Military Subjects: Organization, Strategy & Tactics

The Austrian Imperial-Royal Army (Kaiserliche-Königliche Heer) 1805 – 1809:

THE AUSTRIAN IMPERIAL-ROYAL ARMY

Austrian Artillery 1809 [1]

General acquaintances

1 – All belligerent States have abandoned the tactical [2] use of artillery under the concept the major concentrated was the guns, so major was the impact on the battles. France, in effect, did some step back with the Imperial Decrets of April 7, June 9 and October 15 1809, allowing the regiments to use and manage the large mass of enemy artillery captured during the campaigns. This lasted until April 11, 1810 when Napoléon again abolished regimental artillery. However, the powerful combined use of grand-batteries and regimental guns was said to be the main reason of the large victory at Deutsch-Wagram. [3]

2 – artillery had guns which shot iron balls (1-2 per minute) and howitzers which launch grenades. Both could be charged with Canisters (austrian variant: Schrotbüchseln or Kartätschen) (3-4 per minute).

3 – artillery fire became less effective after 600-750 meters. All used grenades in rough and hill terrains (grenades exploding generated 8-12 splinters), while balls and canister were good in plains and on little distances. Canister was almost effective till 450 meters.

4 – Austrians had the smaller guns (3 pdr). Their 12 pdr. gun was less effective of the same French caliber. It was effective as a French 8 pdr. gun. Austrians and French guns were similar as for the angle of shooting (from 50% to 60%). Bavarian guns were better (70-80%).

5 – Artillery percentages in campaign:

On 1809 the Austrians had (in each one of their 6 Corps) 2 ½ guns for 1000 men (3 guns per 1000 as reserve). The French had 1,7 guns per 1000 men (1 ½ guns per 1000 cuirassiers in the Grosse cavalerie divisions). The Bavarians had 2,9 guns per 1000 men (2,2 considering the single divisions). The Rheinbund artilleries had around 1,9 gun per 1000 men. The Austrian supremacy was evident.

So what happened in March-April 1809? Simply the Austrians lost the great part of wagons, caissons and ammunitions during the chaotic retreats of the campaign and so they lost effectiveness.

Technological evolution in Europe (from 1803)

1804

In France were built some new wrought-iron guns [4] (en fer forgé) together with “fusils” barrels made with a superior quality iron. Proofing these last ones, only 4 over 604 brought after shooting. General Eblé launched war-rockets at angles between 15°-25°. New organization at the “École Politechnique”; pupils now had to live in the barracks and not in the “civilian” Paris.

1805

France adopted the trials called “à outrance” for the choice of the cast iron (fonte de fer) to be utilized for guns and howitzers. This consisted by the fusion of 8 pdr guns with the various cast iron materials and in its trial use off-limits (poussé à bout). Napoléon eliminated the 3 pdr. mountain guns adopted in 1803. At Trafalgar two cast iron guns exploded aboard of the French frigate La Redoutable.

In the army, apart of the regimental artillery, each infantry division got an artillery battery of 10 pieces, each cavalry division (avant-garde de Corps) got a 6 pieces battery, each Corps received 8 - 12 pdr pieces as Réserve.

1806

Napoléon estimated that 16.000.000 lb of powder will be necessary in order to defend France. In Austria they made around 40 bronze guns per week. In the British Gunners Guide appears the first description of the 1803-Shrapnel howitzer which employs lead balls. In France was observed a very good resistance of the pine wood gun-mounts, built by Saxons. Kingdom of Neaples adopted the French new An XI System for its artillery. 

1807

New trials for the 3 pdr French guns; they warmed up too much by shooting in a continuous way. The trials with the british cast iron gave a 4 % of damaged guns.

1808

British first employ of the Shrapnels at Vimeiro battle; very good results. General Allix organized the westphalian artillery with single caliber pieces. Napoléon prescribed the adoption of the 6 pdr mortars to be used as the Coehorn mortars. They were forged at Toulouse but they went out so badly it was impossible to utilize. At Strasbourg there were 58 bronze guns and 1975 cast iron guns (this probably was referred to the Strassburg in Brandeburg, not to the French fortress).

1809

At Woolwich (England) Congreve raised the first Rockets factory. At Wagram were shot 82.000 gunshots (other source: 71000 as for Chambray). In order to destroy bridges (Lobau island) Austrian employed a “machine infernale” with a pole and a lighting device (à mât et boite en Boule).

AUSTRIAN ARTILLERY

Austria began in 1778 to organize field artillery. In 1799 they had (in Italy) temporary divisions and part of the Reserve (Armée-Geschütz-Reserve) by each cavalry regiment.

1 -- On 1809 the austrian army was formally split in Corps, each having 2 divisions (one Light and one Line infantry divisions). Light infantry divisions had 2 brigades (each of 3-4 light battalions), 1 cavalry regiment and 1 horse battery. The Line (heavy) divisions had 2-3 brigades (each with 2 regiments). Each regiment had one battery (so there were 2 batteries for brigade). There was no cavalry.

2 – The whole 1809 campaign Reserve artillery in Bavaria was 60 pieces (guns/howitzers).

AUSTRIAN BATTERIES

Since 1808 Austria gathered its guns in batteries. There were:

n  Light Batteries : 8 pieces of 3 pdr. or 6 pdr. These had to be attached to the brigades so they were called Brigade artillery.

n  Heavy batteries: 4 pieces of 6 pdr. or 12 pdr. and 2 howitzers of 7 pdr. These were commonly named as Position artillery and they were divisional assets. This divisional artillery represented also the Corps artillery.

n  Park artillery or Reserve: marched with the army and was the replacement unit of the whole system.

The ammunitions field depots (Protzen) did stay 10 “schritte” away from the guns, the pack animals (4 for each gun) did stay utter 10 “schritte” in the rear of the depots, the wagons of the ordinary foot-batteries were 40 “schritte” away from the guns – all probably variated with the terrain.

 

 

AUSTRIAN ARTILLERY IN BAVARIA

31 Brigade-batterien (8 3 pdr. batteries = 64 guns; 23 6 pdr. batteries of which 4 were horse artillery = 184 guns)

then:

31 Position-batterien (4 6 pdr. plus 2 howitzer batteries = 186 pieces)
14 Position-batterien (4 12 pdr. plus 2 howitzers batteries = 84 pieces)

TOTAL = 76 batteries and 518 pieces.

Interval between pieces was around 10 schritte [5] (paces) while for the horse artillery guns was 15-20 schritte.

AUSTRIAN CALIBERS AND ASSETS [6]

The management of a 3 pdr. gun was performed by 8 men, while that of 12 pdr. by 12; one horse artillery gun had 6 servants (5 for the piece and one to keep horses together). In the horse batteries:

the ammunitions were part in the so called Protze (an advanced cavalry ammunition depot), part in the wagons (Munitionsgeschützkarren), part carried by pack-horses. Note that the ordinary Geschützkarren of the foot artillery and the cavalry pack-horses did manoeuver with the guns.

The amounts of shots were (from ¼ to 1/3 were Canisters):

n  Howitzers = 92

n  12 pdr. gun = 102

n  6 pdr. horse gun = 110

n  6 pdr. ordinary = 136

n  3 pdr. = 176

The last resource for ammunitions was the Protze.

Following an Order of the Hofkriegsrat (August 9, 1807) in Cavalry and Artillery would have been enrolled no former Deserters or foreign soldiers, while the German infantry was allowed to enroll foreign citizens, but only in low numbers.

Regiments

N.

Corps

N.

K.K. artillery regiments

4

K.K. Bombardiere Corps

1

 

K.K. artillerie Handlangers Corps

1

K.K. Feldartilleriezeugamt

1

 

Regular artillery standing at the end of 1807 (the same as in 1811)

The official birthdate of the new Austrian artillery System was 1808, when the Hofkriegsrat authorized the so called Batteries system.

3 pdr. Light Artillery batteries (3pfündige leichte Batterien) – Grenzer batterien

8

3 pdr. Guns with 2-horse drawn Train (2spännig)

8

Ammunitions wagons (Munitionskarren) with 2-horse drawn Train

3

Baggage wagons (Baggagewagen) with 2-horse drawn Train

1

mounted artillery Officer (Oberoffizier der Artillerie beritten)

1

mounted artillery NCO (Unteroffizier)

1

mounted Train NCO (Fuhrwesensunteroffizier)

6 pdr. Position or Reserve batteries (6pfündige Positions- oder Reservebatterien)

4

6 pdr. Guns with 4-horse drawn Train (4spännig)

2

7 pdr. Howitzers with 2-horse drawn Train (7pfündige Haubitzen)

6

Ammunitions wagons (Munitionskarren) with 4-horse drawn Train

3

Baggage wagons (Baggagewagen) with 2-horse drawn Train

1

mounted artillery Officer (Oberoffizier der Artillerie beritten)

4

mounted Train NCOs (Fuhrwesensunteroffiziere)

Cavalry horse artillery batteries (Cavaleriebatterien)

4

6 pdr. Guns with 6-horse drawn Train (6spännig)

2

7 pdr. Cavalry Howitzers with 4-horse drawn Train (Cavaleriehaubitzen)

2

Ammunitions wagons (Munitionskarren) with 2-horse drawn Train

1

container for explosives with 2-horse drawn Train (Feuerwerkskasten)

24

Packhorses with pack saddles (Packpferde)

12

Horses for the soldiers (Reitpferde fü Packknechte)

6

Forage wagons with 2-horse drawn Train (Fouragewagen)

3

Baggage wagons with 2-horse drawn Train

1

mounted artillery Officer

3

mounted artillery NCOs

2

mounted bombers (Bombardiere)

3

Train NCOs

1

Train soldier (Gemeine)

6 pdr. Light artillery batteries (6pfündige leichte batterien)

8

6 pdr. Guns with 4-horse drawn Train

8

Ammunitions wagons with 4-horse drawn Train

3

Baggage wagons with 2-horse drawn Train

1

mounted artillery Officer

1

mounted artillery NCO

4

mounted Train NCOs

12 pdr. Position or Reserve batteries (6pfündige Positions- oder Reserve [Vorraths]batterien)

4

12 pdr. Guns with 6-horse drawn Train

2

7 pdr. Howitzers with 2-horse drawn Train

6

Ammunitions wagons with 4-horse drawn Train

3

Baggage wagons with 2-horse drawn Train

1

mounted artillery Officer (Oberoffizier)

1

mounted Train Sergeant Major (Fuhrwesenswachtmeister)

1

mounted Train sergeant (Fuhrwesenscorporal)

The batteries were supported by Train and so from 10 Fuhrwesensdivisionen each with 180 - 203 horses. Otherwise the definitive detachment of the regimental artillery into the new light batteries was delayed till the new horse’ “levée” (Pferdeconscription). In all the Erbländer also horse fell under the conscription, after their 4th year of age, and were classified in accordance with their fitness. These were called Landespferde, differentiating them from the horses owned by the K.K.Heer (Ärarische pferde).

For three common artillery batteries (ordinäre Batterien) it was necessary to organize an artillery Train unit (Artilleriefuhrwesensdivision); similarly happened to the cavalry batteries (2 Cavaleriebatterien for one Artilleriefuhrwesensdivision), where about 200 horse and 100 servants could be just controlled by 1 officer, 1 or 2 Wachtmeistern and 9 Corporals.

artillery Train division (Artilleriefuhrwesensdivision)

1

mounted Lieutenant

2

mounted Wachtmeistern

1

Fourier

3

mounted Corporals

6

Gefreyten

3

blacksmiths

1

saddler

63-116

Gemeine (with the battery)

Ammunitions supply

In 1809 was decided to divide the ammunition dotation of every battery in three echelons:

1st Echelon carried with batteries

shots

rank

160

For each 3 pdrs gun

194

For each 6 pdrs gun

102

For each 12 pdrs gun

64

For each 18 pdrs gun

77

For each 7 pdrs howitzer

60

For each 10 pdrs howitzer

2nd Echelon stored in the army Reservemunition

shots

rank

156

For each 3 pdrs gun

132

For each 6 pdrs gun

168

For each 12 pdrs gun

188

For each 18 pdrs gun

110

For each 7 pdrs howitzer

156

For each 10 pdrs howitzer

3rd Echelon stored in the army Feldmunitionsdepot

There was an utter 4th Echelon called Unterstützungsreserve, a (supposedly) larger ammunitions depot. These were attached to the army Corps and, finally at Wagram, directly to the batteries, with an infernal spreading of bombs and grenades.

The Artillery regiment of peacetime had 4 battalions each formed by 4 companies. By February 27, 1811 was created the rank of Untercanonier :

Staff

 

Artillery Regiment

     

1

 

Superior and Regiments Inhaber

1

 

Superior and Regiments Commandant

1

 

Oberstlieutenant

3

 

Majore

1

 

Regiments Kaplan (priest)

1

 

Regiments Auditor

1

 

Regiments Feldarzt

1

 

Regiments Rechnungsführer

1

 

Regiments Adjutanten

4

 

Ober-Ärzte

1

 

Regiments-tambour

8

 

Unter-Arzten

5

 

Fourierschützen

8

 

Hautboisten

1

 

Profosen

5

 

Privatdiener

The second artillery regiment had another more Staff officer who was the Commander of the Feldzeugsamt and one Fourierschütze more than the first one present.

   

Artillery Regiment company

     

1

 

Hauptmann or Capitain-Lieutenant

1

 

Oberlieutenant

2

 

Unterlieutenant

1

 

Feldwebel

1

 

Fourier

1

 

Fourierschützen

11

 

Corporalen

2

 

Tambouren

3

 

Privatdiener

   

Canonieren and Unter-canonieren

The Bombardiers-Corps had 5 Companies:

Staff

 

Bombardiers-Corps

     

1

 

Staff Officer as Commander

2

 

Majore

1

 

Staff Officer as Prof. Matheseos

1

Staff Officer as Adjutanten of Artillery Director

2

 

Oberfeuerwerkmeistern

4

 

Feuerwerkmeistern

1

 

Corps Feldarzt

1

 

Auditor

1

 

Corps Adjutanten

1

 

Ober-Ärzt

1

 

Corps Rechnungsführer

2

 

Unter-Arzten

7

 

Fourierschützen

1

 

Corps-tambour

1

 

Profosen

8

 

Privatdiener

     

35

 

total

   

Bombardiers-Corps

     

1

 

Hauptmann

1

 

Oberlieutenant

2

 

Unterlieutenant

6

 

K.K.ordin. Cadetten

24

 

Oberfeuerwerkmeistern

30

 

Feuerwerkmeistern

1

 

Fourier

1

 

Fourierschützen

3

 

Privatdiener

2

 

Tambouren

     

?

 

Bombardieren

The actual commander of the Feldzeugsamt was a Staff Officer (with his own Fourierschütze) and he was attached to the 2nd artillery regiment. The artillery assistants (Artillerie Handlanger Corps) had 4 divisions or 8 companies (the Staff was at Vienna) and the companywere splitten divisionally between the 4 regiments. Their force was established in the force-report of August 10, 1811 (Standes-Ausweise).

Staff

 

Artillerie Handlanger-Corps

     

1

 

Staff Officer as Commander

1

 

Corps Rechnungsführer

8

 

Fourieren

1

Fourierschützen

1

 

Corps Feldarzt

4

 

Unter-Arzten

1

 

Adjutant

3

 

Privatdiener

     

20

 

total

   

Artillerie Handlanger-Corps

     

1

 

Hauptmann

1

 

Oberlieutenant

1

 

Unterlieutenant

1

 

Feldwebel

2

 

Tambours

1

 

Fourierschützen

2

 

Privatdiener

11

 

Corporalen

     

?

 

Various Gemeinen


1809

K.K. Artilleriedirektion (Imperial artillery High Command)

- Commander: FML Erzherzog Maximilian von Österreich-Este later Colloredo

Peacetime Feldartillerie

K.K. Böhmische Feldartillerie RegimentN. 1

FZM baron Franz Schuhay

- Recruitment: Bohemia
- Commander: oberst (then GM) August Swrtnik and, after Aspern, Oberstlieutenant baron Carl Fasching

3 companywith II Corps, 2 company then (still before Aspern) 3 company with I Corps, 2 company

before Wagram: 3 companywith VII Corps, parts also with Inner Austria army

K.K. Niederösterreichisches Feldartillerie RegimentNr. 2

FZM Erzherzog Maximilian Joseph von Este (Archduke Maximilian)

- Recruitment: Bohemia, Lower Austria, Salzburg

- Commander: Oberst Wenzel von Frierenberger.

- before Aspern: 2 company with Main army, 6 company Inner Austria army,

1 company in Tirol, 1 company with Hungarian Insurrectio, 3 company in Wien (prisoners on „parole“),

2 company with Artillery Depot in Pest, 1 company with Artillery Depot in Graz, later 4, then 5 company in Prague. 3 company detached , 2 company at Theresienstadt,

- before Wagram: 2 comp . with Main army, 7 companywith the Inner Austria army, 1 company in Pest, Komorn, Esseg and 1 with Hungarian Insurrectio

K.K.Mährisches Feldartillerie RegimentNr. 3

FZM baron Carl Rouvroy

- Recruitment: Moravia

- Commander: Oberst Friedrich Funk von Senftenau.

15 companies with Main army, 1 companywith VII Corps

K.K. Innerösterreichisches Feldartillerie RegimentNr. 4

FML-FZM baron Leopold Unterberger

- Recruitment: Inner Austria, Illyria (Slovenia)

- Commander: Oberst Prokop Sonntag von Sonnenschein then Oberstlieutenant baron Joseph Russo von Aspernbrand.

- Facts: with Main army, Parts in Pest, Komorn, Olmütz

The Feldartillerie in Campaign

BRIGADE Batteries attached to Infantry Brig. (3 pdr. and 6 pdr.) and Cavalry Brig. (6 pdr. and Howitzers )

POSITION Batteries = or Unterstützungsbatteries = Schwere (Heavy) Batteries (6- and 12-pdr. and Howitzers) with Corps also as

CORPS-ART. RESERVE = or Corps Pieces Res. = Res. battery Res. Art. Hauptreserve) Subdivided into Main Reserve (Hauptreserve) and heavy Reserve (Schwere Res.). At the end of the campaign existed also a common artillery Reserve (Res. Artillerie Armée Geschütze) where some of the position batteries did stay with infantry Divisions.

GARNISON artillery: in fortresses and Place-commands.

All units were attached to brigades (Divisions) or to parts of the Bombardier Corps.

BOMBARDIERCORPS (technical artillerymen)

- Commander: Oberst Joseph Smola.

- Recruitment: German infantry districts.

- employed partially in the Main army, partially in the Inner Austria army

FELDZEUGAMT (Field Weapons Department)

- Commander: Maj.-Oberst Adolph Geiger.

ARTILLERIE-HANDLANGER CORPS (crew and servants)

- Commander: Oberstlieutenant. Carl Friedrich Maresch von Marsfeld.

The battalion of so-called Artillerie-Handlangers had 1.179 men in 8 companies (in wartime increased to 8 battalions). These men replaced the ad-hoc drawn 'German' infantrymen for moving the guns in combat. The handlagers were untrained personnel. In 1808 there were 8 companies of Handlagers, in 1814 their number increased to 30 and in 1814 to 33 companies.

GARNISONS Artillerie (Fortress or Garrison Artillery)

- Organisation: a) Austrian District b) Transylvanian (Siebenbürgen) District c) Croatian District d) Slavonian District e) Moravian District f) Banat District g) Hungarian District h) Bohemian District i) Inner Austrian District k) Galician District.

K.K. Austrian Garnisonsartillerie District Vienna

- Commander: Maj.-Oberstlieutenant Lorenz Zierwurz.

- Recruitment: 2nd Feldartillerie Regiment

K.K. Galician Garnisonsartillerie District Lemberg, Brody, Zamosc (Stanislau)

- Commander: major Andreas Niemitz von Elbenstein

- Recruitment: Galicia

K.K. Transylvanian Garnisonsartillerie District

main siege Carlsburg, secondary sieges Kronstadt, Hermannstadt, Klausenburg

- Commander: major Johann Adam

- Recruitment: Transylvania

K.K. Croatian Garnisonsartillerie District

main siege Carlstadt, second. sieges Carlopago, Zengg, Porto Rè, Ogulin, Warasdin Kreuz, Warasdin St Georgen, Belovar, Ivanisch

- Commander: major Franz Bion

- Recruitment: Croatia

K.K. Slavonian Garnisonsartillerie District

Main siege Peterwardein, Second.sieges Esseg, Brod, Gradiska

- Commander: major Carl Ledent then Oberstlieutenant Ignaz Kaisergruber von Steilenberg

- Recruitment: Slavonia

K.K.Moravian Garnisonsartillerie District

Main siege Olmütz, Second.siege Teschen, Freiwaldau, Brünn

- Commander: Oberst Petr Dietrich von Hermannsberg

- Recruitment: Moravia

K.K.Banater Garnisonsartillerie District

Main siege Temesvár, Second siege Arad, Alibovar

- Commander: Oberstlieutenant. Joseph Kalmünzer

- Recruitment: Banat

K.K.hungarian Garnisonsartillerie District

Main siege Ofen, Second.siege Preßburg, Huszt-Ungvár, Muran, Kaschau, Neusohl, Nágy Bánya, Hungarian Altenburg

- Commander: Franz von Tihavsky

- Recruitment: Hungary

K.K.Bohemian Garnisonsartillerie District

Main siege Prague, Second.siege Königgrätz, Pless (Josephstadt), Theresienstadt

- Commander: Oberst Carl von Strauss

- Recruitment Bohemia

with 3 more Festuns company (Fortress artillery): Königgrätz, Josephstadt, Theresienstadt

K.K.Inner Austrian Garnisonsartillerie District

Main siege Graz, Sec. sieges St. Veith, Triest, Görtschach, Pulverstationen Laibach (powder Depots)

- Commander: Maj.-Oberstlieutenant. baron Ferdinand Kulmer.

- Recruitment: Inner Austria

Kaiserliche königliche Hauptarmée (or Armée Erzherzog Karl or Deutsches Armée)

(Imperial-Royal Main army or archduke Charle army or army of Germany)

- before Aspern:

2 company 2nd Regiment Feldartillerie
15 company 3rd Regiment Feldartillerie
14 company 4th Regiment Feldartillerie
1 battery 12 pdr.

- Aspern : with Smola
- before Wagram: 2 company 2nd Regiment Feldartillerie - Lobau entrenched battery (Schanzenbatterie Nr. 16) -
- Wagram: Lobau (Schanzenbatterie)- 1 battery (12 pdr.) - battery Löffler 4. Regiment- battery Christ 3. Regiment- 1 12 pdr. battery
- after Wagram : Horse battery Löffler of 2nd Regiment

Avant-gardes of the HAUPTARMÈE

- before Aspern: Klenau, Brig Hardegg 1 Horse battery
- Wagram: Div. Nordmann, Brig. Riese 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.) Brig Mayer 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.) (14 Pieces )
Brig Peter Vecsey 1 Horse battery (6 pdr.) - Brig. Frelich 1 Horse battery (6 pdr.) - Brig. Schneller - Art. Res 1 Position Bt

I CORPS (Bellegarde)

- Artillery commander: Oberst Swrtnik (see 1st Art. Rgt)

- before Aspern: 3 company 1st Feldartillerie Rgt|

Detachement Bombardier Corps and detachment Feldzeugamt
Div. Vogelsang, Brig. Henneberg 1 1/2 Brig. battery (6 pdr.) - Brig. Am Ende 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.), 1 Position battery (6 pdr.) - Div. Ulm, Brig. Wacquant 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.) - Div. Fresnel, Brig. Winzingerode 1 Horse Battery - Brig. Nostitz 1 battery (3 pdr.)- Art. Corps res. 2 Position battery (12 pdr.), 1 Position battery (6 pdr.)

-Aspern :

Div. Dedovich, Brig. Henneberg 1 Brig. battery - Brig. Wacquant 1 Brig. battery
Div. Fresnel Brig. Clary 1 Brig. battery - Brig. Lützel 1 Brig. battery - Brig. Stutterheim 1 Horse battery
Art. Res. Corps 1 Position battery (12 pdr.), 1 Position bt (6 pdr.) – more (no infos) 2 Horse battery

- Wagram: Div. Dedovich, Brig. Henneberg 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.) - Brig. Wacquant 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.)

Div. Fresnel, Brig. Clary 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.), 1 Position battery (6 pdr.) - Brig. Motzen 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.) Brig. Stutterheim 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.), 1 Position battery (12 pdr.)
Art. Res. Corps 2 Position battery (12 pdr.), 1 Position battery (6 pdr.) 2 Horse bt

after Wagram : 2 (6 pdr.) guns (Löffler) - Position battery (12 pdr.) - 1 Horse battery - 1 gun (12 pdr.)

II CORPS (Kollowrath, Hohenzollern)

- Artillery commander : major Pfeller, (2. Art. Rgt)

- before Aspern: 3 company 1st Feldartillerie Regiment

Detachement Bombardier Corps and Feldzeugamt
Div. Weber, Brig. Wied Runkel 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.), 1 Position battery (6 pdr.)
Div. Klenau, 2 battery - Brig. Vécsey 1 Brig. battery (3 pdr.) - Brig. Crenneville 1 Horse battery (6 pdr.)
Div. Brady, Brig. Fölseis 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.), 1 Position battery (6 pdr.) - Brig. Greifenbach 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.)
Reserve Corps artillery (with Div. Brady) 2 Position bt (12 pdr.), 1 Position battery (6 pdr.)

-Aspern : Div. Klenau 1 Horse Battery - 1 battery (3 pdr.)

Div. Brady, Brig. Buresch 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.) - Brig. Paar 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.)
Div. Ulm, Brig Altstern 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.) - Brig. Wied Runkel 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.) - Brig. Mayer 1 Horse battery (6 pdr.)
Reserve Corps artillery (with Div. Ulm) 1 Position battery (12 pdr.), 1 Position battery (6 pdr.)

- Wagram: Brig. Hardegg 1 Brig. battery

Div. Brady, Brig. Buresch 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.), 1Position bt (6 pdr.) - Brig. Paar 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.)
Div. Ulm, Brig. Altstern 1 Position battery (6 pdr.) - Brig. ? 1 Position battery (6 pdr.)
Div. Siegenthal 1 Horse battery Brig. Altstern 1 Brig. battery Brig. Wied Runkel 1Brig. bt.
Reserve Corps artillery 2 Position battery (12 pdr.), 1 Position battery (6 pdr.) - 4 Position battery 1 Horse bt.

- after Wagram : Div. Ulm, Brig. Hardegg 1 Horse bt.

III CORPS (Hohenzollern, Kolowrath)

- Artillery commander : Obstlt. Joseph Smola, (from Bombardier Corps)

- before Aspern:

4 company 3. Art. Rgt, 1 Detachment Bombardier Corps and Feldzeugamt
Div. Lusignan 1 Brig. battery - Brig. Thierry 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.), 1 Position battery (12pdr.) - 1 Horse battery - 1/2 Position battery (12 pdr.) - 1/2 Position or Brig. battery - Brig. Kayser 1 Brig. foot batt. (6 pdr.)

Div. Vukassovich, free from brigades 1 Horse battery - 4 battery ?? - Brig. Pfanzelter 1Horse battery (3 pdr.)
Div. S. Julien, 2 battery - Brig. A. Liechtenstein 1 Horse battery - 1 Brig. Battery (3 pdr.) - 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.)
Brig. Bieber 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.), 1Position battery (6 pdr.)
Reserve Corps artillery 3 Position battery (12 pdr.), 1 Position Battery (6pdr.) - 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.), 1/2 Position Battery (6 pdr.), 1 Position battery (12 pdr.)

- Wagram: Brig. Schmuttermayer 1 battery ; Div. S. Julien, Brig. Lilienberg 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.) - Brig. Bieber 1 Brig. battery (6pdr.), 1 Position battery (6 pdr.)

Div. Vukassovich, 1 Position battery (12 pdr.) - Brig. Grill 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.) - Brig. Wratislaw 1 Brig. battery (3 pdr.) - Brig. Schneller 1 Horse battery (6 pdr.), 1 Position battery (6 pdr.)
Reserve Corps artillery 2 Position battery (12 pdr.) - 4 Position bt.

IV CORPS (Rosenberg)

- Artillery commander : Oberstlieutenant then Oberst Künigl

- before Aspern: 3 company 3rd Artillery Rgt, 1 Detachment Bombardier Corps and 1 Feldzeugamt

Div. Bartenstein, Brig. Waldegg 1 Brig. battery (6pdr.), 1 Position battery (6 P.) - Brig. Riese 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.) . Div. Dedovich 1 Position battery (6 pdr.), 1/2 Position battery (6 pdr.) - Brig. Neustädter 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.), 1 Position battery (6 pdr.), 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.) - Brig. Grill 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.)
Div. Sommariva, Brig. Radivojevich 1 Kav battery - Brig. Stutterheim 1 Horse Battery , 1 Brig. battery (3 pdr.). Brig. (detached ) P. Vecsey 1 Brig. bt.
Reserve Corps artillery 2 Position battery (12 pdr.), 1 Horse battery

-Aspern :

Div. Klenau (Vorhut) 1 Horse bt.
Div. Dedovich, ?
Div. Hohenlohe, Brig. Ph. Hessen-Homburg 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.) - Brig. Neustädter 1 Brig. bt (6 pdr.)
Div. Rohan, Brig. Riese 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.) - Brig. Swinburne 1Brig. battery (6 pdr.) - Brig. Grätze 1 Horse battery (6 pdr.)Reserve Corps artillery 1 Position battery (6 pdr.), 1 Position battery (12 pdr.)

- Wagram:

Div. Radetzky, 1 Horse battery - 1 Dreipfünder (piece of 3 pdr.) - 1 Position bt.- Brig. Weiss 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.) - 8 guns - Brig. Provenchères 1 Position battery (12 pdr.)
Div. Bartenstein, Brig. Hessen Homburg 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.)
Div. Rohan, Brig. Swinburne 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.), 1 Position battery (6 pdr.)
Reserve Corps artillery 2 Position battery (12 pdr.) - 4 Position battery 1 Horse bt.

- after Wagram : Div. Radetzky, 1 Horse battery

V CORPS (archduke Louis, Reuss Plauen)

- Artillery commander : major Pfefferkorn, (1st Art. Rgt)

- before Aspern: 3 company 3rd Art. Rgt, 1 Detachment Bombardier Corps and 1 Feldzeugamt

Div. Schustekh, Brig. Radetzky 1 Horse battery 1/2 Horse bt - Brig. Mesko 1 Brig. battery (3 pdr.)
Div. Reuss Plauen, Brig. Rothacker 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.) - Brig. Frühauf 1 Brig. battery - Brig. Bianchi 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.)
Div. Lindenau, Brig. Berenburg 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.)- Brig. Mayer 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.)
Reserve Corps artillery (Art. Brig. Fasching)
2 Position battery (12 pdr.), 1 Horse battery - 1 Position bt (12 pdr.), 1/2 Horse Batt, 1 3 pdr. bt.

VI CORPS (Hiller, then Klenau)

- Artillery commander : FML Rouvroy then Oberstlieutenant.Carl Fasching (4th Art. Rgt)

- before Aspern: 14 battery Div. Vincent 1 Position battery (6 pdr.) 1 Foot battery

-Aspern : 1 Position battery (12 pdr.), 1 Position battery (6 pdr.), 1 Horse battery – 1 Horse battery

- before Wagram: - Wagram: 1 Position battery (12 pdr.), 1 Position battery (6 pdr.) , 6 Brig. battery 4 1/2 Position battery

I RES. CORPS (Liechtenstein) RESERVECORPS (Liechtenstein)

- Artillery commander : major Neßlinger (3rd Art. Rgt)

- before Aspern: 1 company 4th Art. Rgt, 1 Detachment Bombardier Corps and 1 Feldzeugamt

Div. Hessen-Homburg, Brig. Lederer 1 Horse battery - Brig. Rottermund 1 Horse battery - Brig. Siegenthal 1 Horse battery - Brig. Rohan 2 Brig. battery (6 pdr.)

II RES. CORPS (Kienmayer)

- before Aspern: 2 company 3rd Art. Rgt, 1 Detachment Bombardier Corps and 1 Feldzeugamt

Brig. D’Aspre 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.) - Brig. Clary 1 Horse Batt - Brig. Schneller 1 Horse bt.

Kavalleriereserve

-Aspern:

Div. Kienmayr, Brig. Peter Vécsey 2 Horse battery - 1Horse bt.- Brig. Provenchères 1 Horse battery - Brig. Rottermund 1 Horse bt.- Brig. Wartensleben 1 Horse
battery - Brig. Clary 1 Horse battery

Div. Hessen Homburg, Brig. Kroyher 1 Horse battery - Brig. Lederer 1 Horse battery - Brig. Siegenthal 1 Horse battery

- Wagram:

Div. Hessen-Homburg Brig. Kroyher 2 Horse battery (6 pdr.) - Brig. Lederer 2 Horse battery (6 pdr.) - Brig. D’Hurbal 2 Horse battery (6 pdr.)
Div. Schwarzenberg Brig. Teimern 1 Horse battery - 12 Pieces - Brig. Rothkirch 1 Horse battery - Brig. Wartensleben 2 Horse battery - 6 Pieces

Grenadiers reserve

-Aspern : Div. D’Aspre Brig. Hammer with Brig. Merville 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.)

Div. Prohaszka, Brig. Murray with Brig. Steyrer 1 Brig. Batt, (6 pdr.)

- Wagram: Div. D’Aspre, Brig. Merville 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.) - Brig. Hammer 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.), 1 Brig. battery (3 pdr.), 1 Brig. bt.

Div. Prohaszka, Brig. Murray 1 Brig. battery (3 pdr.) - Brig. Steyrer 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.), 1 Brig. battery (3 pdr.) 1 Brig. bt.

- after Wagram : Brig. Steyrer 1 Brig. Batt


ARMÈE of INNERÖSTERREICH (Erzherzog Johann) Inner Austria army arch. John

- before Aspern: 6 company 2nd Feldartillerie Regiment

- before Wagram: 2 company 2nd Feldartillerie Regiment- 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.), 1 Cav. battery 1 Position battery (6 pdr.) - 3 Horse battery - 1 Brig. Battery (3 pdr.) 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.), - 1 Position battery (6pdr.), 1 Position battery (12 pdr.)

VIII CORPS (Chasteler then Albert Gyulai)

- Artillery commander : major Fasching, (2nd Art. Rgt)

- before Aspern: 1 company 2nd Feldartillerie Regiment– 1 company 3rd Feldartillerie Regiment- 1/2 company 2nd Art. Rgt, 1 Detachment Bombardier Corps and 1 Feldzeugamt

Div. Frimont 1 Horse battery - Brig. Gajoli 1 battery (10 pdr.), 2 Howitzers - Brig. Wetzel ½ battery - Brig. Schmidt - Brig. Tommasich

Art. Res. Div. Colloredo 2 Horse battery - 1 Horse bt
Div. Albert Gyulai, Brig. Schmidt 1 Brig. battery (3 pdr.)

Corps Chasteler (Tirol)

(1-4 guns, 5 Howitzers )
2 guns (6 pdr.), 1 Horse bt., 3 pdr. - Brig. Buol 9 pieces - 3 bavarian 6 pdr., 2 3 pdr., 3 6 pdr., 4 3 pdr., 1 Bergkanone (mountain gun)
Brig. Fenner 2 Pieces , 3 pdr., 1/2 battery 6 pdr.
Brig. Marschal 8 Pieces - 1/2 Brig. battery 1 Position bt., 2 3 pdr.
Brig. Schmidt 4 3 pdr.
with Göldlin 3 pdr. – with Leiningen: 1 gun, 2 Howitzers – 2 3 pdr. – with Reissenfels 4 bavarian 6 pdr. 2 Howitzers , 2 pieces – with Seppenburg 3 Horse guns, 2 3 pdr. – with Frimerson 1 gun (3 pdr.)- with Taxis 1 3 pdr. 1 6 pdr. - 2 pieces

- before Wagram: Div. Frimont 1 Horse battery

IX Corps Gyulai

- before Aspern:

1/2 Horse bt 1 Position Battery - 6 Brig. battery (3 pdr.), 1Brig. bt (6 pdr.), 2 Position battery (6 pdr.), 1 Position battery (12pdr.), 2 Horse Pieces or also 3 Brig. Battery (3 pdr.), 3 Position Battery (6 pdr.), 1 Position bt (12 pdr.), 2 Horse Pieces bt.

Detached with Cazzan 4 guns (3 pdr.) – with Collenbach 8 guns (3 pdr.) – with Lodron (II Bat. Landw. Villach) 2 guns (3 pdr.) – with Reisner 1 Horse battery -Wurfgeschütz (Howitzers )

- before Wagram:

at Pressburg 1 gun (12 pdr.) - 1 Brig. battery (6 pdr.) - 2 Position battery (6 pdr.) - 1 Position battery (12 pdr.) – with Brig. Gyurkovich 1/2 Brig. battery – with Siegenfeld 2 guns

VII CORPS (Erzherzog Ferdinand), also called army of Galicia

- Artillery commander : Oberst Gillet

- before Aspern:

2 company 1st Feldartillerie Regimenttrained in Galicia, completed with 3rd Art. Rgt, 1 Detachment Bombardier Corps and 1 Feldzeugamt
2 Brig. battery (6 pdr.), 2 Position battery (6 pdr.), 1 Pos battery (12 pdr.), 2 Horse Pieces bt.

GARNISONEN (Festungen=fortresses)

- before Aspern:

Vienna 3 company 2nd Feldartillerie Regiment
Pest 2 company 2nd Feldartillerie Regiment
Prague 4-5 company 1st Feldartillerie Rgt: - Theresienstadt 2-3 company 1st Feldartillerie Rgt: -

- before Aspern: Malborghet 10 pieces - Predil 10 pieces, 1 howitzer

Graz (Schloßberg) 6 guns, 4 Position Pieces (12 pdr.)

- before Wagram:

Komorn 1 company 1st Feldartillerie Rgt - Esseg 1 company 2nd Feldartillerie Rgt:
Graz (Schloßberg) 4 guns (12 pdr.), 4 guns (6 pdr.), 4 guns (3 pdr.), 4 Howitzers

- after Wagram:

Graz (Schloßberg) 1 Battery Position

HUNGARIAN INSURRECTION

- before Aspern: 1 company 2nd Feldartillerie Regiment Parts 1st Feldartillerie Regiment

- before Wagram: with Mesko 1 Horse battery

ARTILLERY OdB at WAGRAM

III ARMY CORPS -Johann Graf Kollowrath-Krakowsky

(Light) Division
Light Brigade
Cavalry Battery
Infantry Brigade
Grenz Brigade Battery
Infantry Brigade
IX Brigade Battery

(Line) Division
Infantry Brigade
XI Brigade Battery
Infantry Brigade
XII Brigade Battery
VIII Position Battery

Reserve Artillery
X Position Battery
XI Position Battery
LIV Position Battery
LV Position battery

IV ARMY CORPS Franz Furst Rosenberg-Orsini

(Light) Division
Light Brigade
III Brigade Battery
Infantry Brigade
XXV Brigade Battery

(Line) Division
Infantry Brigade
XIV Brigade Battery
XIII Position Battery

Reserve Artillery
XV Position Battery
XVI Position Battery
XVII Position Battery
XVIII Position battery

GRENADIER CORPS Johannes Furst zu Liechtenstein

Grenadier Division
Grenadier Brigade
LII Brigade Battery

Grenadier Division
Grenadier Brigade
LIV Brigade Battery
Grenadier Brigade
III Brigade Battery
XVII Brigade Battery


NOTES:

[1] from: Belleville Pr.Lieut., Über di Verwendung der Artillerie im Feldzuge 1809 in Bayern, Munich 1876 in Archiv für di Artillerie- und Ingenieur-Officiere des deutschen Reichsheeres.

[2] The first general who gave importance to the tactical use of artillery was Frederick the Great. He created, in effect, the regimental (battalion’s) artillery, in order to manoeuver the guns with infantry. In the same time, otherwise, he organized also a brigade’s artillery composed by 6-10 guns, to gain also the advantages of a more concentrated fire.

[3] At Wagram these were the artillery orders before the battle, issued to general Lariboissière:

“Monsieur le général, La Riboisière, faites-moi un rapport qui me fasse connaître les besoins de l'artillerie : 1° en bouches a feu de campagne; 2° en munitions; 3° en poudre ; 4° en ouvriers pour pouvoir se procurer des effets, des fers et autres objets nécessaires à l’approvisionnement de l'artillerie; 5°en personnel, savoir : canonniers et train. Votre rapport doit reposer sur les bases suivantes :

Ø  Deux pièces de 3, de 4 ou de 6 par régiment , ce qui fait :

Ø  Pour le corps du duc de Rivoli. . . 28

Ø  Pour le corps du duc d'Auerstaedt. . 28

Ø  Pour le corps du maréchal Oudinot. . 34

Ø  Pour le corps du vice-roi. . . . . 32

n.: Pour le corps du maréchal Marmont. 14

Ce qui fait, pour les pièces de régiment , un total de 116 pièces, desquelles il faut ôter ce que vous avez dejà fourni.

Faites-moi connaitre: 1° ce que vous pou-vez fournir ici en pièces de 4 ou de 6 ; 2° ce que peu-vent fournir encore Passau et Lintz; 3°ce qu'on peut faire venir d'Italie; 4°ce qu'on peut faire venir de France. Quant à l'organisation des divisions, voici les besoins :

Le corps du duc de Rivoli. . . . 60 pièces.
Le corps du duc d’Auerstaëdt. . . 60
Le corps du maréchal Oudinot.:. . 45

Le corps du maréchal Marmont. . 30

Le corps du vice-roi.. . . . . 60

Total. . . . 255

n.: Je ne comprends point dans ce compte les alliés.

Pour la cavalerie, il faut une demi-batterie par chaque régiment de cuirassiers ;ainsi

Ø    Pour la division Nansouty, il faut. . 18 piéces
Ø    Pour la diyision Saint-Germain. . 12
Ø    Pour la division du duc de Padoue.. 12

Une demi-batterie de 3 piéces pour chaque division de cavalerie légère; ainsi il faut pour la division Montbrun et pour celle que commandait Lassalle, 48 pièces d'artillerie légère.

Pour la garde, il faut compter d'a-bord 60 pièces telles qu'elles existaient avant la bataille.

24 pièces dont j'ai ordonné la formation à Strasbourg.

De plus, je désire avoir sous le commandement du général de l'artillerie de ma garde, pour suivre sa destination, une réserve de 19 pièces de 12 et 6 obusiers servis par l'artillerie à pied, faisant 18 pièces, ce qui portera l'artillerie qui suivra la garde a 102 pièces ; plus, 4 divisions, chacune de 6 pièces, savoir : 16 pièces de 6 e 18 obusiers servis par l'artillerie de la ligne, faisant 24 pièces; ce qui formera une réserve de 44 bouches à feu qui, avec les 84 pièces de la garde, feront une réserve de. . . . 126 pièces.

Récapitulation :

Piéces de régimens. . . 116
Pièces de division. . . 255
Pièces de cavalerie .. 48
Pièces de la garde et réserve. 126
545 bouches à feu.

Sans compter les alliés :

Les Bavarois doivent avoir. 60
Les Saxons. . . . . 36
Les Wurtenbergeois. . 24
Les Badois.  .  18
Les Hessois.. . 16
154 bouches à feu.

Total général.de l’armée.. 699 bouch.

Schönbrunn, 15 juillet 1809. Napoléon.“

With the interesting note of Adrien Pascal:

“1) Il résulte de cette lettre que Napoléon voulait désormais se servir de l'artillerie comme du moyen le plus puissant de gagner les batailles. En donnant à chaque régiment 2 piéces de canons servies par les hommes du régiment même en augmentant l'artillerie des divisions il portait à  699 le nombre des bouches à feu qui, avec les 126 pièces de la garde ou de la réserve, élevait le total des bouches à feu de l'armée française à 825.”

Pascal Adrien, Correspondance inédite de l’Empereur Napoléon avec le commandant en chef de l’artillerie de la Grande-Armée, pendant les campagnes de 1809 en Autriche, 1810-1811 en Espagne, 1812 en Russie, Paris, Dumaine ed. 1843.

[4] Most european barrels were made of bronze, a mixture of 100 parts of copper with 10 parts of tin. In Austria the cast iron was used for the heavier Verteidigungs (defence/fortification) guns as it was stronger to sustain the larger charges, but it was less resistant to time than bronze. France used wrought and cast iron for the coastal and naval artillery. Wrought iron was already known to be a better material, but the production process was difficult and expensive. In Austria the guns were manufactured at Vienna, Graz, Prague, Pest and Hermannstadt (Banat), but most were made at the foundries near Vienna and at Mechelen (Malines, now in BeIgium). Iron guns were made at Mariazell and Reschitza in the Banat, where there were substantial iron and coal supplies.

French foundries (as for the Imperial Act of 27 nivose An XI – 1803) had an autonomous Direction Générale at Paris, with some Sous-Directions, in the areas in which the foundries were concentrated. For the Ardennes “arrondissement” the Sous-Directeurs were at Charleville or Mézières, for that of Moselle et Sarre they were at Metz or Sarrebruck, for the piedmontese foundries the siege was Turin.

[5] Austrians did measure distances in paces (Schritte) or 0.63 meters. One Schritt = 2 Füsse (1 Füss = 31,6 cm). The true austrian lenght measure was the Zoll (inches). 12 Wiener Zoll made a Fuss (and two Füsse made a Schritt). The Zoll was equal to the current 26,34 mm (the Fuss pair to 31,6 cm or 1 ft and 0,4 inches) or 1,04 in. (UK Imperial inches). In France the artillery lenght measure was the Toise. It was originally introduced in 790AD and represented the distance between the fingertips of a man with outstretched arms, equivalent to the English fathom. Its length may have varied over time but it is considered equal to 6 pieds, 6,395 feet, or 1,949 meters. Feet of different lengths were used in France, but based on the 18th century Paris pied the toise equals 6,395 (English) feet or 1,949 meters. This unit was widely used in the 19th century and hasn't died out entirely today. Note that the French have a second fathom-size unit, the bronzee, equal to 5 pieds (about 1,624 meters or 5,328 English feet). The bronzee was the unit commonly used at sea, while the toise was used on land.

[6] Here the weight measures of the gun calibers (catalogued for the weight of the balls shot) are made simpler using the pdr. (pounders, Pfünder for Austrians). However there were some important differences between French and Austrian measures. Austrian measured weights in Löth, 32 of which made a Wiener Pfund (Austrian pound). 1 Löth was equal to current 17,5g (0.62oz.) so a Pfund was 560g and equal to 1,235lb (Imperial pounds). At least 100 Pfünder made 1 Zentner (56Kg). For example a 3 pdr. austrian light gun was really a 3,7 equivalent French pdr. (more similar to a French 4 pdr.); an austrian 6 pdr. gun was a 7,4 equivalent French caliber and so on.

 

Placed on the Napoleon Series: December 2010

 

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