecht:            2nd Brigade, Hanoverian Reserve Corps

Antwerp:           

7th British Brigade
[1st] Foreign Veteran Battalion King's German Legion
4th Brigade, Hanoverian Reserve Corps
Marsh's Company, R.A.
Tyler's Company, R.A.

Brussels:           

81st Foot, 2nd Battalion (from 10th British Brigade)
Ilbert's Foot Battery (from Reserve Artillery)

Nieuport:           

78th Foot, 2nd Battalion                      
1st Brigade, Hanoverian Reserve Corps (part)
Arentsschildt's Company, KGL Artillery

Ostend:            

13th Royal Veteran Battalion
2nd Garrison Battalion
1st Brigade, Hanoverian Reserve Corps (part)
Hutchesson's Foot Battery (from Reserve Artillery)
Carmichael's Company (from Siege Artillery)
Michell's Company (from Siege Artillery)
Munro's Company, R.A.                                                                                                                         Younghusband's Company, R.A.                                                                                                             Burton's Company, Royal Marine Artillery

Tournai:  Hunt's Company, R.A.

Ypres:     

3rd Brigade, Hanoverian Reserve Corps
Daniel's Company, KGL Artillery

7th British Brigade:

No changes were reported.

Independent British Battalions:

A reorganization, which occurred in the British Army in 1815, resulted in the 13th Royal Veteran Battalion being renumbered as the 7th.  The 2nd Garrison Battalion arrived at Ostend 12 June with 9 companies. Five companies from Bermuda arrived in October. Some accounts have the 2nd Garrison Battalion stationed at Tournai. On 9 July, the 3rd Staff Garrison Company arrived at Ostend.

Unattached Artillery Companies:

Jones's Company, R.A., went to St. Denis, Tyler's Company, R.A. went from Antwerp to Villeron, Younghusband's Company, R.A. went from  Ostend to Fontenoy, Dyas's Company, R.A. went to Montmarte near the 7th Division, Hunt's Company, R.A. went from Tournai to St. Denis, Durnford's Company, R.A. went to Mons and Munro's Company, R.A. went from Ostend to Brussels.

The following unattached artillery companies joined the army in July and August and were stationed at:

Brussels:           

Wallace's Company    [4th Battalion]            (Captain [Brevet Major] Peter  Wallace)
Sinclair's Company     [4th Battalion]            (Captain [Brevet Major] John Sinclair)

Ostend:    Storey's Company            [2nd Battalion]           (Captain [Brevet Major] David Storey)

Peronne:   Clibborne's Company      [9th Battalion]            (Captain [Brevet Major] William Clibborne)

Tournai:    Holcroft's Company         [4th Battalion]            (Captain [Brevet Major] William Holcroft)

Hanoverian Reserve Corps:

By 21 June, Lieutenant General Sir Karl von Alten was appointed to the command.  Lieutenant General von der Decken returned to Hanover, mainly due to the fact that he was senior in army rank to von Alten and to many of the division commanders with the army.

On  18 July, the Harzer Schutzenkorps was transferred to the 1st Hanoverian Brigade, 3rd Anglo-Hanoverian Division.

1st Brigade:

Lieutenant Colonel Bennigsen died on 1 September, 1815 and may have been replaced later that month by Colonel Rudolf Bodecker. At least one authority has Lieutenant Colonel [Brevet Colonel] von Wissell assuming the command and Colonel Bodecker replacing him in  command of the 4th Brigade.

2nd Brigade:

No changes were reported

3rd Brigade:

No changes were reported.

4th Brigade:

In July, Colonel Bodecker was transferred to command of the 1st Brigade KGL and replaced by Lieutenant Colonel [Brevet Colonel] Friedrich von Wissell, 3rd Line Battalion KGL.  In September, Colonel Bodecker may have resumed command and Brevet Colonel von Wissell may have transferred to the commmand of the 1st Brigade.  (In April, the 4th Brigade had been commanded by Colonel Hartwig Hedemann, Field Battalion Calenberg).

Royal Engineers and Royal Sappers and Miners

The Royal Engineers were command by Lieutenant Colonel James Carmichael Smyth. Later, Brigadier General Alexander Bryce arrived and was placed upon the staff. The following companies of Sappers and Miners were in Flanders constructing defences around the fortresses in Belgium and providing a pontoon train for the army. In the Netherlands already  were the 4th & 5th Companies, 2nd Battalion and 4th Company, 3rd Battalion.  Joining between 24 March and 10 June were  the 3rd & 6th Companies, 1st Battalion 2nd & 7th Companies, 2nd Battalion 1st & & 7th Companies, 3rd Battalion and 1st Company, 4th Battalion. After 20 June, the 2nd Company, 4th Battalion joined. Hal was the depot for the engineer's stores.

Royal Waggon Train

The Royal Waggon Train was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Aird.  In April, one troop was in the Netherlands by the end of June there were 3 troops and at the end of December  there were 11 troops with the army.  Of the 8 troops of the British Royal Waggon Train and the 4 troops of  The Foreign Waggon Train, it is not known how many of each were with the army.

Other Allied Contingents:

Had the campaign continued past the July 3rd armistice, the Duke of Wellington's Anglo-Allied Army was to have been             reinforced by the forces of other nations:

Royal Saxony: Lieutenant General Edler von Lecoq commanding.  It consisted of a cavalry brigade and two infantry brigades. In June, this army was directed to march to Antwerp.

Oldenberg:  One  line regiment of two battalions. It never joined the army, but, eventually served in the 3rd (Thuringia) Brigade of the North German Corps.

Denmark:  General HSH Prince Frederick von Hessen commanding.  It consisted of  two/three  brigades of        cavalry, infantry and artillery.  It was directed to march to Antwerp.

Hanse Towns: Major [Brevet Colonel] Sir Neil Campbell, 54th Foot, commanding. It consisted of 3 infantry            battalions, 8 uhlan cavalry squadrons, a jager company and  two batteries.  (The Hanse Towns were the Free Cities of Hamburg, Bremen and Lubeck.). It later joined the army outside of Paris.

Russia: Emperor Alexander I of Russia offered the Russian II  Corps to the Anglo-Allied Army.   Lieutenant General HRH Prince Eugene of Wurttemberg commanding.  It consisted of 3 infantry divisions and 1 cavalry division. Hostilities ended before the Corps could join the Army.                                

Portugal: Marshal Sir William Beresford, Conde de Trancoso to command.  It was to have consisted of 4 infantry divisions, 3 cavalry brigades and 4 artillery batteries.  The contingent was only planned on paper and never organized to serve in either Flanders or France, as hostilities ended while negotiations were being held to send the contingent to join the Anglo-Allied Army.

 

 

Placed on the Napoleon Series: November 2001; updated November 2009.

 

 

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