Military Subjects: Organization, Strategy & Tactics

Austria
Baden
Bavaria
Belgium
Croatia
Denmark
France
Frankfurt
Germany
Great Britain
Hannover
Hanseatic Cities
Hesse
Hesse-Kassel
Holland
Italy
Lithuania
Mecklenburg-Schwerin & Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Naples
Netherlands
Piedmont
Poland
Portugal
Prussia
Russia
Saxony
Saxony-Weimar
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
UnitedStates
Westphalia
Wurttemberg
Würzburg
Other


Austria

Acerbi, Enrico
The Austrian Imperial-Royal Army (Kaiserliche-Königliche Heer) 1805 – 1809

A major study of the organization and units of the Austrian Army

Eder, Joseph
Austrian Landwehr in 1809: the Uniform Plates of Joseph Eder

Contemporary images of Austrian Landwehr.

Embree, Mike
Austrian Regular Infantry

A re-publication of a classic work originally published by the Napoleonic Association.

Millar, Stephen
Austrian Infantry Regiments and Their Commanders 1792 - 1815

The Austrian infantry and their commanders.

Mollo, Tranquillo and Joseph Georg Mansfield
The Austrian Army in 1798: the Uniform Plates of Tranquillo Mollo and Joseph George Mansfield

Contemporary prints of the Austrian Army in 1798.

Nagy, Istvan
Austrian Cavalry Regiments and Their Commanders: 1792-1815

The Austrian cavalry and its commanders.

Neumann, Friedrich
Austrian Freikorps and Landwehr of the Wars of Liberation: the Uniform Plates of Friedrich Neumann

Contemporary prints of the Austrian Army in 1813.

Smola, Karl.
The Austrian Cavalry Gun in Comparison to the Horse Artillery of Other States

Translated by Digby Smith

A translation of the 1827 Austrian study of horse artillery of the European armies.


Baden

Awards and Decorations

The Baden Order of Fidelity and the Order of Military Merit

Burnham, Robert
The Baden Army at the Battle of Talavera 27 - 28 July 1809

An overview of the organization and uniforms of the Baden contingent of the French Army at the Battle of Talavera.

Bavaria

Awards and Decorations

The Bavarian Orders of Saint Hubert, the Palatinate Lion, and Maximilian-Joseph

Cantler, Johann
The Bavarian Army 1800 - 1815: the Uniform Plates of Johann Cantler

Over 250 different images of the Bavarian army!

Neumann, Friedrich
Bavarian Volunteers and Landwehr of the Wars of Liberation: the Uniform Plates of Friedrich Neumann

Contemporary images from 1813-1814.



Belgium

Suhr Brothers
The Chevau-Léger Belge d'Arenberg in Hamburg (1807 - 1808): the Uniform Plates of the Suhr Brothers

Contemporary images from 1807 - 1808.


Berg

Dempsey, Guy C.
The Berg Regiment of Light Horse 1807-1808

 


Croatia

Broughton, Tony
Regiments d’Infanterie Etrangers and the Colonels who led them during the period 1804-1815: Regiments Croates
Officer Casualties Suffered by the Regiments d’Infanterie Etrangers during the period 1804-1815: The Regiments Croates


Denmark

Decorations and Awards

Orders of the Elephant and Dannebrog

Suhr Brothers
The Danish Army in Hamburg (1812 - 1814): the Uniform Plates of the Suhr Brothers

Contemporary images of the Danish Army.


France

Webb, Mark (Editor)
État Militaire de France pour l'année 1789

This paper won an Honorable Mention in the "Best Publication and/or Translation into English of New Archival Material or Books Long Out of Print" Category in the 2005 Napoleon Series Writing Contest!

A reproduction of the 1789 year book describing the pre-Revolution French military establishment.

REGLEMENT Concernant l’exercice et les Manœuvres de l’Infanterie: Du 1er août 1791

The French Drill Manual

Beyer, Leopold
Leopold Beyer's War Scenes: 1813 - 1815

Contemporary sketches of the French Army in Germany.

Beorn, Waitman
"Heads Up, By God!"

French Cavalry At Eylau, 1807 And Napoleon's Cavalry Doctrine.

Broughton, Tony
Flag Ships Commanded by French Admirals during the period 1791-1815

What ships French admirals sailed on.

Broughton, Tony
Armes d’Honneur Awarded to the Regiments de la Garde Impériale

Armes d'Honneur Awarded to the French Cavalry: 1799 - 1802

Armes d’Honneur Awarded to the Regiments d’Infanterie de Ligne

Armes d’Honneur Awarded to the Regiments d'Infanterie Legere

Armes d’Honneur Awarded to the Regiments d’Artillerie

Armes d’Honneur Awarded to the Bataillons du Train d’Artillerie

Prior to the introduction of the Legion d'Honneur in 1803 the men of the French Army received  Armes d'Honneur in recognition of their bravery on the battlefield.

Broughton, Tony
French Artillery Regiments and the Colonels Who Led Them 1792-1815

Napoleon's artillery was the most feared in the world. This group of articles looks at the French gunners and the men who led them!

Broughton, Tony
French Cavalry Regiments and the Colonels Who Led Them 1792-1815

While there are literally thousands of books on the Emperor and his marshals, generals, and the people who surrounded him very little as been written on the men who commanded his regiments. This is a 21 part series that looks at the history of each cavalry regiment, plus their regimental commanders and officer casualties. This series of articles won the 2000 Napoleon Series Writing Contest's Best of Series Award!

Broughton, Tony

French Infantry Regiments and the Colonels Who Led Them 1792-1815

French Infantry Officer Casualties during the Napoleonic Wars

A 32 part series on the history of the French line infantry and the men who led them!!

Broughton, Tony

French Light Infantry Regiments and the Colonels Who Led Them 1792-1815

A eight part series on the French light infantry regiments. This group of articles won the 2002 Napoleon Series Writing Contest's "Honorable Mention, Best of Series Award"!

Broughton, Tony & J.F.
The Imperial Guard

A variety of articles on the most famous units of the Napoleonic Wars.

Brougthon, Tony
Auxiliary Regiments in the Service of France and the Colonels who led Them during the period 1804 - 1815: Regiments d’Infanterie Suisse

Officer Casualties suffered by the Auxiliary Regiments in the Service of France 1804-1815: Regiments d’Infanterie Suisse

The Swiss Regiments!

Regiments d'Infanterie Etrangers and the Colonels who led them during the period 1804-1815

Regiments d'Infanterie Etrangers and the Colonels who led them during the period 1804-1815: Bataillons Etranger

Officer Casualties Suffered by the Regiments d’Infanterie Etrangers during the period 1804-1815: Part One

Officer Casualties Suffered by the Regiments d’Infanterie Etrangers during the period 1804-1815: Part Two

The Foreign Regiments!

Regiments d'Infanterie Etrangers and the Colonels who led them during the period 1804-1815: The Polish Regiments

Officer Casualties Suffered by the Regiments d’Infanterie Etrangers during the period 1804-1815: the Polish Regiments

The Poles!

Regiments d'Infanterie Etrangers and the Colonels who led them during the period 1804-1815: The Spanish and Portuguese Regiments

Officer Casualties Suffered by the Regiments d’Infanterie Etrangers during the period 1804-1815: the Spanish and Portuguese Regiments

The Spanish and Portuguese Units!

Regiments d’Infanterie Etrangers and the Colonels who led them during the period 1804-1815: Regiments Croates

Officer Casualties Suffered by the Regiments d’Infanterie Etrangers during the period 1804-1815: The Regiments Croates

The Balkans!

Burnham, Robert
French Artillery during the battle of Auerstadt

Until recently the exact order-of-battle for the artillery during the battle of Auerstadt was difficult to find. Sources are contradictory and few even agree on the number of guns...

Burnham, Robert
The Tirailleurs Corses.

Organization and Uniforms of the Tirailleurs Corses in 1809.

Burnham, Robert
Uniforms of the French 23rd Chasseurs-a-Cheval 1811-1812

The name says it all...

Contant, Dominique
Les Medaillers de Saint Helene (In French)

The Medaillers of Saint Helene (In English)

In 1857, Napoleon III created the medal of Saint Helene for all the veterans of the wars of the Revolution and the Empire. . .

Contant, Dominique
Organization of a French Infantry Demi-Brigade: 1793

Its organization based on the 12 August 1793 Law.

Contant, Dominique
Recommendations by France's Council of State on Conscription in 1806

Recommendations by France's Council of State on Conscription in 1811

Figures on what each department had to provide and to which regiment.

Crowdy, Terry
A French Infantry Battalion at Wagram, 1809

A detailed study of how the 9th Légère expanded to a five battalion regiment and the effect it had on it by 1809.

Cueto, Dionisio Álvarez
The French Armies in Spain 1808: The Artwork of Dionisio Álvarez Cueto

The French Armies in Spain 1809: The Artwork of Dionisio Álvarez Cueto

Paintings by a Spanish artist who lives in Madrid.

Dawson, Anthony
The Geographical Engineers/Ingenieurs-geographes

The organization and uniforms of the Geographical Engineers.

Dawson, Paul
French Artillery in 1807
Note: This paper won the 2004 Napoleon Series Writing Contest "Honorable Mention, Best Military Paper Award"!

The organization of the artillery in the Grande Armee.

The Forgotten Army?  Napoleon’s Foreign Troops in 1815

The foreigners who rallied to Napoleon in 1815

The French Cavalry in Austria in 1809

How Napoleon mobilized his cavalry for the war with Austria.

Grognards: Grenadier a Pied de la Garde 1799 - 1815

A study of the men. . .

Napoleon's Gunners: The Guard Foot Artillery

The organization, uniforms, tactics, and employment of the Napoleon's Imperial Guard Artillerie-á-Pied.

The Artillery of System An XI
Note: This paper won the 2002 Napoleon Series Writing Contest "Honorable Mention, Best Military Paper Award"!

Why the System An XI artillery replaced the Gribeauval system of guns.

Artillery Train of the Guard: 1800-1815

Its organization and structure. Has several pictures of a re-enactment unit.

The Imperial Guard and Polish Nationalism: 1812-1814

Little known foreign units in the Imperial Guard.

Napoleon’s Equine Strategy in 1813

Did Napoleon really have a shortage of horses in 1813?

Napoleon's Polish Lancers of the Guard

A brief history of this famous regiment.

Officer’s Coat, Chevau-Leger-Lanciers Polonaise de la Garde Imperiale c.1812

A heavily illustrated guide to the coat worn by an officer of the Polish Lancers.

Portrait of a Grenadier-à-Cheval of the Imperial Guard

A look at the average age, height, and experience of a Grenadier-à-Cheval

French Cavalry Remounts and Replacements December 1806 to December 1807

How Napoleon kept his regiments mounted.

Tirailleurs de la Garde Imperiale: 1809-1815

The organization, leaders, uniforms, and employment of the Napoleon's Tirailleurs of the Guard.

Uniforms of the Chasseurs-à-Pied de la Garde

Uniforms of the Chasseurs-à-Pied  de la Garde: the Drummers & Musicians

Uniforms of the Chasseurs-à-Pied  de la Garde: the Sappers

Uniforms of the Chasseurs-à-Pied  de la Garde: the Officers

A detailed look at the uniforms and equipment of the Old Guard Chasseurs! Contains many photos.

Uniform of the Grenadiers-á-Pied de la Garde: 1810-1815

Uniform of the Drummers of the Grenadiers-á-Pied de la Garde: 1810-1815

Uniform of the Sapeurs of the Grenadiers-á-Pied de la Garde: 1810-1815

Uniform of the Officers of the Grenadiers-á-Pied de la Garde: 1810-1815

A detailed look at the uniforms and equipment of the Old Guard Grenadiers! Contains many photos.

Desanois, Emmanuel
Organisation

L'organisation des armées du Premier Empire. Article only available in French.

Gibson, David J.
Napoleon and the Grande Armée: Military Innovations Leading to a Revolution in 19th Century Military Affairs

The great innovations represented by the Grande Armée gave Napoleon a tool that fit perfectly with his emphasis on speed, maneuver, and maintaining the offensive...

Graves, Donald
Louis de Tousard and His "Artillerists Companion": an Investigation of Source Material for Napoleonic Period Ordnance

Henschel Brothers
The French Army in Berlin in 1809: the Uniform Plates of the Henschel Brothers

Contemporary images of French uniforms -- mostly of the Imperial Guard.

Holmberg, Tom
Following the Drum: Cantinières

A look at the brave women, who served their regiments so well.

Jones, John
Organization of the French Engineer Equipment Train as decreed on 25 March 1811

Kiley, Kevin
The Eagle's Talons: Generalship in La Grande Armée

Across Europe they strode like colossus...

The Grand Quartier-General Imperial and the Corps d'Armée

The French staff system.

Organization, Tactics, and Employment of Artillery in the Grande Armee, 1800-1815

A look at French artillery doctrine.

Theorists, Instructors, and Practitioners: The Evolution of French Doctrine

A look at how French military doctrine evolved from pre-Revolutionary times to the Napoleonic era.

Lo Presti, Francois
A Brief History of the 12th Chasseurs-à-Cheval.

The name says it all...

Lozier, Jean-Francois
Foot Grenadier

About Napoleon's most famous soldiers: the Foot Grenadiers of His Imperial Guard.

Marc
Light Cavalry Sabers the French Army

Marc examines the 4 different kinds of sabers used by the light cavalry.

Marc
The Chasseur-à-Cheval de La Garde Impériale Sabre

A look at the sabres carried by the troopers of the Chasseur-à-Cheval de la Garde Impériale.

The "Superior Officer Hussar Style - Consulate" Sabre

A look at the sabres carried by the superior officers of the French hussars.

Martin, Yves
French Artillery 1789 to 1800

Organization prior to the Revolution: 1789-1790.

Martin, Yves
The Uniform Plates of Vernet - Lami: The French Army 1791 - 1815 

A huge collection of Napoleonic Uniform Plates! You have to see these to believe them!!

Martin, Yves
French Voluntary Foreign Pioneers.

An overview of the Voluntary Foreign Pioneers in the French Army.

Millar, Stephen
French Colonels and Colonels-in-Chief (1789): Foreign Infantry Regiments

A look at the French infantry regiments in 1789 and the colonels who commanded them.

Morillon, Paul
Capri, Octobre 1808: Opération amphibie et "commandos" de l'Empereur.

During the Napoleonic Wars, there were numerous raids and attacks by British forces on French held islands in the Mediterranean Sea. This piece, written in French, provides detailed information on the attack on Capri and includes orders-of-battle and numerous black and white illustrations of the uniforms of the participants, including the numerous French units.

Morillon, Marc
Translated by Paul Morillon. Drawings by Pierre Salamand.
The Siege Mortars and Their Related Skills During the Napoleonic Era

Some of you have probably noticed in "la Cour d'honneur des Invalides," some strange "guns" with a short and wide tube. These devices deserve to be better known and represented.

Nafziger, George
Napoleon's Use of His Imperial Guard

In his unpublished doctorate dissertation, George Nafziger demonstrates how Napoleon used his Guard as a instrument of French Imperial policy in several different ways.

Nafziger, George
Oudinot's Grenadier Division: 1806-1809

A total of 17 "elite" battalions were raised and organized into seven regiments in December 1806...

Nafziger, George
What a French Fusilier Carried in 1812

The contents of an 1812 French Fusilier's knapsack and haversack.

Neveu, Stephane
Auerstadt 1806

Orders of battle for the Battle of Auerstadt. Article only available in French.

Ouvrard, Robert
Mottos of French Cavalry Regiments

A compilation of French regimental cavalry slogans. This is a companion piece to Mr. Ouvrard's Infantry Mottos!

Ouvrard, Robert
Mottos of French Infantry Regiments

A compilation of French regimental infantry slogans. This piece is the result of many hours of research and I know of no other place where there is such a comprehensive listing!

Pappas, Dale
Grande Armée Veterans in the Egyptian Army of the Greek War of Independence 1824-1828

French soldiers in Egypt after the Napoleonic Wars. . .

Pool, Marikska and Mark van Hattem
To Delft via Archangelsk: H.T. Verhoef (1790-1865)
and His Uniform Jacket

A rare look at the 1812 Russian Campaign as seen through the eyes of a Dutch surgeon. The authors, who are curators at the Royal Netherlands Army and Arms Museum have access to jacket Verhoef wore and other personal items, which they use to flesh out his memoirs!

Potrelle
The French Consular Guard in 1801: the Potrelle Uniform Plates

Contemporary prints of the Consular Guard in 1801.

Pouvesle, Frédéric
La Garde Impériale

A brief history and description of the uniforms of all (?) regiments of the French Imperial Guard. Article only available in French.

Reese, Tim
Uniforms of the French Hussars: 1804 - 1813

Color plates of the uniforms of all 13 regiments.

Uniforms of the French Line Infantry: 1804 - 1812

Saint Hilaire, Emile Marco de
History of the Imperial Guard
Translated by Greg Gorsuch

The first English translation of this seminal work on the Imperial Guard that was published in 1845. It first sold as a subscription and eventually consisted of 40 "books" each of 16 pages!

Scattolin, Roberto A.
By Order of the Commander-in-Chief: the Origin of the Guides-à-cheval

How Napoleon's first guard came to be.

Aperçus d’histoire: the 5th French Hussars (1807)

A history of the 5th Hussars.

31e Régiment de Chasseurs:  La phalange infernale   (The Hellish Phalanx)

A brief look at an incident in 1814.

Smith, Steven H.
X Corps de la Grande Armée in 1812

A superb order-of-battle for the X Corps of the Grande Armée in 1812.

Smith, Steven H.
French Military Manuals

A Bibliography of French Military Manuals and Instructions Concerning the Napoleonic Period.

Suhr Brothers
The French 5th Corps of the Armée du Réserve du Rhin in Hamburg (1806 - 1807): the Uniform Plates of the Suhr Brothers

French Sailors of the Guard in Hamburg (circa 1806 - 1807): the Uniform Plates of the Suhr Brothers

The French 8th Corps in Hamburg (1806 - 1808): the Uniform Plates of the Suhr Brothers

French Cavalry in Hamburg (1811 - 1812): the Uniform Plates of the Suhr Brothers

French Units in the Defense of Hamburg (1813 - 1814): the Uniform Plates of the Suhr Brothers

Contemporary illustrations of French troops stationed in Hamburg.

Vovsi, Eman
Le 3e (Piémont) Régiment d’infanterie de ligne 1495-1815

A history of one of the oldest regiments in the French Army.

A Heavy Price for the Glory of the Empire: Losses in Regimental Commanders and Staff Personnel of Napoléon’s Grande Armée  

The heavy casualty toll among regimental commanders.

Paul Thiébault and the Development of the French Staff system from Ancien Régime to the Revolution

Pierre Daru, the System of Military Administration, and le Code Militaire, 1805

The evolution of the French military bureaucracy and military law.

Wasson, Major James U.S. Army
The Army Corps

The development of the Corps D'Armée and its impact on Napoleonic warfare

Yvert, Louis
Historique du 13e Regiment du Cuirassiers (1807-1814)


Frankfurt

Neumann, Friedrich
Frankfurt Volunteers of the Wars of Liberation: the Uniform Plates of Friedrich Neumann

Contemporary uniform images from 1813-1814.


Germany

Burnham, Robert
Greatcoats of the Minor German States

An overview of the greatcoats of the Minor German States of the period 1809 - 1812.

Hofschröer, Peter
German Waterloo Sources:

An Examination of Material in the German Language on the Campaign of 1815.

Taenzer, Michael A.
King's German Artillery 1814 - 1815

The Organization of the King's German Artillery 1814 - 1815


Great Britain

British Army Ranks and Their Naval Equivalent

British Officer Pensions: 1811

Aaron, Martin
2nd Battalion 69th (South Lincolnshire) Foot during the Waterloo Campaign

A company by company examination of the manpower and casualties of the battalion.

Bamford, Andrew
British Army Unit Strengths: 1808-1815

A comprehensive study of the monthly unit for every British infantry battalion, cavalry regiment, and support units on active service from 1808 to 1815.

Bois, Mark
The Inniskillings at Waterloo 

The demographics of the 1st Battalion 27th Foot.

Leadership and Experience: British Officers at Waterloo

How experienced were the British junior officers and how experience or lack of experience affected their unit's performance

Brown, Steve
A Very Pretty Little Battalion” The 3/14th Regiment of Foot in the Waterloo Campaign

The contributions of an often overlooked unit at Waterloo

Bound For Mondego Bay: British Infantry Regiment Movements To and From the Peninsula, 1808 to 1814

A by month listing of when the regiments arrived and departed the Peninsula

‘Every Species of Foreigner’: Britain's Foreign Regiments 1793-1796

A surprising number of foreign regiments were raised by the British in response to the French threat.

General Brevet Calendar of the British Army 1790-1819

How an officer could be promoted outside the regiment

British Artillery Companies and the Men Who Led Them – 1793 To 1815

A guide to the British artillery. . .

British Infantry Regiments and the Men Who Led Them 1793-1815

A guide to the British infantry regiments. . .

British Cavalry Regiments and the Men Who Led Them 1793-1815

A guide to the British cavalry regiments. . .

British Cavalry Regimental Depots 1804 – 1812

Where the cavalry regiments had their depots.

British Infantry Regimental Depots 1804 – 1812

Where the infantry regiments had their depots.

The Expansion of the British Army 1793-1800: Second Battalions

How the British increased their army in response to the French threat.

Fantasy Orbats 1: The Modern British Army at Waterloo

What if the units of the British Army on that day in June 1815 had been represented by their descendant regiments instead?

Fantasy Orbats 2: Wellington’s Old Contemptibles of 1914

What if the British Regular Army that went to France in August and September 1914 was the same one that existed in 1815?

Heroes and Villains: Death and Desertion in the British Army 1811 to 1813

The regiments with the most casualties.

King George’s Martinien: Losses and Senior Officer Casualties in the British Army 1793 to 1815

A listing, by battle, of regimental casualties.

Register of British Officer Prisoners Held at Verdun 1804-1813

A listing of British officers held prisoner by the French at Verdun.

Burnham, Robert
The British Army in the Napoleonic Wars: Manpower Stretched to the Limits?

Were Great Britain's global commitments stretching her too thin?

Burnham, Robert
The British Battalions of Detachment in 1809

A look at two little known units of the British Army in the Peninsula War.

Burnham, Robert
The British Regimental Mess in the Peninsula War

During the Napoleonic Wars, the British Army officer's life centered around his regimental mess when he was not on duty...

Burnham, Robert
Murder in the 42nd

A story of love, murder, and British military justice in the 42nd Highlanders along the Spanish border in 1813.

Burnham, Robert
Spanish Recruits in the British Army 1812 - 1813

Reclutas Españoles en el Ejército Británico 1812 - 1813 (In Spanish)

Late in the Peninsular War, the British Army was running out of men. So they instituted a program to recruit Spanish men into their infantry regiments.

Burnham, Robert
What a British Rifleman Carried in 1809

During the Napoleonic Wars, a British rifleman carried almost eighty pounds of equipment.

Burnham, Robert and Cook, John
Nicknames of British Units during the Napoleonic Wars

Most military units throughout the world have a nickname that they are often called in an informal setting. Sometimes these nicknames are given out of respect for some heroic deed, but more often they were given to the unit by people outside of the unit to make fun of it...

Centeno, João
British Officers Serving as General Officers in the Portuguese Army

Many of the Portuguese Army's Brigade Commanders were British officers.

Officers Awarded with the Portuguese “Medalha De Distinção De Comando”: Medal of Distinction (in Command) Known as Commander's Medal for the Peninsular War

A listing of who recieved the Portuguese Medal of Distinction

Dawson, Anthony L.
Some notes on the Royal Artillery in the Peninsula 1808

The problems faced by the British Artillery in the early days of the Peninsular War.

Wellington’s Big Bang: the British 12-pounders

British 12 pounders!

Dawson, Paul
Standing orders in His Majesty's First (or Royal) Regiment of Dragoonscommanded by General the Earl of Pembroke

Egerton, T.
Light Infantry Exercise: As Ordered in His Majesty's Regulations for the Movement of the Troops

A reprint of a 1797 document on how British Army Regulations thought light infantry should operate.

Foster, Ray
Notes on Wellington’s Peninsular Infantry Regiments

Histories of the various British infantry regiments that fought in the Peninsular.

Notes on Wellington’s Cavalry in the Peninsula

Histories of the various British cavalry regiments that fought in the Peninsular.

Graves, Donald
A French General Views His Enemy: Général de Division Maximilien Foy Analyzes the British Army

An opponent's view of the British Army.

British Military Discipline in the Napoleonic Period: Gleanings from the Inquiry into the System of Military Punishments in the Army, 1836

A commission set up by the King William IV to review whether military punishments should be changed.

"In no service or country is the ceremony so awful and impressive:" British Military Executions in the Napoleonic Period.
Contemporary accounts of British military executions.

"Such a woman seldom appears": The Curious Tales of Sergeant Sarah Taylor of the 15th Light Dragoons and Trooper Johanna Stain of the King's German Legion

Contemporary accounts of women serving as soldiers in the British Army.

"We Have an Immediate Opening:" The Seniority of Brigade Commanders in the Peninsular Army, 1812

An examination of the seniority of British brigade commanders in 1812.

Where Have All the Regiments Gone? The Modern Descendants of the Regiments of the 1815 British Army

A listing of the regiments from 1815 and their new names now.

Hadaway, Stuart
The Regimental School System and Education in the British Army in the Napoleonic Era

How the British Army set up schools to teach their soldiers and the children of the regiment how to read and write. This paper won "Best General History Paper" in the 2001 Napoleon Series Writing Contest!

Hewgill, James
The British Army in 1792: the Uniform Plates of James Hewgill

Contemporary images of the British infantry uniforms.

McGuigan, Ron
Allied Occupation Army in post-Waterloo France

British & Hanoverian Contingents of the Allied Occupation Army in post- Waterloo France

British Regiments in the Peninsular War 1808-1814

The units that served in the Peninsular War and what happened to them over the years.

Per Mare Per Terram - the Royal Marines 1793-1815

The organization of the Royal Marines.

The British Army: 1793

A look at the British Army at the start of the Era, to include a list of senior officers and the individual regiments. This paper won "Best Military Paper: Honorable Mention" in the 2003 Napoleon Series Writing Contest!

The Forgotten Army: Fencible Regiments of Great Britain 1793-1816

The force behind Britain's Regular Army. To include organization, units, commanders, strength, dates of raising, and dates of existence. This paper won "Best Military Paper: Honorable Mention" in the 2003 Napoleon Series Writing Contest!

McGuigan, Ron & Robert Burnham
State of the British Army in 1805

An overview of the garrisons and strength of the British Army in 1805.

Millar, Stephen
Deadly at Close-Range: His Majesty's Ship "Glatton" (1795-1814)

The Royal Navy's first (and only) warship armed exclusively with carronades.

Promotion in the Flag Ranks in the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars

How the Royal Navy promoted their admirals.

Morillon, Paul
Capri, Octobre 1808: Opération amphibie et "commandos" de l'Empereur

During the Napoleonic Wars, there were numerous raids and attacks by British forces on French held islands in the Mediterranean Sea. This piece, written in French, provides detailed information on the attack on Capri and includes orders-of-battle and numerous black and white illustrations of the uniforms of the participants, including the numerous British units such as the Royal Corsican Rangers and Marines.

Read, Martin
The British 1796 Pattern Light Cavalry Sword

A look at the light cavalry sword used by the British Army.

Getting the Point: Some Functional Aspects of the 1796 British Heavy Cavalry Sword

Examines the different modifications made by soldiers in the field to the British heavy cavalry sword point. This paper won "Best Military Paper" in the 2003 Napoleon Series Writing Contest!

Cavalry Combat and the Sword: Sword Design, Provision, and Use in the British Cavalry of the Napoleonic Era.

Why British swordmanship was so effective!

Taenzer, Michael A.
King's German Artillery 1814 - 1815

The organization of the King's German Artillery 1814 - 1815


Hannover

Cook, John
The Hanoverian Legion

The Légion Hanovrienne was created by General Mortier, Governor of Hanover, on 12 August 1803 following the French occupation.

McGuigan, Ron
Allied Occupation Army in post- Waterloo France

British & Hanoverian Contingents of the Allied Occupation Army in post- Waterloo France.

McGuigan, Ron
Hanoverian Light Battalions: 1813 - 1815

An examination of the light infantry units in the Hanoverian Army.

Neumann, Friedrich
Hanoverian Freikorps and Landwehr of the Wars of Liberation: the Uniform Plates of Friedrich Neumann

Contemporary images of the Hannoverian Army in 1813 - 1814.

Suhr Brothers
The Hanoverian Legion Cavalry in Hamburg (1811): the Uniform Plates of the Suhr Brothers

Contemporary images from 1811.

Taenzer, Michael A.
King's German Artillery 1814 - 1815

The Organization of the King's German Artillery 1814 - 1815


Hanseatic Cities (Hamburg, Lübeck, and Bremen)

Neumann, Friedrich
Hanseatic Cities (Hamburg, Lübeck, and Bremen) Volunteers of the Wars of Liberation: the Uniform Plates of Friedrich Neumann

Contemporary images of the volunteers in 1813-1814.


Hesse

Decoraations and Awards

The Order of Saint Ludwig

Desanois, Emmanuel
Les Hessois

Les Alliés de la France durant la campagne de Russie. Article only available in French.


Hessen-Kassel

Neumann, Friedrich
Hessen-Kassel Landwehr and Volunteers of the Wars of Liberation: the Uniform Plates of Friedrich Neumann

Contemporary uniform images of 1813-1814.

 

Italy

Frasca, Francesco
Les Italiens - The Italians

Les Italiens dans l'armée Française:récrutement et encadrement - Italians in the French army: recruitement and incorporation

Frasca, Francesco
Les Italiens dans l'Armée napoléonienne: Des légions aux Armées de la République italienne et du Royaume d'Italie

A detailed look at the Italian units that served with the French during the Revolution and the Empire. (In French)

Ilari, Virgilio
The Italian Military in the Napoleonic Wars 1792-1815

A major study of the Italians in the Napoleonic Wars. (In Italian).

Scattolin, Roberto
The Memorie Zucchi: an Extrapolation of the 1809 Italian Campaign

How one Italian officer's nationalism was in conflict with the French Empire in 1809.

Suhr Brothers
The Italian Army in Hamburg (1806 - 1807): the Uniform Plates of the Suhr Brothers

Contemporary images of the Italian Army.

 


Lithuania

Dawson, Paul
The Imperial Guard and Polish Nationalism: 1812-1814

A look at the Lithuanians who served in Napoleon's Imperial Guard.

Kudriashov, Ilya
Lithuanian Military under Napoleon in 1812

On 24 June 1812, the French army invaded the Russian Empire near Kaunas... On 1 July 1812, Napoleon established the Great Lithuanian Principality with its own government and army. This is about the organization of that army.


Mecklenburg-Schwerin & Mecklenburg-Strelitz

Neumann, Friedrick
Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz Volunteers of the Wars of Liberation: the Uniform Plates of Friedrich Neumann

Contemporaray images of the uniforms from 1813-1814


Naples

Morillon, Paul
Capri, Octobre 1808: Opération amphibie et "commandos" de l'Empereur

During the Napoleonic Wars, there were numerous raids and attacks by British forces on French held islands in the Mediterranean Sea. This piece, written in French, provides detailed information on the attack on Capri and includes orders-of-battle and numerous black and white illustrations of the uniforms of the participants, including the Neapolitan units.


Netherlands

Bijl, Marco
History and Organisation of the Dutch 8th Militia Battalion

An indepth look at a Dutch unit during the Waterloo Campaign.

Develloet, André
The Dutch-Belgian Cavalry at Waterloo Archives

Documents covering the Dutch-Belgian regiments.

Pool, Marikska and Mark van Hattem
To Delft via Archangelsk: H.T. Verhoef (1790-1865)
and His Uniform Jacket

A rare look at the 1812 Russian Campaign as seen through the eyes of a Dutch surgeon. The authors, who are curators at the Royal Netherlands Army and Arms Museum have access to jacket Verhoef wore and other personal items, which they use to flesh out his memoirs!

Four Men and a Woman: Remarkable Dutch Experiences during the Russian Campaign of Napoleon in 1812

What motivated some of Napoleon's Dutch troops in 1812.

Suhr Brothers
The Dutch Army in Hamburg (1807 - 1808): the Uniform Plates of the Suhr Brothers

Contemporary illustrations of the Dutch Army.

Street, George
Dutch Troops of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars 1793 to 1810

This material is taken from a book that Mr. Street has written on the organization, orders-of-battle, and uniforms of the Dutch army from 1792-1810. It will be published in September 2012.

van Uythoven, Geert
The Dutch Army of 1793-1794

This material is taken from a book that Mr. van Uythoven is writing on the organization, orders-of-battle, and uniforms of the Dutch army from 1792-1815.

van Uythoven, Geert
The Dutch Indian Brigade

On 13th August 1814, the former Batavian/Dutch colonies were given back to the Dutch government by the Treaty of London. At 18th August the strength for the troops to be sent to the colonies was established...

van Uythoven, Geert
The Netherlands Reserve Army 1815

On 24 May 1815 it was decided to create a Reserve Army, to reinforce the Netherlands Field Army...


Piedmont

Isnard, Ludovic
Organization of the Savoy-Piedmont-Sardinian Armies 1792-1815

A look at the structure of one of the lesser known armies.


Poland

Broughton, Tony
Regiments d'Infanterie Etrangers and the Colonels who led them during the period 1804-1815: The Polish Regiments

Officer Casualties Suffered by the Regiments d’Infanterie Etrangers during the period 1804-1815: the Polish Regiments

Burnham, Robert
Polish Infantry and Artillery

Polish Infantry and Artillery Uniforms of the V Corps during the Invasion of Russia, 1812.

Dawson, Paul
The Imperial Guard and Polish Nationalism: 1812-1814

A look at the Poles who served in Napoleon's Imperial Guard.

Napoleon's Polish Lancers of the Guard

A brief history of this famous regiment.

Officer’s Coat, Chevau-Leger-Lanciers Polonaise de la Garde Imperiale c.1812

A heavily illustrated guide to the coat worn by an officer of the Polish Lancers.

Uniforms of the Polish Artillery: 1812

What the Polish Artillery wore in 1812.

Martin, Yves
Polish Grenadiers of the Imperial Guard 1813.

On the 14th September 1813, Napoleon issued an order in the camp at Dresden organizing the "new" division of the Old Guard...

Martin, Yves
The 8th Polish Corps in 1813

In early February 1813, Prince Poniatowski began organizing a new Polish corps (the future 8th corps)...

Muzás, Luis Sorando
The Standards of the Vístula Lancers

How the Vistula Lancers lost their standards in Spain.

Suhr Brothers
Polish Cavalry in Hamburg (1806 - 1814): the Uniform Plates of the Suhr Brothers

Contemporary images of Polish Cavalry


Portugal

Broughton, Tony
Regiments d'Infanterie Etrangers and the Colonels who led them during the period 1804-1815: The Spanish and Portuguese Regiments

Officer Casualties Suffered by the Regiments d’Infanterie Etrangers during the period 1804-1815: the Spanish and Portuguese Regiments

The Portuguese who served with the French.

Burnham, Robert
Portuguese Line Infantry Flags of the Napoleonic Wars: 1806-1812

Very few flags of the Portuguese Army survive today. This paper examines the colors carried by the line regiments during most of the Peninsula War.

Burnham, Robert
Uniforms of the Portuguese 6th Cacadores in 1811

A look at a little known, but hard fighting unit of the Portuguese Army.

Centeno, João
General Officers in the Portuguese Army

A listing of Portuguese generals of the era.

Morning State of the Portuguese Army: 31 December 1809 to 31 December 1814

The annual strength report of each unit in the Portuguese Army.

Officers Awarded with the Portuguese “Medalha De Distinção De Comando”: Medal of Distinction (in Command) Known as Commander's Medal for the Peninsular War

A listing of who recieved the Portuguese Medal of Distinction

Portuguese Artillery of the Napoleonic Wars

The organization, uniforms, and combats of the Portuguese Artillery.

Portuguese Army Ranks and Their British Equivalents

Sorando, Luis
Trophies Taken by the French Forces From the Portuguese during the Spanish Campaign

Flags lost by the Portuguese during the Peninsular War.


Prussia

Prussian Infantry Uniforms of 1806

Contemporary illustrations showing the uniforms of the Prussian infantry of 1806.

Dallas, Gavan
Prussian Cavalry Standards 1808 - 1815

A superb piece on Prussian cavalry standards and resolves many of the conflicts that are found in other sources.

Lewis, Jeff
The Use of the Third Rank and Brigade Formations According to the Prussian Regulations of 1812

A look at Prussian tactical formations in accordance with their regulations.

Mantle, Robert
Prussian Reserve Infantry: 1813-15

A re-publication of a classic work originally published by the Napoleonic Association.

Millar, Stephen

These five papers won the 2005 Napoleon Series Writing Contest for the Best Military Paper!

Prussian Infantry Regimental Colonels-in-Chief 1792 - 1806

A listing, by regiment, of the regimental colonels-in-chief.

Prussian Colonels-in-Chief 1792-1806: Cuirassier Regiments

A listing, by regiment, of the regimental colonels-in-chief.

Prussian Colonels-in-Chief 1792-1806: Dragoon Regiments

A listing, by regiment, of the regimental colonels-in-chief.

Prussian Colonels-in-Chief 1792-1806: Hussar Regiments

A listing, by regiment, of the regimental colonels-in-chief.

Neveu, Stephane
Auerstadt 1806

Orders of battle for the Battle of Auerstadt. Article only available in French.

Schiavonetti
Prussian Uniforms Published by Schiavonetti in 1806

Six contemporary uniform plates of the Prussian Army.

Schmidt, Oliver
Prussian Swordknots 1802 - 1808

The colors of Prussian Swordknots from 1802 to 1808, according to Kling in his definitive work on the Prussian infantry: Infanterie.

Russia

Boltishev, Victor
The Artwork of Victor Boltishev

Some original art of the Napoleonic Wars by a Russian artist.

Gingerich, Jonathan
Russian Infantry Facings - Inspection Era

This article describes the facings of the Russian infantry during the inspection period from 1802 until the introduction of divisions at the start of 1808.

Goetz, Robert
The Development of the Russian Inspectorate, 1762-1806

Between Inspections and Corps:  The Russian Divisional Structure, 1806 - 1810
Note: This paper won the 2002 Napoleon Series Writing Contest "Honorable Mention, Best Military Paper Award"!

Two major studies of how the Russian Army developed into the formidable force it was during the Napoleonic Wars.

Mikaberidze, Alexander
Russian Artillery on the Eve of the Battle of Borodino, 7 September 1812

An exhaustive look at the organization of the Russian artillery at Borodino.

Composition and Strength of the Russian Armies at the Beginning of 1812

A detailed order-of-battle of the Russian Forces that would oppose Napoleon.

Officer Ranks under Peter the Great’s “Table of Ranks” of 1722

A look at the rank system instituted by Peter the Great that survived for almost 200 years.

Russian Cavalry Maneuvers in 1812

A series of plates showing how the Russian cavalry was supposed to maneuver according to the drill regulations.

Podmazo, Alexander
Chefs and Commanders of the Regular Regiments of the Russian Army: 1796-1815

A massive history of the Russian Regiments and the men who led them.

Sauerweid, Alexander
Russian Cavalry in 1807: the Sauerweid Illustrations

Smith, Steven H.
Riga Military Command.

The organisation of the Riga Military Command.

Smith, Steven H.
Russo-Swedish War of 1808-09: A Bibliography.

A Bibliography of the Russo-Swedish War of 1808-09...

Smith, Steven H.
Russo-Turkish War 1806-1812: A Bibliography

A Bibliography of the Russo-Turkish War of 1806-12...

Suhr Brothers
The Russian Amry in Hamburg (1814): the Uniform Plates of the Suhr Brothers

Contemporary images of the Russian Army in 1814.

Tselorungo, Dmitry
The Russian Officer Corps in 1812

Demographic information on the Russian Officer Corps, incuding information on education, combat experience, social class, etc.

Voltz
The Russian Army in 1805 - 1807: the Uniform Plates of Voltz

Contemporary images of the Russian Army.

Zhmodikov, Alexander
Tactical Doctrine of Russian Foot Skirmishers

One of the areas of Napoleonic Studies that has not been written about much in English is the Russian use of skirmishers or 'strelki'...

Saxony

The Saxon Army in 1810

Contemporary uniform plates of the Saxon Army in 1810.

Giles, Howard
The Saxon Army 1810 - 13

A reprint of the classic work published by the Napoleonic Association in 1979.

Hess, Carl Adolph Heinrich
Uniform Plates of the Saxon Army: 1805 - 1806

Contemporary uniform plates of the Saxon Army on campaign.

Neumann, Friedrich
Saxony Volunteers and Landwehr of the Wars of Liberation: the Uniform Plates of Friedrich Neumann

Contemporary uniform images from 1813-1814.

Sauerweid, Alexander
The Uniforms of the Saxon Army in 1811: the Alexander Sauerweid Plates

Contemporty uniform plates of the Saxon Army in 1811.


Saxony-Weimar

Neumann, Friedrich
Saxony-Weimar Volunteers of the Wars of Liberation: the Uniform Plates of Friedrich Neumann

Contemporary uniform images from 1813-1814.


Spain

Broughton, Tony
Regiments d'Infanterie Etrangers and the Colonels who led them during the period 1804-1815: The Spanish and Portuguese Regiments

Officer Casualties Suffered by the Regiments d’Infanterie Etrangers during the period 1804-1815: the Spanish and Portuguese Regiments

The Spanish who served with the French.

Burnham, Robert
Spanish Recruits in the British Army 1812 - 1813

Reclutas Españoles en el Ejército Británico 1812 - 1813 (In Spanish)

Late in the Peninsular War, the British Army was running out of men. So they instituted a program to recruit Spanish men into their infantry regiments.

Cueto, Dionisio Álvarez
The Spanish Army in 1808: The Artwork of Dionisio Álvarez Cueto

The Spanish Army at Bailen: The Artwork of Dionisio Álvarez Cueto

Some original art of the Napoleonic Wars by a Spanish artist.

Muzás, Luis Sorando
Flags of the Defenders of Zaragoza during the 2nd French Siege (21 December 1808 to 21 February 1809)

Banderas de los Defensores de Zaragoza en el 2º Sitio (21-Diciembre -1808 al 21-Febrero-1809) (In Spanish)

Spanish Flags In The Napoleonic Wars: The Royal Guard  (Guardia Real)

Spanish Flags In The Napoleonic Wars: The Artillery And Engineers (1802 - 1814)

Banderas De La Artilleria E Ingenieros Españoles (1802 - 1814) In Spanish

A detailed study of the flags of the Spanish Army during the Napoleonic Wars, by Luis Sorando Muzás who works as the flag expert at the Spanish Army Museum.

Santos, José Redondo
Translated by Caroline Miley
The Honourable Militia of Corunna in 1808: Antecedents and Uniform

Spanish militia in the early days of the French invasion and occupation.

Suhr Brothers
The Spanish Romana Division in Hamburg (1807 - 1808): the Uniform Plates of the Suhr Brothers

Contemporary illustrations of the Spanish Army.


Sweden

Burnham, Robert
Swedish Guard Infantry.

Uniforms of the Swedish Guard Infantry 1813 - 1814.

Edling, Christer
The Organization of the Swedish Cavalry: 1773 - 1814.

The organization of the Swedish cavalry during the Napoleonic age according to two sources...

Isnard, Ludovic
Organisation des armées suédoises: Période 1790-1815

Organization of the Swedish Army. (In French)

Olofsson, Magnus
The Swedish Army in the Napoleonic Wars

A comprehensive look at the organization of the Swedish Army.

Schiavonetti
Swedish Uniforms, circa 1810

Contemporary plates from the German publisher Schiavonetti

Smith, Steven H.
Russo-Swedish War of 1808-09: A Bibliography

A Bibliography of the Russo-Swedish War of 1808 - 09.

Switzerland

Brougthon, Tony
Auxiliary Regiments in the Service of France and the Colonels who led Them during the period 1804 - 1815: Regiments d’Infanterie Suisse

Officer Casualties suffered by the Auxiliary Regiments in the Service of France 1804-1815: Regiments d’Infanterie Suisse

The Swiss Regiments employed by France.


Turkey (Ottoman Empire)

Mikaberidze, Alexander
The Georgian Mameluks in Egypt

A short history of these famous warriors.

Smith, Steven H.
Russo-Turkish War 1806-1812: A Bibliography

A Bibliography of the Russo-Turkish War of 1806-12.

United States

The Uniform Dress of the Captains and Certain Other Officers of the Navy of the United States 1802

Uniform regulations of the U.S. Navy.


Westphalia

Pinhas, Salomon
The Pinhas Uniform Plates of the Westphalian Army: 1811 - 1812

Sauerweid, Alexander
The Westphalian Army in 1810: the Uniform Plates of Alexander Sauerweid

Suhr Brothers
The Westphalian Army in Hamburg (circa 1809): the Uniform Plates of the Suhr Brothers


Wurttemberg

The Ebner Uniform Plates of the Wurttemberg Army in 1807


Würzburg

Neumann, Friedrich
Würzburg Volunteers of the Wars of Liberation: the Uniform Plates of Friedrich Neumann

Contemporary images from 1813-1814.


Other

Arnold, James R.
A Reappraisal of Column Versus Line in the Peninsular War
Note: This paper won the 2004 Napoleon Series Writing Contest "Best Military Paper Award"!

Was Oman correct in his initial appraisal of column versus line?

Dawson, Paul
Artillery Horses: Harness and Draught of the Napoleonic Era

A look at horses, their harnesses, and their care and feeding.

Holmberg, Tom
Artillery Swings Like a Pendulum...

Examines the method used in the era of the Napoleonic wars to measure muzzle velocity.

Hoyer, Iohann Frederich
A Contemporary View on the Use of Horse Artillery: 1798

A Contemporary View on the Use of Horse Artillery: 1802

Two articles written during the period on the employment of horse artillery. Translated from the German by Geert van Uythoven.

Koeller, Friedrich
The 1802 Uniform Plates of Friedrich Ludwig von Koeller

Contemporary uniform plates of many different countries in 1802.

Lewis, Jeff
A Table of Military Ranks by Country

A listing of military ranks and their equivalents in each county.

The Fog of War

How we need to look closely at generally accepted beliefs about the Napoleonic Era.

Martin, Yves
French Voluntary Foreign Pioneers

An overview of the Voluntary Foreign Pioneers in the French Army.

Martinez, José
The Way They Did It: Manuever Warfare  

What is better -- a static defense or manuever warfare?

Smith, Steven H.
Standards and Flags of the Napoleonic Era: A Bibliography

An extensive bibliography of works about flags, including those of: Austria, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Hessen, Italy, Portugal, Prussia, Russia, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, Westphalia, Wurtemburg, and Wurtzburg

 



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