Military Subjects: Organization, Strategy & Tactics

The Austrian Imperial-Royal Army (Kaiserliche-Königliche Heer) 1805 – 1809:

The Infantry

By Enrico Acerbi

The Austrian Imperial-Royal Army

Kaiserliche-Königliche Heer 1805 – 1809

Regular Infantry Ordered by Recruitment District

 

ErgBohemia

 

Bohemia (Czech: Čechy; German: Böhmen) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands, currently the Czech Republic. In a broader meaning, it often refers to the entire Czech territory, including Moravia and Czech Silesia, especially in historical contexts, such as the Kingdom of Bohemia.

Czechs are the people of Moravia and Bohemia, but they were above all in this latter region, and they are the 2/3 of the whole population. They could be divided into two large groups: those who dwelled the central part of the region and those who lived near the Saxon-Bavarian borders. True Bohemians were only those living in the central territories (Circles of Rakonitz, Prachin , Czaslau , Béraun and Kaurzim). There practically was utilized only the Bohemian language, while along the borders the largest part of the people spoke German.

In Austria people who spoke only Bohemian (Czech) were called Stokböhmisch while the German speaking people were the Utraquistes. [1]

Circles (Districts) see map-image above (datas from a 1814 gazeteer)

Beraun (Czech: Beroun). Beroun was originally called na Brodě (by the ford), and received the name of Bern, Berun or Verona in the 13th century, when it obtained the privileges of a city from the emperor Charles IV, who was specially attached to the place, calling it "Verona mea." It was on the Beroun river and siege of a battle (1744) between Austrians and Prussians. The whole Circle had around 132.500 inhabitants in 1814.

Budweis (Czech: České Budějovice - German: Budweis or Böhmisch Budweis, also Budjegowitz, often referred to simply as Budweis in English) was the largest city in the South Bohemian Region and main town of the District. Sited on the river Malsch near its confluence into the large Moldaw. Budweis in 1814 had over 600 houses and around 5500 inhabitants. Main towns were:

Krumau (Český Krumlov), south east of Budweis, at the Austrian border, had around 560 houses and 4000 inh. It had an unusually large castle for the town dimensions.

Tabor (Hradiště Hory Tábor or castle of the mount Tabor) was part of the same military Circle; its name means also camp) was a fortress (south east of Časlau), very close to the Moldaw river. In 1814 had 400 houses and around 3000 inhabitants. At the time part of the Budweis District.

Bunzlau (modern Jungbunzlau and current Mladà Boleslav in Czech). The old town (Starà Boleslav) is now part of city Brandýs nad Labem-Stará Boleslav (Brandeis-Altbunzlau). In the 17th and 18th centuries, Mladá Boleslav was an important Jewish center and a Royal castle. In this period, about one half of the town's population was Jewish. Sited on an hill named Hrohka it had 350 houses and 2580 inhabitants. Main towns of the Kreis were:

Reichemberg (Czech: Liberec; at that time also Liberk or Habersdorf) was one of the largest towns in Bohemia with 10.000 inh. and was a border town (Silesia).

Turnau (Czech: Turnov) town on the Jizera river in the northern Bohemia. At the time it was part of the Bunzlau Kreis.Turnau on the Iser river had 300 houses and 2000 inhabitants. It was a town renowned for the gemstones artisans and the Valdštejn Castle, the cradle of the famous Wallenstein family.

Bydzòw or Bidschow (Czech: Bydžov) had 390 houses and 2900 inhabitants. Main towns of this central Kreis were:

Arnau (Czech: Hostinné) walled town on the Elbe with 230 houses and 1260 inhabitants.
Starkenbach (Czech: Jilemnice) near the Iser river, 220 houses and 660 inhabitants.
Hohenelbe (Czech: Vrchlabí) on the Elbe river, 360 houses and 2300 inh.
Gitschin  (Czech: Jićin) In 1710 the town became a property of the House of Trauttmansdorff and in 1814 had around 460 houses and 2400 inhabitants.

Časlau (German: Tschaslau, Csaslau; Czech also Čáslav) south of Königgrätz with only 200 houses and 2000 inhabitants, but site of the grave of Jan Ziska, chief of the Hussite movement. Main towns of the Circle were:

Kuttenberg (Czech: Kutna or Kutna Hora) a free town of 716 houses and 4000 souls. Famous for the silver mines.

Chrudim During the reign of Maria Theresa, Chrudim became the centre of the region and, in 1751, the seat of regional offices. The town was not only the natural but also the administrative centre of Chrudim region which had 760 villages and around 248.000 inhabitants. Main towns of the Circle were:

Landskron (Czech: Lanškroun) at the Moravian borde and town of the princes Liechtenstein.
Pardubitz (Czech: Pardubiće).

Elbogen (Czech: Loket) a small town surrounded on three sides by the Ohře River, with 241 houses and 2000 souls. The Circle was practically the territory of Egerland, a German speaking land. Main towns of the Circle were:

Eger (Czech: Cheb) a large town of 740 houses and around 4000 inhabitants, former leader of the District.
Carlsbad (Czech: Karlovy Vary) on the river Töpl, 4400 inhabitants, 1500 houses.

Kaurim or Kaurzim (Czech: Kouřim) was a free Royal town on the Elbe river. It was a little town chief of a Circle of around 145.400 inhabitants. The main cities of the Kreis were: Kolin, site of a famous battle, with 400 houses and 2000 souls. Böhmisch Brod (Czech: Český Brod), Royal walled town, and Brandeis (Czech: Brandýs) then separated from Alt-Bunzlau.

Klattau (Czech: Klatovy) free Royal town at the Bavarian border with around 3000 inhabitants and 450 houses. The Circle had around 140.000 souls, mainly speaking German. Others town of the Circle were:

Taus (Czech: Tauš, current Domažlice) walled town on the road to eastern Bavaria.
Ronsperg (Czech: Ronšperk, current Poběžovice) was a town of Counts Thun und Hohenstein.

Königgrätz (Czech: Hradec Králové). Northern populated Kreis with around 264.000 souls at the Silesian borders, its main town was sited on the Elbe and had around 5000 inhabitants with 700 houses. Was one of the most famous Austrian fortresses. Several churches and convents were pulled down to make way for the fortifications erected under Joseph II, finally dismantled in 1884.

Another large fortress was at Josefstadt (Czech: Josefov, today Jaroměř). Over 1780 to 1787, the Emperor Joseph II built on the left bank of the Elbe and Mettau rivers, the imperial fortress Ples. Later this conurbation took the name of Josefstadt (Joseph town). In 1948 the fortress town was renamed Josefov and incorporated into Jaroměř.

gemeinei1809Leitmeritz (Czech: Litoměřice) town of 3000 inhabitants close to the capital Prague on the river Elbe and close to the Saxon border. This Circle had around 300.000 inhabitants and had important border garrisons like Bilin and Tetschen.

Pilsen (Czech: Plzeň) a Royal town of around 5000 souls and 420 houses. The Kreis had around 170.000 inhabitants and the main town were Mies, Plan and Teinitz or Bischofteinitz (Czech: Horšovský Týn) walled town with an old fortress.

Prachin (Czech: Prácheň). It was a large Circle with around 270.000 inhabitants. Officially “Provincia Prachinensi”s or Prachens in German, autonomous region in the southwest of the present Bohemia, created in the late 13th century and abolished by the Austrian Empire's regional reform in 1848. Its boundaries extended through the Bohemian Forest (Gabreta, Böhmerwald or Šumava) in the south, on towards Budweis then to the north, close to the town of Příbram and from here southwest to Markt Eisenstein (Železná Ruda). Ethnic groups of the region included Jews, Roma, Czechs and Germans and by religion were Roman Catholics and Jews. The central geographical feature of the Prachens region is the Otava river or in the local dialect Wotāva. Other principal towns of the former Prachens are Pisek, Strakonitz (Strakonice), Rosenthal (Rožmitál), Winterberg (Vimperk) and Horaschdowitz (Horažďovice) feudal town of the Löwenstein family. These were alss the lands of the Schwarzenberg family.

Prague (Praha, the capital) on the Moldava river, it was the second city of the Empire. In 1814 had around 80.000 inhabitants, 32.000 houses and 8000 garrison soldiers. Since it was the capital of Bohemia, its citizens were commonly engaged in statal/regional jobs, schools and religious affairs. So there was an high number of recruitment exemptions, to which the city supplied with many volunteers and city troopers (Bürger units).

The people from suburbs were commonly enlisted in the nearby Districts like Rakonitz and Beraun.

Rakonitz (Czech: Rakovník) it was a Districts full of hills and woods with, only, 130000 inhabitants. Rakonitz on the Elbe river had around 2700 inhabitants and 347 houses in 1814. Its territory included also the great fortress of Theresienstadt (Czech: Terezín). Its construction started in 1780 and lasted ten years. The total area of the fortress was 3.89 km². The fortification was designed in the tradition of Sébastian le Prestre de Vauban. In peacetime it held 5655 soldiers, and in wartime around 11000 soldiers could be placed here, and neighbouring areas could be inundated.  

Saaz (Czech: Žatec) it was another mainly German speaking District with around 116.000 souls. Saaz was a Royal town on the Eger river. Brüx (Czech: Most, bridge) was another walled and fortified (castle) town of this Kreis. Another important town of the area was Chomotau (Czech: Chomutov).

Bohemian Districts

   

Year / # of the Recruiting Regiment

   

Region-State

District

1781

1807

1817

Ergänzungs (Werb) bezirks Commando (Heeres)

Kreis (Kraj)

Bohemia

Budweis

10

54

54

Budweis

kraj Budejovičko

Bohemia

Tabor

Tabor

kraj Taborski

Bohemia

Kaurim

11

11

11

Beneschau

kraj Kouŕimsky

Kaurzim (Kourim), Kolin

Bohemia

Caslau

28

28 - 21

21

Ćaslau

kraj Ćaslavsky

Bohemia

Chrudim

15

Hohenmauth

kraj Chrudimsky

Bohemia

Königgrätz

57

Königgrätz

kraj Hradečky

Bohemia

Bydzòv

21

18

18

Jíćin

kraj Bydzowski
Bidschau (Bydzow), Jíćin

Bohemia

Bunzlau

18

17

36

Jungbunzlau

(Mladà Boleslav)

kraj Boleslavsky

Bohemia

Leitmeritz

17

56

42

Theresienstadt

kraj Litomericky

Bohemia

Saaz  

36

42

Komotau

kraj Źatečky
Egerland Saaz (Žatec)

Bohemia

Eger – Elbogen

42

Eger (Cheb)

Chebsko- Loketsko

Bohemia

Bohemia

Turnau

--

--

--

Turnau

Bohemia

Pilsen

35

35

35

Pilsen

kraj Plzensky

Bohemia

Klattau

Pisek  

(Prachen or Prachin)

kraj Klatowsky

kraj Prachensky

Bohemia

Prachin

25

25

25

Bohemia

Beraun

54

47

28

Beraun

kraj Berounski

Bohemia

Rakonitz

47

Prague

kraj Rakovničky Prahsko

Bohemia

Prague

Total

Erbland

14

11

9

 

January 1809 Military Territorial Defense and Austrian Resident Units in Bohemia

at the beginning of campaign and before complete commitment of the Landwehr battalions

Territorial commander (ad interim): FZM Count Riesch

Vice-commander and Landwehrinspektor: FML Baron von Loudon

Territorial Division GM Johann von Richter

Schüttenhofen Landwehr Brigade oberst Rosenhayn

Janowitz – 1st Landwehr battalion Klattau
Welhartitz – 2nd Landwehr battalion Klattau
Schüttenhofen – 3rd Landwehr battalion Klattau
Bergreichenstein – 3rd Landwehr battalion Prachin
Winterberg – 4th Landwehr battalion Prachin

Strakonitz Landwehr Brigade GM Johann von Richter

Frauenberg – 1st Landwehr battalion Budweis
Budweis – 2nd Landwehr battalion Budweis
Höritz – 3th Landwehr battalion Budweis
Prachatitz – 1st Landwehr battalion Prachin
Strakonitz – 2nd Landwehr battalion Prachin
Wodnan – IR 54 Froon Depotdivision– 2 companies
Pisek – IR 25 Zedzwitz Depotdivision– 2 companies
Horazdiowitz – Reserve (Depot) squadron Uhlans Schwarzemberg

Territorial Division GM Johann Friedrich von Oberndorf

Elbogen Landwehr Brigade oberst von Ullrich

territory – 1st Landwehr battalion Elbogen
territory – 2nd Landwehr battalion Elbogen
territory – 3rd Landwehr battalion Elbogen

Elbogen Landwehr Brigade GM von Oberndorf

territory – 1st Landwehr battalion Pilsen
territory – 2nd Landwehr battalion Pilsen
territory – 3rd Landwehr battalion Pilsen
Elbogen – IR 35 Erzherzog Johann Depotdivision– 2 companies

Territorial Division GM Johann von Schöntal

Sandau Landwehr Brigade Oberst Count Waldstein

Bautzen – 2nd Landwehr battalion Leitmeritz
Tetschen – 3rd Landwehr battalion Leitmeritz
Böhmische Kamnitz – 5th Landwehr battalion Leitmeritz
Böhmische Leipa – 1st Landwehr battalion Bunzlau
Sandau – 4th Landwehr battalion Bunzlau

Auscha Landwehr Brigade GM Johann von Schöntal (later GM Baron Am-Ende)

Brozan – 1st Landwehr battalion Saaz
Lobositz – 2nd Landwehr battalion Saaz
Theresienstadt – 1st Landwehr battalion
Rakonitzudin – 2nd Landwehr battalion Rakonitz
Theresienstadt – 1st Landwehr battalion Leitmeritz
Theresienstadt – 4th Landwehr battalion Leitmeritz
Theresienstadt – 6th Landwehr battalion Bunzlau
Theresienstadt – IR 36 Kolowrat Depotdivision– 2 companies
Theresienstadt – IR 17 Reuss-Plauen Depotdivision – 2 companies
Auscha – Depot companies 3rd Feldjäger battalion
Theresienstadt – Reserve (Depot) squadron Klenau chevaulégers

Territorial Division GM Count Carl Kinsky

Jungbunzlau Landwehr Brigade Oberst Novak

Weisswasser – IR 42 Erbach Depotdivision– 2 companies
Jungbunzlau – IR 11 Rainer Depotdivision– 2 companies
Bakow (then Brüx) – Depot companies 1st Feldjäger battalion
Münchengrätz – Reserve (Depot) squadron Merveldt Uhlans
Jungbunzlau – Reserve (Depot) squadron Riesch Dragoons

Liebenau Landwehr Brigade GM Count Carl Kinsky

Reichenberg – 2nd Landwehr battalion Bunzlau
Turnau – 3rd Landwehr battalion Bunzlau
Liebenau – 5th Landwehr battalion Bunzlau
Böhmische Aicha – 2nd Landwehr battalion Kaurzim
Hühnerwasser – 3rd Landwehr battalion Časlau

Festungkommando Josefstadt GM Johann von Szénassy

Hohenelbe – 1st Landwehr battalion Bydzow
Kopildno – 2nd Landwehr battalion Bydzow
Jičin – 3rd Landwehr battalion Bydzow
Josefstadt – 4th Landwehr battalion Bydzow
Josefstadt – 1st Landwehr battalion Königgrätz
Politz – 2nd Landwehr battalion Königgrätz
Josefstadt – 3rd Landwehr battalion Königgrätz
Geiersberg – 4th Landwehr battalion Königgrätz
Königgrätz – 5th Landwehr battalion Königgrätz
Josefstadt – IR 18 Stuart Depotdivision– 2 companies
Josefstadt – IR 21 Rohan Depotdivision– 2 companies
Josefstadt (Jaromirz) – Depot companies 2nd Feldjäger battalion
Josefstadt – Reserve (Depot) squadron Blankenstein Hussars

Festungkommando Königgrätz GM Baron Franz Peter Ignaz De Baut

Polička – 1st Landwehr battalion Chrudim
Chotzen – 2nd Landwehr battalion Chrudim
Königgrätz – 3rd Landwehr battalion Chrudim
Chrudim – 4th Landwehr battalion Chrudim
Königgrätz – IR 28 Frelich Depotdivision– 2 companies
Königgrätz (then Prachatitz) – Depot companies 4th Feldjäger battalion

Territorial Division FML Baron Karl Joseph von Sterndhal

Prague Landwehr Brigade GM Count Franz Kinsky

Prague – 1st Landwehr battalion Prague
Prague – 2nd Landwehr battalion Prague
Prague – 1st Landwehr battalion Beraun
Prague – 2nd Landwehr battalion Beraun
Prague – 1st Landwehr battalion Kaurzim
Prague – 1st Landwehr battalion Časlau
Prague – 2nd Landwehr battalion Časlau
Prague – 1st Landwehr battalion Tabor
Prague – IR 47 Vogelsang Depotdivision– 2 companies
Alt-Bunzlau – Reserve (Depot) squadron Rosemberg chevaulégers
Detached in the Border – 6 Kordon companies. [2]

At Prague it was organized an open bureau (an enlistment table or Werbtisch), where volunteers could enroll under a fee of 15 fl. (Konventionsmünze). The border Circles were now occupied by highest Corps Officers: Bellegarde at Saaz (I Corps), Hohenzollern at Prague (III Corps), prince Rosenberg at Pisek (IV Corps) and the Archduke Louis at Budweis (VI Corps).OFFICER1809 The Field commander of the Bohemian army was the Feldzeugmeister (FZM) Count Carl Kolowrat-Krakowsy, who went in war as commander of the II Corps.

January 1809 Austrian Regular Army Order of Battle in Bohemia

Field commander: FZM Count Carl Kolowrat-Krakowski

Pilsen Division FML Franz Weber von Trauenfels

Pilsen Brigade GM Baron Josef von Henneberg

Eger - IR 42 Erbach – (I and II Bns on 6 companies; III Bn on 4 Companies; plus Grenadier division)
Pilsen – IR 35 Erzherzog Johann -  (I and II Bns on 6 companies; III Bn on 4 Companies; Grenadier division)

1st Prague Division FML Baron Ludwig von Vogelsang

Prague Brigade GM chevalier Theodore de Wacquant-Geozelles

Prague city - IR 11 Erzherzog Rainer – (I and II Bns on 6 companies; III Bn on 4 Companies; Grenadier division)
Prague city - IR 10 Anton Mittrowsky – (I and II Bns on 6 companies; Grenadier division)
Prague city - IR 47 Vogelsang – (I and II Bns on 6 companies; III Bn on 4 Companies; Grenadier division)
Kuttenberg - IR 28 Frelich – (I and II Bns on 6 companies; III Bn on 4 Companies; Grenadier division)

2nd Prague Division FML Baron Thomas von Brady

Jungbunzlau Brigade GM Johann von Szénassy

Jungbunzlau - IR 18 vacant [3] Stuart – (I and II Bns on 6 companies; III Bn on 4 Companies; Grenadier division)
Jičin - IR 21 Rohan – (I and II Bns on 6 companies; III Bn on 4 Companies; Grenadier division)

Chrudim Brigade GM Wenzel Buresch von Greifenbach

Chrudim - IR 15 Zach – (I and II Bns on 6 companies; Grenadier division)
Leitomischl - IR 57 Josef Colloredo – (I and II Bns on 6 companies; Grenadier division)
Landskron – 2nd Feldjäger battalion

3rd Prague Division FML Baron Josef von Ulm

Budweis Brigade GM Johann von Schöntal

Neuhaus - IR 54 Froon – (I and II Bns on 6 companies; III Bn on 4 Companies; Grenadier division)
Pisek - IR 25 vacant Zedzwitz – (I and II Bns on 6 companies; III Bn on 4 Companies; Grenadier division)
Prachatitz – 4th Feldjäger battalion

Leitmeritz Brigade GM Baron Carl Am-Ende

Brüx- IR 36 Kolowrat – (I and II Bns on 6 companies; III Bn on 4 Companies; Grenadier division)
Leitmeritz - IR 17 Reuss-Plauen – (I and II Bns on 6 companies; III Bn on 4 Companies; Grenadier division)
Tetschen – 3rd Feldjäger battalion

Prague 1st Cavalry Division FML Count Johann Klenau

Prague Cavalry Brigade GM Baron Ferdinand von Wintzingerode

Brandeis - 6th Chevaulégers Rosemberg – 8 squadrons
Gabel - 6th Hussars Blankenstein – 8 squadrons

Pardubitz cavalry brigade GM Baron Peter von Vécsey

Pardubitz - 5th Chevaulégers Klenau – 8 esc

Časlau cavalry brigade GM Count Johann Nostitz

Časlau  - 6th Dragoons Riesch – 6 squadrons

Prague 2nd Cavalry Division FML Count Carl Fresnel von Hennequin

Saaz Cavalry Brigade GM Count Ludwig Wallmoden-Gimborn

Saaz – 2nd Uhlans Schwarzemberg – 8 squadrons

Klattau Cavalry Brigade GM Count Carl Crenneville

Klattau – 1st Uhlans Merveldt – 8 squadrons
Taus – 1st Feldjäger battalion

Prague Division FML Anton von Szereday

Budweis Brigade Baron Ferdinand von Häring

Budweis – 4th Artillery reg. Unterberger – 9 companies
Josefstadt – Miners – 1 company
Königgrätz – Pioneers – 2 companies
Königgrätz Sappers – 2 companies

Bohemian Regiments Recruitment 1809

Ergänzungsbezirks Kommando

 

Werb-bezirk

Regular army

Landwehr

HQ Recr. District

Czech

recruitment area (Kreis)

IR

other

Budweis

České Budějovice

Budweiser

54

4th Fortress Art.
2nd Feldjäger

Tabor

Tábor

Taborer

Kaurzim

Kouřim

Kaurzimer

11

6th Ch.Lég. Rosenberg

Csaslau

Časlau

Tschaslauer

21 - 28

6th Dragoons Riesch

Chrudim

Chrudim

Chrudimer

5th Ch.Lég. Klenau

Königgrätz

Hradec Králové

Königgrätzer

 

Stadt Prag

Praha

Prager

28-11-54

1st Fortress Art.

Bidschow

Bydzow

Bidschower

18

 

Jung-Bunzlau

Mladá Boleslav

Bunzlauer

17

 

Leitmeritz

Litomerĭce

Leitmeritzer

36

1st Feldjäger
3rd Feldjäger

Saaz

Žatec

Saazer

42

 

Eger

Cheb

Elbogener

5th Feldjäger

Pilsen

Plzeň

Pilsener

35

 

Klattau

Klatovy

Klattauer

 

Pisek

Pisek

Prachiner

25

4th Feldjäger

Beraun

Beroun

Berauner

47

 

Rakonitz

Rakovník

Rakonitzer

Numbers in BOLD mean a temporary area of recruitment in order to help the main District to reach the stated strength.


Regular Infantry Regiments of Bohemia

K.K. IR  11 - FZM Erzherzog Rainer Joseph  – 3 Bns  (Archduke Rainer) [4]

11Infantry18092nd Owner (Inhaber): from 1801 FML Count Vincenz Kolowrath-Liebsteinsky

Recruitment: 2 Depot companies Brig. and Div. Karl Kinsky in Prague under Riesch and Loudon. 

Bohemia

Kaurzim District

11

Depot Kader:

Prague

between Aspern and Wagram led by Oberst Hermann von Faber (Fabre)

Commander: Oberst

Franz von Dolle, dead at Aspern

 

 

- before Aspern: Brigade GM Baron Theodor Wacquant-Geocelles, Division FML Josef von Ulm, I Corps Bellegarde.

- at Aspern: Hauptmann Murmann of the 2nd Bn distinguished during the assault at the Churchyard of Aspern. In the 2nd day of the battle, two comp. under Hauptmann Vernholz were at the Aspern defense. Both MTO. 

- at Wagram: Brig. Wacquant, Div. Dedovich, I Corps. Clash at Aderklaa. During the retreat the commander of the 1st battalion (Hauptmann Fabary) was mentioned for bravery. The regiment lost 95 men dead and 520 wounded.

- after Wagram: it fought at Znaim, on the hills of Oblas, Pumlitz and Tesswitz, losing other 6 dead and 120 wounded. Then retreated under their colonel command in the Brig. Fabre, Div. Henneberg, I Corps.

Note: it will change its pink facing/white buttons in dark blue/gold buttons from 1810.

K.K. IR 54 – FML Baron Joseph Froon von Kirchrath – 3 Bns [5]

Recruitment: Bohemia - Moravia. 2 Depotcompanies Brig. and Div. Richter under Riesch and Loudon

Bohemia

Budweis

54

Bohemia

Tabor

Depot Kader:

Neuhaus (Bohemia)

 

Commander: Oberst

Baron David Andrássy [6]

54Infantry1809

 

 

The regiment recruited till 1806 in Franconia. After it was assigned to Beraun in Bohemia with a supporting District in Galicia (Sambor and Sanok). From 1807 Budweis-Tabor.

- before Aspern: Brigade GM Carl von Fölseis, Div. Brady, II Corps and Brig. Fölseis, then Division FML Franz Weber von Treuenfels, II Corps. During the attack against Stadt-am-Hof (Ratisbon) distinguished itself the 3rd Bn under Oberstleutnant Taizon. Lost 31 dead, 141 wounded and 71 prisoners of the French. During the retreat GM Fölseis kept the 1st battalion inside Ratisbon in order to cover the cavalry retreat. The third battalion (Taizon) remained in reserve at Eisenstein and reached the regiment on June 30 before Wagram. The regiment was sent towards Hiller’s V Corps in order to try the link with the main army. At the time of the battle of Urfahr-Linz the 1st and 2nd battalions were under Brigade GM Andreas von Schneller, Division Franz Saint Julien-Waldsee, but in reserve.

- at Aspern: 2 Bns with Brigade GM Baron David Andrássy (in place of GM Koller), Division FML Baron Thomas von Brady, 3rd column FML prince Franz Xavier von Hohenzollern-Hechingen (II Corps). The regiment, deployed in square, fronted the French Cuirassiers charge. In the second day they were at the Esslingen [7] clash. The Oberstleutnant Peter Gerditsch died at Aspern and the regiment lost 30 men dead, 154 wounded.

- at Wagram: Brig. Paar, Div. Brady, II Corps again 3 Bns. Attached to the Hardegg avant-garde the regiment deployed at Baumersdorf (Parmarsdorf), which was defended by Major Rothmund battalion. Regiment lost 76 men dead, 474 wounded, 292 were never found (dead or prisoners) and 28 were taken prisoners.

- after Wagram: at Znaim on the right bank of the Thaya river on the Oblas and Pumlitz hills, and town Tessnitz. with Brig. Quallenberg, Div. Buresch, II Corps. Then retreated in Hungary through Neutra till Pressburg.

K.K. IR 21 – FML Viktor Ludwig Prinz Rohan – 3 Bns

Recruitment: Bohemia. 2 Depotcompanies Brig Szénassy in Jaromirz, fortress Josefstadt under Riesch and Loudon 28Infantry1809. In February the battalion was at Gitschin then to Prague.

Bohemia

Königgrätz (part of Chrudim)

21

Depot Kader:

Josephstadt

Oberstleutnant Ludwig von Krause after Aspern

Commander: Oberst

Chevalier Johann Altstern

 

 

- before Aspern: detached Brigade, called “Light Corps”, [8] Peter Vécsey, IV Corps Rosenberg then the first battalion sent under Brig. Peter Vécsey, I Res. Corps in reconnaissance toward Ratisbon, while 2nd and 3rd Bns under Oberstleutnant von Krause had the task to watch the Danube pontoon-bridges laid south east of Ratisbon. The provisional bridgehead was attacked by the French and the Austrians forced to return on the left Danube bank. The two battalions under bombardment lost 35 dead, 84 wounded and 111 missing. The first battalion left the watch at the Ratisbon stone-bridge without fights retreating till Cham and then to Budweis in Bohemia where the regiment was gathered under Brig. Wied Runkel, Div. Weber, II Corps.

- at Aspern: Brig. Altstern, Div. Ulm, II Corps and Brig. Wied Runkel, Div. FML Franz Weber von Treuenfels, II Corps Hohenzollern. The 3rd battalion (Krause) was committed for the attack towards Esslingen: losses of the regiment were 38 men dead, 169 wounded. During the night the regiment withdrew to Baumersdorf camp and there received some replacements. Commander Altstern commanded now a brigade.

- at Wagram: Brig. Altstern, Div. Ulm, II Corps the regiment, led by von Krause, with 1st battalion (Oberstleutnant Pfleger von Lindenfeld), 2nd Bn (Major de Chaudelot) and 3rd Bn (Oberstleutnant Müller von Hohenthal), deployed at Baumersdorf. The defense was stubborn with bayonet’s countercharges and led to many deads and around 200 wounded. On the second battle day the regiment was taken by crossing bombardments and had to retreat with the II Corps suffering a violent charge by the French cavalry. At Wagram it lost 5 officers dead, 14 wounded, 3 wounded and prisoners; 429 troopers dead, 696 wounded, 184 missing and 388 prisoners of the French.[9] Brigadier Altstern (Div. Siegenthal then Ulm, II Corps) led the retreating regiment till the Thaya river.

- after Wagram: it did not take part at the Znaim battle. Retreated in Moravia and finally to the depot at Königgrätz).

K.K. IR 28 – FML Baron Michael Frelich (Frehlich, Fröhlich) – 3 Bns [10]

28Infantry1809Recruitment: Bohemia. 2 Depotcompanies Brig. de Baut in Chrudim, fortress Königgrätz under Riesch and Loudon. Before 1806 it had recruited also in Upper Rhine territories.

Bohemia

Časlau

28

Chrudim

Depot Kader:

Kuttenberg (Bohemia)

 

Commander: Oberst

Baron Carl Mécsery

 

 

 

- before Aspern: Brigade GM Carl von Fölseis, Div. FML Franz Weber von Treuenfels, II Corps Kolowrath. It had 66 officers and 3552 men. Then assigned to Brig. GM prince Friedrich von Wied-Runkel, Div. Brady, II Corps. Did not fight in Bavaria.

- at Aspern: Brig. Wied Runkel, Div. Weber, II Corps or 3rd column. The regiment reached Hirschstetten and deployed itself in three “battalions-massen” repulsing with fire a bloody charge by D’Espagne cuirassiers. The same scene repeated the day after. The regiment lost 32 dead, 233 wounded (of which 31 were made prisoners). At the end of June (Brig. Wied Runkel, Div. Brady, II Corps) replacements brougth the strength up to 4202 men.

- at Wagram: Defense of Baumersdorf: 3rd battalion was with Brig Wied Runkel, Div. Ulm, II Corps but the 1st and 2nd battalions were with avant-guard Hardegg inside the village. In the two days of the battle the regiment lost: 16 officers wounded (of which 4 died), 62 dead, 275 wounded, 190 missing and 276 taken prisoners.

- after Wagram: Battle of Znaim. Brig. Hardegg, Div. Ulm, II Corps. The regiment took position at Tief-Maispitz and Brenditz with the task of supporting and covering the retreat of the army reserve artillery. Other part of the unit retreated with IV Corps Rosemberg with Baron Carl Mécsery.

K.K. IR  17 – FML-FM Heinrich XV Prince Reuss Plauen – 3 Bns

17Infantry1809Recruitment: Jungbunzlau District 2 Depotcompanies Brig. and Div. Schönthal in Pilsen under Riesch and Loudon.

Bohemia

Leitmeritz

17

Bohemia

Bunzlau

Depot Kader:

Leitmeritz-Jungbunzlau

 

Commander: Oberst

Baron Ernst Oberndorf

 

 

 

- before Aspern: Brig. Am Ende, Div. Vogelsang, I Corps Bellegarde gathered at Plan and advanced (April 10) inside Bavaria. Also parte of the strong avant-garde of Baron Crenneville. On April 14 fought at Ursensollen. On April 20 approached Ratisbon seizing the city and forcing the French to surrender. Then retreated till Cham in the Brig. Henneberg, Div. Vogelsang, I Corps.

- at Aspern: Brig. Henneberg, Div. Vogelsang, I Corps or 2nd column, in which was the 3rd battalion. The other two battalions were with the Brig. Wacquant with IR 11 and IR 47 (Div. Ulm) and took part to the seizing of Aspern. It took part also at the 2nd day of the battle. Mentioned Obertsleutnant Count Bentheim and Major Seidenhofer. [11]

- at Wagram: Brig. Henneberg, Div. Dedovich (under Wacquant’s provisional command), I Corps. Colonel Oberndorf defended the village of Deutsch-Wagram and was also wounded. Involved in the clash of Aderklaa. Mentioned the colonel, the two Majors Karg and Schlosser.

- after Wagram: Brig. and Div. Henneberg (maybe with Brig. Fabre), I Corps at Znaim fighting for the defense of the Teschwitz bridge.                            

K. IR  18 – FML Count Patrick Stuart [12] (then) FML Baron Constantin D’Aspre – 3 Bns [13]

Recruitment: 2 Depotcompanies Brig. Szénassy in Jaromirz, fortress Josefstadt under Riesch and Loudon 18Infantry1809.

Bohemia

Bidzow

18

Depot Kader:

Neu-Bidšow

1st Bn – Major Kirchlebsky

Commander: Oberstleutnant

Anton Grimmer von Riesenburg

 

 

- before Aspern: 5527 men, 2nd Bn (Major Baron Carl Boeck), 3rd Bn (Oberstleutnant Wilhelm von Feuchtersleben) and 1st Bn were with Brigade GM prince Friedrich von Wied-Runkel, Div. Weber then Division FML Baron Thomas von Brady, II Corps Kolowrath. Two battalions with Wied-Runkel took part at the Kolowrath advance at Eckmühl. A division of the regiment undet Hauptmann Baron Imhoff defended the Jakobs-Tor at Ratisbon losing 5 men dead, 55 wounded and 220 prisoners.

The third battalion was detached to the IV Corps (April 6) and sent to reach the connection with the retreating V and VI Corps, with the Landwehr Brigade GM Richter and then with the Brigade GM Rudolf von Sinzendorff, both under FML Dedovich. The battalion was ordered to defend the powerful bridgehead of Oberhaus being part of the Oberst Grätze detachment (a colonel of a Border Regiment or Grenzer). But the French advance forced to send away guns and ammunitions of Oberhaus, sending them to Linz by boats. One division of the battalion remained at Oberhaus, another at Passau.

The Div. Dedovich was attached to the V Corps Hiller and was in reserve in the woods behind Ebelsberg, on the right Danube bank. The 3rd battalion was sent to support the Vienna Volunteers inside the town and it lost 16 men dead, 22 wounded, 10 prisoners and 208 missing. Then retreated to Vienna and joined the main army on the left Danube bank.

The other two battalions remained with the Brig. Wied Runkel, Div. Weber, II Corps in Bohemia. The three battalions assembled together before Aspern. On May 1st Major Kirchlebsky left for a different command. The 1st Bn was now under Boeck and the 3rd under Major Lorenz Volk.

- at Aspern: Brig. Wied Runkel, Div. Weber, II Corps and during the battle to Brig. Altstern, Div. Ulm, II Corps, after the death of FML Franz Weber von Treuenfels. The regiment took part to all clashes of the Wied Runkel Brigade (expecially Esslingen assault). The losses were: 72 dead, 689 wounded, 157 prisoners.

- between Aspern and Wagram: its Owner became D’ Aspre. [14] Brig. Wied Runkel, Div. Ulm, II Corps.

- at Wagram: Brig Wied Runkel, Div. Ulm, II Corps then Brig. Wied Runkel, Div. Siegenthal, [15] II Corps and again Brig. Wied Runkel, Div Ulm, II Corps. During the battle the regiment was in the second line (with IR 28) protecting the road of Baumersdorf. For some time it was led directly by Hardegg, who was in the town.

- after Wagram: Brig Wied Runkel, Div. Ulm, II Corps. The regiment was at Znaim behind the cavalry Reserve between Blenditz and Maispitz. Then retreated in Bohemia reaching in autumn the new Depot location of Gitschin.

36nfantry1809K.K. IR 36 – FZM Count Carl Kolowrath-Krakowsky – 3 Bns [16]

Recruitment: 2 Depotcompanies Brig. and Div. Schönthal in Pilsen, under Riesch and Loudon.

Bohemia

Brüx then Leitmeritz

36

Depot Kader:

Leitmeritz - Theresienstadt

(then) OberstleutnantJoseph Fischer von See -Oberstleutnant Wappel

Commander: Oberst

Count Wenzel von Klenau

 

 

- before Aspern: Brig. Am Ende, Div. FML Ludwig Vogelsang, I Corps Bellegarde then Brig. GM Baron Josef Henneberg, Div. Vogelsang, I Corps. Did not fight any battle.

- at Aspern: Brig. Henneberg, Div. Vogelsang, I Corps . The regiment deployed in fron of Hirschstetten. The commander of the 3rd Bn Hauptmann Baron Bienefeld distinguished himself during the attack against Aspern’s Churchyard. The regiment lost 7 officers and 127 men dead, 21 officers and 595 men wounded; 204 men missing (a total of 28 officers and 928 men, the largest losses of the I Corps). On May 27 FML Vogelsand retired himself and gave the command to FML Nostitz. Colonel Klenau was promoted Generalmajor and left the command to the (fresh) colonel Fischer, while the former Major Senitzer became Oberstlieutenant.

On June 22 the regiment received 800 replacement troopers and FML Nostitz left for another command. The division was provisionaly led by GM Wacquant. Colonel Fischer, ill, left the command to Oberstleutnant Wappel, while the 1st battalion was now under Hauptmann Haberein.

- at Wagram: Brig. Henneberg, Div. (column) Dedovich, under provisional command of Wacquant, I Corps. The regiment deployed behind the Russbach creek. The 3rd battalion (Haberein) sent, autonomous, went behind the village of Wagram, was attached to the Stutterheim vanguard. During the night Brig. Henneberg, Div. Fresnel, I Corps (1st and 2nd battalions). The 3rd battalion then took part at the defense of Aderklaa with the other two battalions. The I Corps then retreated to Gerarsdorf. The regiment lost 67 men dead, 324 wounded (was also wounded the interim commander Wappel who left the command to Major Rasquin), 6 prisoners and 390 missing. Captain Haberein was awarded with the MTO Cross.

- after Wagram: Brig. Henneberg, Div. Henneberg (interim), I Corps . The provisional brigade camped on the Weingebirge in front of Znaim. Colonel Fischer take again command. After the hard battle the regiment lost its former commader Wappel and other 91 men dead, 496 wounded, 14 prisoners and 275 missing.

Note: facings of the regiment got the ancient name of colour “gris de lin”. From 1807 it was also called as Leinblüthenfarbe; from 1860 also Blaßrot.

42Infantry1809K.K. IR  42 – FML-FZM Carl Eugen Erbach Schönberg  – 3 Bns [17]

Recruitment: Bohemia. 1 Depotcompanies Brig. Ullrich in Elbogen, Div. Karl Kinsky under Riesch and Loudon. Depotdivision at Theresienstadt.

Bohemia

Eger

42

Saaz

Depot Kader:

Elbogen - Eger

Wilhelm von Brixen

Commander: Oberst

Chevalier Franz Rousseau

 

 

 

- before Aspern: Brigade GM Count Johann Nostitz, Division FML Ludwig Vogelsang, I Corps Bellegarde (2 Bns), and 3rd Bn with the II Reserve Corps then to Brigade autonome GM Baron Carl von Am-Ende in Bohemia to watch the Saxon borders at Pascopol. Regiment with Brigade Nostitz, Division FML Count Johann Fresnel von Hennequin, I Corps.

- at Aspern: Brigade Nostitz, Division Fresnel von Hennequin, I Corps. Deployed on the hills behind Gerasdorf. It took part to the assault at Aspern. Later with the Brig. Clary, Div. Fresnel, I Corps then Brig. Schaeffer, Div. Nostitz, I Corps then Brig. Nostitz, Div. Fresnel, I Corps. Colonel Rousseau left after a severe wound and the command went to colonel von Brixen.

- between Aspern and Wagram: 3rd Bn always with the independent Brig. Am Ende under Kienmayer Corps.

- at Wagram: Brig. Clary, Div. Fresnel, I Corps. The regiment was between Baumersdorf and Wagram. During an attack died its commander and was substituted by Major Fromm. On the second day of the battle the regiment was between Aderklaa and Wagram. Also the new regiment commander died during an attack. The regiment was now under Major Schober. The 2nd battalion (Hauptmann Höckner) seized Aderklaa. As award for having fought in a so brave way the regiment got the honour to be allowed to play the “Grenadiersmarsch in every occurrence desired ...”. Archduke Charles himself mentioned the bravery of the Erbach’s Leibbattalion (the 1st).

- after Wagram: Brig. Clary, Div. Fresnel, I Corps and return to Bohemia. The total losses of the two Erbach battalions during the summer were: 18 officers and 900 men, of which 3 officers and 49 men dead.

Note: this famous regiment had often nicknames like “42er” (Zweiundvierziger) or the “Erbacher”.                                                                                        

35Infantry1809K.K. IR 35  – Erzherzog Johann Nepomuk (from May) FZM Count Eugen Argenteau – 3 Bns [18]

Recruitment: Bohemia. 2 Depotcompanies Brig. and Div. Karl Kinsky in Pilsen under Riesch and Loudon.

Bohemia

Klattau

35

Pilsen

Depot Kader:

Pilsen

 

Commander: Oberst

Joseph Schäffer von der Mulda

 

 

 

before Aspern: mobilized as Rgt. Archduke Johann Nepomuk in Brigade GM Baron Ferdinand Wintzingerode-Ohmfeld, Division FML Count Johann Fresnel von Hennequin, I Corps Bellegarde. Successively in Brig. Henneberg, Div. Vogelsang, I Corps and then also Brig. Wartensleben, Div. Fresnel, I Corps. In April it was on the Kieselberg hills near Ursensollen, where Hauptmann Baron Hromada (then promoted to major) attacked the French in the wood, repulsing them with two companies of the regiment. On May 1st the regiment was given to FZM Count Argenteau.

- at Aspern: Brigade GM Count Johann Nostitz (Brig. Lützel ?), Div. Fresnel, I Corps and Brig. Schäffer, Div. Nostitz, I Corps or 2nd Column during the battle. At 3 PM it attacked Aspern village with the 1st battalion and part of the 2nd. The 3rd battalion was in reserve. The regiment lost: 3 officer and 85 men dead, 10 officers and 544 men wounded, 116 men prisoners or missing. Later it was again in the Brig. Wartensleben, Div. Fresnel, I Corps.

- between Aspern and Wagram: for a short period it trained with the Div. Nordmann, Avantgarde left Wing .

- at Wagram: Brig. Motzen, Div. Fresnel, I Corps (interim led by colonel Schäffer). The regiment took position at Baumersdorf. The Oberstleutnant Matthias Dittmayer, with his 16th company, assaulted and conquered one enemy gun, one Eagle of the 116e infantry and around 200 prisoners, receiving the MTO Cross award. During the 2nd battle-day the regiment was between Wagram and Baumersdorf.

- after Wagram: Brig. Schäffer, Div. Fresnel, I Corps . At Znaim the regiment deployed on Esseklee hills. It received order to stop the passages through the Thaya river at Mühlfrauen and Tasswitz. During the combats the regiment lost 7 men dead and 133 wounded.

25Infantry1809K.K. IR 25 – FML Count  Franz Julius Zedtwitz (but formally Vacant) – 3 Bns [19]

Till 1806 it was the “Bavarian” regiment having Reichswerbung at Salzburg, Passau and Ratisbon and it was supported by the Galician Kreis Stanislau. After 1807 it became a Bohemian unit recruiting in Pisek and partially at Klattau. That was the so called Prachiner area. Recruitment: 2 Depotcompanies Brig. and Div. Richter in Pisek under Riesch and Loudon.

Bohemia

Prachin

25

Depot Kader:

Pisek

then Oberst Carl von Quallenberg

Commander: Oberst

Kurz von Traubenstein

 

 

 

- Before Aspern: Brig. GM Carl von Fölseis, Div. Brady, II Corps Kollowrath then Avantgarde FML Count Johann Klenau, II Corps. On April 17 it fought a clash at Weichs with its 7th division (Hauptmann Theiss), then came to Ratisbon to garrison the city and was engaged first in the attack of Stadt-am-Hof, then in the town defense where, for the main part, it was taken prisoner after an hard struggle, losing, as prisoners, 2 Staff’s and 23 officers with the colonel commander Kurz, and up to 1522 troopers (65 dead and 100 wounded). General Fölseis led the garrison

The regiments was completely reorganized (May 10 at Zwettel) after the Ratisbon affair. Later was with the Brig. Oberst Baron Franz Koller [20] (GM after May 18), Div. FML Baron Thomas von Brady, II Corps, now, Hohenzollern. The new Staff was Oberst Quallenberg, commander, Major von Annaker (1st Bn), Major Eckhardt (2nd Bn) and Oberstleutnant Kirchlepsky (3rd Bn).

- at Aspern: before the battle beginning it was (reorganizing) Brig. Paar, Div. GM Wenzel Buresch von Greifenbach, II Corps Hohenzollern became Brig. Koller, Div. Brady, II Corps and finally to the Brig. David Andrássy, Div. Brady, II Corps Hohenzollern (3rd column). It deployed in line near Wagram and was ordered to attack Aspern village. During the first battle-day, colonel Quallenberg was wounded and the command was taken by Kirchlepsky. At Aspern the regiment lost 156 men dead, 592 wounded and 51 missing.

- at Wagram: Brig. Count Paar, Div. Brady (then von Buresch – interim), II Corps. The regiment deployed at Baumersdorf where it sufered an heavy bombardment. The orders for the following day were to sustain the line behind the Russbach creek. Tactical orders were to spread out some skirmishers (Plänklers) screens and to deploy in battalion Masses (eventually forming Squares). After having suffered utter heavy bombing, after having partially seized again Baumersdorf the regiment was charged by the French cavalry. The Square were not enough to avoid the retreat and the units reached Enzelsfeld. Losses were heavy: 53 dead, 536 wounded, 11 prisoners and 99 missing men.

- after Wagram: the 1st battalion (now Major Eckhardt) retreated with the IV Corps Rosenberg, attached to the rearguard of Radetzky till Laa. Then it was formed a new rearguard brigade, with all the remnants of II Corps units, under the command of Baron Carl Mécsery (IR 28). The regiment was in the Brig. Oberst Carl von Quallenberg, Div. von Buresch, II Corps. It withdrew till Klein-Tesswitz where it was deployed, reaching after Znaim and Winau where it was during the battle, without fighting. By January 1st, 1810 the regiment will be property of FML Thierry de Vaux.

47Infantry1809K.K. IR  47 – FML-FZM Baron Ludwig Vogelsang – 3 Bns [21]

Recruitment: Bohemia 2 Depotkomp Brig and Div. Karl Kinsky in Prague under Riesch and Loudon

Bohemia

Beraun

47

Rakonitz

Depot Kader:

Prague

after Wagram oberst Friedrich Count Bentheim- Steinfurt

Commander: Oberst

Joseph Weiss von Finkenau

 

 

 

- before Aspern: in March had, commander Oberst Joseph Weiss von Finkenau, Oberstleutnant Heinrich Van der Gracht, 1st major Ludwig Grötz, 2nd major Johann Frisch. Commander of the Prague depot division Oberstleutnant Michael Aichinger; marched with the Brigade GM Baron Theodor Wacquant-Geocelles, Division FML Josef von Ulm, I Corps Bellegarde.

- at Aspern: Brig. Wacquant, Div. Dedovich, I Corps then Brig. Wacquant, Div. Ulm, I Corps. The regiment attacked the village of Aspern, aflame. The losses were: 42 men dead, 413 wounded, 111 prisoners, 90 missing.

- between Aspern and Wagram: Weiss was promoted and left the command to Oberst Bentheim- Steinfurt, while the regiment received 800 new recruits.   

- at Wagram: Brig. Wacquant, Div. Dedovich (under Wacquant provisional command), I Corps. The regiment occupied the left wing of the Austrian first line behind the Russbach creek. After a French attack and the counterattack general Wacquant was wounded and left command to GM Henneberg. On the second day battle the regiment was sent, in reserve, behind Wagram (now Brig. Clary, Div. Dedovich, I Corps). The French breakthrough at Baumersdorf threatened a surrounding maneuver against Wagram. So the regiment deployed and countercharged the French two times. The regiment lost: 75 men dead, 563 wounded, 359 prisoners and 151 missing.

- after Wagram: Brigade Oberst von Faber (Fabre), Div. Henneberg, I Corps. At Znaim it had a marginal part, being present to some skirmishing actions on the Weinbergen hills. There it lost 1 dead, 52 prisoners and 53 missing men. On July 27 the regiment came in the Div. Fresnel.

Archduke Charles: “Der Schutz des Vaterlandes ruft uns zu neuer Thaten”

(The Fatherland’s Shield calls us to new Events) or

1809 Austrian Resident Units in Bohemia

Situation after commitment of the Landwehr battalions with the Field Army and their following reorganization. Note some Depots approached the new Frontline.

Territorial commander (interim): FZM Count Riesch

Vice-comm. and Landwehrinspektor: FML Baron von Loudon

Territorial Division GM Johann von Richter

Landwehr Brigade Oberst Rosenhayn at Horazdiowitz

Horazdiowitz – Depot companies 1st Feldjäger battalion
Wollin – Depot companies 2nd Feldjäger battalion
Bergreichenstein – 3rd Landwehr battalion Prachin
Winterberg – 4th Landwehr battalion Prachin
Welhartitz – 2nd Landwehr battalion Klattau
Schüttenhofen – 3rd Landwehr battalion Klattau

Landwehr Brigade GM Johann von Richter at Pisek

Frauenberg – IR 54 Froon Depotdivision – 2 companies
Pisek - IR 25 Zedzwitz Depotdivision – 2 companies
Nepomuk – Reserve (Depot) squadron Merveldt Uhlans
Frauenberg – 1st Landwehr battalion Budweis
Budweis – 2nd Landwehr battalion Budweis
Höritz – 3th Landwehr battalion Budweis
Prachatitz – 1st Landwehr battalion Prachin
Strakonitz – 2nd Landwehr battalion Prachin

Territorial Division GM Count Carl Kinsky

Landwehr Brigade Oberst von Ullrich at Elbogen

Buchau - Reserve (Depot) squadron Uhlans Schwarzemberg
Luditz – IR 42 Erbach Depotdivision – 2 companies
territory – 1st Landwehr battalion Elbogen
territory – 2nd Landwehr battalion Elbogen
territory – 3rd Landwehr battalion Elbogen

Landwehr Brigade GM Count Carl Kinsky at Pilsen

Rokitzan - IR 35 Erzherzog Johann Depotdivision – 2 companies
territory – 1st Landwehr battalion Pilsen
territory – 2nd Landwehr battalion Pilsen
territory – 3rd Landwehr battalion Pilsen
territory – 1st Landwehr battalion Saaz
territory – 2nd Landwehr battalion Saaz

Territorial Division GM Johann von Schöntal

Landwehr Brigade Oberst Count Waldstein at Pilsen

territory – 2nd Landwehr battalion Leitmeritz
territory – 3rd Landwehr battalion Leitmeritz
territory – 5th Landwehr battalion Leitmeritz

Landwehr Brigade Oberst Novak at Jungbunzlau

Jungbunzlau – Depot companies 3rd Feldjäger battalion
territory – 1st Landwehr battalion Bunzlau
territory – 2nd Landwehr battalion Bunzlau
territory – 3rd Landwehr battalion Bunzlau
territory – 4th Landwehr battalion Bunzlau
territory – 5th Landwehr battalion Bunzlau

Landwehr Brigade GM Johann von Schöntal at Leitmeritz

Theresienstadt – 1st Landwehr battalion Rakonitz
Theresienstadt – 1st Landwehr battalion Leitmeritz
Theresienstadt – 4th Landwehr battalion Leitmeritz
Theresienstadt – 6th Landwehr battalion Bunzlau
Theresienstadt – IR 36 Kollowrath Depotdivision – 2 companies
Theresienstadt – IR 17 Reuss-Plauen Depotdivision – 2 companies
Melnik – Reserve (Depot) squadron Blankenstein Hussars

Festungkommando Josefstadt GM Johann von Szénassy at Jaromirž

Hohenelbe – 1st Landwehr battalion Bydzow
Kopildno – 2nd Landwehr battalion Bydzow
Jičin – 3rd Landwehr battalion Bydzow
Josefstadt – 4th Landwehr battalion Bydzow
Josefstadt – 1st Landwehr battalion Königgrätz
Politz – 2nd Landwehr battalion Königgrätz
Josefstadt – 3rd Landwehr battalion Königgrätz
Geiersberg – 4th Landwehr battalion Königgrätz
Königgrätz – 5th Landwehr battalion Königgrätz
Josefstadt – IR 18 Stuart Depotdivision – 2 companies
Josefstadt – IR 21 Rohan Depotdivision – 2 companies
Josefstadt – Reserve (Depot) squadron Klenau chevaulégers
Jaromirž – Depot companies 4th Feldjäger battalion

Festungkommando Königgrätz GM Baron Franz Peter Ignaz De Baut at Chrudim

Polička – 1st Landwehr battalion Chrudim
Chotzen – 2nd Landwehr battalion Chrudim
Königgrätz – 3rd Landwehr battalion Chrudim
Chrudim – 4th Landwehr battalion Chrudim
Königgrätz – IR 28 Frelich Depotdivision – 2 companies
Königgrätz – Reserve (Depot) squadron Riesch Dragoons

Territorial Division GM Count Franz Kinsky

Landwehr Brigade GM Count Franz Kinsky – Prague Brigade

Prague – 1st Landwehr battalion Prague
Prague – 1st Landwehr battalion Beraun
Prague – 2nd Landwehr battalion Beraun
Prague – 2nd Landwehr battalion Rakonitz
Prague - IR 11 Rainer Depotdivision – 2 companies
Prague – IR 47 Vogelsang Depotdivision – 2 companies Brandeis – Reserve (Depot) squadron Rosemberg chevaulégers

Landwehr Brigade GM von Oberndorf at Časlau

Časlau – 1st Landwehr battalion Časlau
Časlau – 2nd Landwehr battalion Časlau
Časlau – 3rd Landwehr battalion Časlau
Časlau – 1st Landwehr battalion Kaurzim
Časlau – 2nd Landwehr battalion Kaurzim

Landwehr Provisional Gruppe GM Joseph ? von Richter - Tabor

territory – 1st Landwehr battalion Tabor
territory – 2nd Landwehr battalion Tabor

1809 Austrian Resident Units in Bohemia – May 1809

Army of Bohemia

Commander in Chief: Generalissimus FM Archduke Charles of Austria
Adjutant: GM Johann von  Delmotte
Aides-de-camp: FML Count Philipp Grünne, GM Count Josef Colloredo, Oberst Baron Maximilian von Wimpffen, Oberstleutnant Count Maximilian Auersperg, Oberstleutnant Baron Raban von Spiegel
Aides d’aile: Major Count Johann Wratislaw, Major Prince Heinrich Reuss-Köstritz
General Quartermaster : GM Johann von Prochaska
Chief of the Artillery: FML Archduke Maximilian d' Este
General Staff Troops: 1 Stabsdragoner Sqn., 1 Stabsinfanterie-division
Engineers: 3 companies Pontooners with 145 Pontoons, 1st and 4th companies Sappers, 1 company Military Border Bn. Tchaikisten.

III Corps or General Command of (Protection) Troops in Bohemia

FML Count Carl Kolowrat-Krakowsky

21000 inf., 1500 cav.
artillery : 52 pieces  (12/ 3 pdr; 28/ 6 pdr; 8 Horse/ 6 pdr; 4 howitzers/ 7 pdr).

Division Marquis Hannibal Sommariva

Brigade GM Count Carl Crenneville

9th “Grenz” Border Rgt. Peterwardein  - 2 Bns.
5th Jäger battalion Suden
6th Jäger battalion Zaborsky
1st Uhlans Rgt. Count Maximilian Merveldt –  6 Sqns.
Artillery: 1 horse battery 6 pdr.

Brigade Oberst Samuel von Giffling (the former brigade Kaiser)

IR 56 Count Wenzel Colloredo-Waldsee  - 3 Bns.
IR 7 FML Baron Carl Schröder von Lilienhof  - 3 Bns.
Detachment Oberst Kiszilevsky
4th Hussars Rgt. Friedrich Erbprinz zu Hessen Homburg – 6 Sqns.

Brigade GM Johann Friedrich von Oberndorf

Bohemian Landwehr: (Pilsen battalions n° 1 – 2 – 3 ; Chrudim battalions n° 1 – 4).

Autonomous Brigade GM Paul von Radivojevich

7200 inf.; 200 cav. Originally attached to the III Corps, then sent from Eisenstein till Eger (Saxon Border).

Detachment Oberst Count Wenzel Sporck (commander of the 1st Caslau Bn.)

1st Uhlans Rgt. Count Maximilian Merveldt –  2 Sqns.
12th “Grenz” Border Rgt. Deutsch-Banater  - 2 Bns.
Bohemian Landwehr: (Tabor battalions n° 1 – 2; Chrudim 2nd battalion ; Caslau 1st Bn. ; Königgrätz 4th Bn.).
“Grenz” Border Artillery: 8 pieces of 3 pdr.

Detachment Oberst von Ullrich

Bohemian Landwehr : (Elbogen battalions n° 1 – 2 – 3 - 4; Saaz 2nd Bn.)

Independent Brigade GM Baron Carl von Am-Ende

7200 inf., 600 cav. Originally attached to the III Corps, then sent to the Saxon Frontier.

1st Uhlans Rgt. Count Maximilian Merveldt –  1 Sqn.
2nd Uhlans Rgt. Prince Carl Philipp zu Schwarzenberg – 1 Sqn.
Jägerkorps Lobkowitz (volunteers) 1 company
Bohemian Landwehr: (Leitmeritz  battalions n° 1 – 2 – 3 - 4 ; Königgrätz 5th Bn. ; Bunzlau 6th Bn. Lobkowitz)
IR 42 Count Carl Eugen zu Erbach-Schönberg  - 3rd Bn.
IR 10 Baron Anton von Mittrowsky – 3rd Bn.
Detachment of Brunswick and Hesse: 3 companies and 4 Sqns.
Light brigade artillery: 8 pieces of 3 pdr.

Division Baron Philipp Vukassovich

Brigade GM Josef von Pfanzelter Former brigade Lilienberg

IR 12 FML Marquis Federico Manfredini - 3 Bns.
IR 23 Großherzog Ferdinand von Würzburg – 2 Bns.
Brigade artillery: 8 pieces of 6 pdr.

Brigade Oberst Count Wratislav von Mittrowitz und Schönfeld

Bohemian Landwehr: (Prague battalions n° 1 – 2; Beraun battalions n° 1 - 2; Caslau 2nd Bn.; Kaurzim 1st Bn.).

Division Count Franz Saint Julien-Waldsee

Brigade GM Josef von Bieber

IR 20 FZM Count Wenzel Kaunitz-Rietberg - 3 Bns.
IR 38 FM Duke Ferdinand von Württemberg - 2 Bns.
Brigade artillery: 8 pieces of 6 pdr.

Brigade GM Andreas von Schneller

4th Hussars Rgt. Friedrich Erbprinz zu Hessen Homburg – 2 Sqns.
Jägerkorps Lobkowitz (volunteers) 2/3 of Bn.
IR 54 Baron Joseph Froon von Kirchrath – 3rd Bn.
IR 57 Count Joseph Colloredo-Waldsee  - 3rd Bn.
Brigade artillery: 8 pieces of 6 pdr.

Bohemian Detached Corps Oberst Rosenhayn

5500 inf. inside the forest called Böhmerwald

Bohemian Landwehr: (Prachin battalions n° 1 – 2; Budweis battalions n° 1 – 2 - 3 ; Klattau battalions n° 1 – 2 – 3)

Independent Brigade GM Josef von Mayer

IR 23 Großherzog Ferdinand von Würzburg – 3rd Bn.
IR 38 FM Duke Ferdinand von Württemberg – 3rd Bn.
IR 50 Count Leopold Stain - 2 Bns.
Artillery: 8 pieces of 6 pdr.

The Austrian Landwehr in 1809

"... eine bloss zur Vertheidigung des Vaterländischen Bodens abzweckende..."
"To be aimed only on the defence of the Fatherland"

K.K. Patent of June 8, 1808

 

The farsighted and innovative Austrian Archduke Charles developed the idea of a territorial reserve, whose basic concept intended a kind of militia system with purely defensive character. Were to be considered 3 essential motives in order to this provision:

1— the extensive exhaustion of the military potential of the Austrian lands, considering the positive experiences with armed citizen’s contingents (Volksaufgeboten) in Tirol and Salzburg in 1800 and 1805;

2— the success of the French people's armies in the Coalition Wars, absolutely astonishing for expert military leaders coming from the school of the 17th Century;

3-- as the perhaps most essential factors even were to put the low expected costs, especially for the short training time and the State arming, also for clothing and the other equipment, however, provided by the countryland and partially from the Landwehr men themselves.

On June 9th, 1808 an Imperial Patent for the people did the organizing of the Landwehr institute. The Emperor Franz said in it:

“We have opened, in our Patent, Our beloved matter with the intention of an institution connected to the reserve establishment, namely for the defence of the Monarchy with such means which grant the possibility to Us to facilitate the finances of the State by decreasing those of the active Army.

In just this intention We think for good to organize a territorial Force (Landwehr) aimed only on the defence of the Fatherland.... For its execution We have appointed authorized persons, already known for their proficiency, their zeal and their devotion to Us and to the government, namely for Styria, Carinthia, Krain, Trieste and Salzburg: our esteemed Brother Imperial Highness Archduke John; our Court Commissioner Count Saurau: for Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia...   ”.

Archduke John did come on June 22, 1808, at Salzburg with Count Franz von Saurau in order to start the organizatione of the Landwehr. At the time they had to raise 4 battalions, the Staff Officers of which could have been retired military officers of the former Bishopric or Electoral Principate (of Salzburg), who had decided to be a volunteer in the new project. Only 4 officers and 1 Corporal for each Landwehr company had to come from the K.K. regular Army.

After this first examples, since 1808, in the German Hereditary lands (Germany, Outer and Inner Austria, Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Tirol), they raised this Militia, organized with men fit to combat in each imperial province. I t was estimated that Austria would raise 180000 Landwehr and Hungary 50000, but such numbers were never attained; the Hungarian Diet refused to sanction it, and it was thought dangerous to raise it in Galicia, whose Poles were believed disaffected. In Bohemia, this force, (how it will be stated by Hofkriegsrat Notification of June 13, 1811), had to be of about 50000 men.

Landwehr based its organisation upon the new concept of Reserve duty or Service which could lead towards a true national army, rather than towards another kind of Militia. It stated that:

1 – Every man in the age of military service, from then was also required to fulfill the Reserve duty; this modified also the previous way of recruiting people;

2 – After having recognized their military fitness, citizens did receive one certificate, signed by military and political authority, with which he, where it would be necessary, had to identify themselves.

But who could enlist with the Landwehr?

The service in the Landwehr was allowed to:

-        Residents temporarily free from service duty (i.e. religious, jobs exemptions);

-        Residents, who had been legally dismissed as veterans after a full duty period and had not yet served for a total period of 20 years, provided they wanted not to become Capitulanten; [22]

-        fit for service retired Capitulanten;

-        Häusler (namely inhabitants who had only house but not fields to cultivate. Also poors, contrary of the well-off people );

-        common Conscripts assigned to the category of various jobs (vermischten Beschäftigung)

-        common Conscripts with minor phisical defects;

-        who was signed in the Register of the less suitable subjects for the Conscription.

The Landwehr soldiers’ service was compulsory for all men aged between 18 and 45, unless they belonged to exempt categories or were army reservists. Initially they had to train themselves on every Sunday and holiday, while monthly they were gathered in larger units, coming from the nearby villages, and sent to the battalion manoeuvres, which did not have to last more than three hours. Later this system was changed and they had to instruct themselves with the weapons in short periods of 14 days, under the military Rule (generally half of the total force trained itself in Spring, the others in Autumn, or in periods stated by the territorial regiment command). When employed in these training camps, the militians were supplied by the provinces. The trainings periods was recorded by the Districts-Commissariate (which maintained the Landwehr’s lists) and signed in the personal Folios (Karten). These were managed directly by the Kreis-Hauptmanns or the Bataillons-Commandanten. In the case of a War call-to-arms the Landwehr men had to:

-        gather themselves in their battalions;

-        give their oath to the national flag;

-        follow the orders of their General-Commandant.

The Landwehr generally wore a grey jacket (Rock) with red facings (later various colours), had a cartridge-box (Patronentasche) with 36 cartridges, bayonet, and hats (every land battalions could have personal hats). Every battalion had also to form a special section of snipers (Scharf-schützen) generally armed with the best rifles and with the Jägerstutzen (see also Feldjäger battalions and Tirol’s Schützen). stutzen

The Model in the figure is a Waadtland Swiss type, used in all lands of Alps, for hunting. This weapon allowed a secure fire result up to 300 paces, while the common infantry muskets cannot go over a 100 paces. Landwehr firearms depended upon availability; muskets of 1754, 1774 or 1784 pattern were used, with hunting rifles, cavalry carbines, even Crespi breech loaders and air rifles among the Jägers.

In practice, shortage of equipment resulted in wide variations. Though officers and NCOs usually wore regulation dress, other ranks were permitted different uniform providing all members of a company were dressed alike. In 1808 civilian dress was adapted (sometimes simply by adding a cockade to the hat!), the only issue items being the coat and the leather equipment.

The Landwehr was proportioned to the width of the Circle (Kreis) in which it could be raised one or more battalions. Each battalion (800 men) had 4 companies; each company (200 men) had 4 platoons (Züge); each platoon (50 men) had 2 Squads or Korporalschäften of 25 men each.[23] The companies were led by an Hauptmann and 3 other officers.

In each province the Landwehr was split in two parts (Abtheilungen), the first formed by the best fit men, the second by the less fit to comBns. In this second section of that new regional armies it could be found what more resembled to the old Landmiliz or to the Town-Guards (Bürgereinheiten). It was the first draft of the nineteenth-century K.K. Landwehr (national army), in competition with the K.u.K. (gemeinsame) Heer (imperial army), while the second military choices went to form what in the future will be the K.K. Landsturm.

Therefore, in this second Corps, were also the men aged from 45 till 50 years, the family fathers (Hausväter) and all who owned a firearm (till the age of 50 years); provided, all the above mentioned, they were not completely fit for the Landwehr duty. This early prototype of Landsturm had the task to provide to the order and discipline of the inner land, to defend the inner ways of communications and villages, to garrison the fortresses and towns, to escort prisoners and other military services. The 2nd Class Landwehr had less difficult duties, often ordered directly by provinces. These civil governments provided also to the soldiers uniforms and equipments. During war-time these forces were led by former Officers in retirement, recalled on duty. 

The Supreme Patent Act (Allerhöchstes Patent) of June 9, 1808, stated also that the towns, villages, in which was no military unit (regular or Landwehr) had to form (with armed citizens), during wartimes, Security patrols (Sichereitswachen) and had to give men for transports duties to the army.

After the defeat of 1809 Napoleon demanded the deactivation of the Landwehr; but registers were kept, and in 1811 it was decreed that when re-formed, they would form the fourth battalions of each Line regiment.

Lantveři National Army of Bohemia 1809

pragaLWIn Bohemia on October 31, 1808, the local Parliament (Landtag) convened in the Prague Castle, granted the sum of 1.509.000 fl. to cover the expense for the Landwehr equipments.

The Bohemian Landwehr wore “Hungarian” type uniforms of a brown “Spencer”-style jacket with red facings and braid, a round hat with black and yellow pompon, Hungarian breeches, high boots and black equipment. Otherwise those uniforms, perhaps, were those of the 1800 Archduke Charles volunteers. See after for some detail.

Other sources quoted the Prague Student Corps wore similar dress plus a bicorn with a red-tipped white feather. The Prague city Landwehr had long, singlebreasted brown coats with green collar, cuffs and piping; white breeches, black (white ?) gaiters and equipment, and a shako with brass badge and black and yellow pompon. [24]

Two Words upon Uniforms

In the Web and in the interesting site www.primaplana.cz has appeared a notable historical article of Karel Sáček and Karl Bag, which tries to make light on the type of military uniform worn by the Bohemian Landwehr in 1809. The article has, unfortunately, the defect to be written in Czech language, not comprehensible to all. I tried to make here a summary of what was written there.

A man dressed in a knee-long coat and Corsican hat on his head is probably the first image that will strike you, speaking about the Landwehr, years 1808-1810. Right a man so dressed was immortalized by painter Johann Peter Krafft in 1813 in his famous “Farewell of the Territorial” (in Czech: zeměbrance from země = Land and branec = recruit) painting, which became a symbol of the modern Austrian patriotism (the image is not provided for copyright rights). The subject, in effects, is wearing the same uniform as the Landwehr men on the front page of another quoted publication on the matter: the book “Landwehr Anno Neun”.

However these uniforms applied to the Landwehr battalions formed in Vienna, Lower Austria and other neighborhoods. Their numerous options are set as in the synthesis of the book “Das Heer unter dem Doppeladler”, where, in addition, authors even wrote a warning label: “In fact, Landwehr uniforms were very dissimilar in different regions." [25]

How, then, looked the Landwehr from the Czech lands? The absence of detailed description of their uniforms (or yet to be discovered), forces to refer briefly to the regulation in force in Lower and Upper Austria,

“The service coat must be such that a man could wear it in winter over the other clothes in the summer only over a shirt. It should have two pockets. The Landwehr long coat extends up to the knees, so that the trousers colour may not be uniform. The man receives his own rounded hat (Runden-Hut), in which front is attached a brass plaque, where one can read to the provincial and district number of the battalion. The Landwehr training team should walk with their own clothes as jackets, but together homogeneous for weaponry. This weaponry belongs to a little bag (Sack) for 36 rounds, which is worn on a black lacquered wide strap, two and a quarter inches over the right shoulder strap of the bayonet, as for the infantry. Men wear the bags over the right shoulder.

The men were armed by the Central Government with rifles and bayonets, which had weapons for every local security group, watched in a safe place. For the officer corps, however, and also for men was issued a special “Landwehr uniform”, adapted to the national costumes of each Crown’s region, usually not homogeneously prescribed. This uniform consisted, by the main part, of a long overcoat, in different colours, with a single series of white buttons, with a rigid hat having a brim bent up on one side and a brass plate on which were embossed the letters LW (Land Wehr), then region and number of the battalion.

Each man was to be provided with one cartridge bag for 36-40 rounds, sack for bread and the suspension strap (belt) for a bayonet. Equipment and military clothing were provided by the Regional Administration.”

In relation to the Moravia-Silesia Landwehr battalions, however, this booklet provided only:

“They were wearing a gray coat with blue facings.” [26]

Otakar Frankenberger, with reference to primary sources collected in Prague, limited himself to stating that “Landwehr of Czech lands wore a gray coat, blue epaulettes, trilby hat with rosette-shaped pins and brush.” At the same time he added that: “There was a proposal under which each Region should have a different colour of the facings. The buttons should be for Czech (white) and for Moravian Landwehr (yellow)”. [27]

According to other sources, Moravia decided that: “the uniform had to be a gray coat with red facings and a round hat with a brass plate ... at least every battalion had to have the same wearing.” [28]

According to Dave Hollins’ Czech, Moravian and Silesian simulated uniforms of Landwehr battalions and Lower Austrian peasant hats, their facings was to be officially light blue, but many units used to copy the same colour as the ordinary infantry regiment linked to the District (so the Saaz Landwehr battalion loaded Orange “County” facings as did the Erbach Infantry Regiment No. 42). In Moravia, probably, they wore more Landwehr black “peasant hats”, because of the large presence of farmers. [29]

Excerpts for Landwehr equipments were recorded in eastern Bohemia: “The train group attended the exercises in their own clothes, but each one should have had a strange high hat with brass letters and badges and the same cartridge sacks, all were available in Prague: a badge for 21 kr., an hat for 2 zl. 24 kr.” [30]

Another, although very bizarre, source describing the equipment is a Landwehr mocking song, that was sang by regular army soldiers of Frelich Infantry Regiment No. 28: pragaLandW

“Lantveři (Landwehr) with linen trousers, back too much “tanestry” / rifles are old, “pagnety” red, on their heads pig wool hats. /Those are the words, by honour, run Brethren, Jesus Maria!” [31]

So far written sources. More attention must be paid to iconographic sources. Among them it occupies a privileged position a series of 13 Landwehr images of the Imperial Countries, which Josef Eder issued at Vienna in 1810. [32]

Three of those images relate to the Bohemian lands. As for the “Czech Landwehr of the Royal Capital city of Prague” it must be told that this may not be the right guide for recreating the appearance and the idea of Landwehr uniforms in the Czech lands. The intention was to distinguish that units as much as possible, as in the case of the Student Volunteer battalion, which had to be different from the Archduke Charles Legion of 1800 – The red epaulet on the officer's right shoulder is probably a symbolic reference for continuing that tradition.

In Moravian and Silesian Duchy Landwehr, the gold metal letters in the hats look different than the above-illustrated Prague Landwehr - in this case, it can be also clearly recognized the letter "M" referring probably to the Moravian territory.

They have classical Landwehr coats and equipment. However the hat  is decorated with letters LW. Why? Rigid hats, round hats, etc ... these features suggest only that the so-called typical Corsican hat did not predominate on Bohemian territory. This is confirmed by other contemporary illustrations of Czech Landwehr, camped, on June 23, 1809 at Dresden. [33] This iconographic source derived from a collection published by Peter Hofschrörer and Dave Hollins and shows seven captured soldiers with the cylinder-shaped hat having bents reversed on both sides. 

The Bohemian hat of the “Dresden camp” is similar to that immortalized by Eder in 1810 for Moravians. This is the same type, that was widespread among Czech Archduke Charles Legion volunteers already since 1800. [34] The cylindrical hat with a bent brim, then, was probably the most typical element for the Czech Landwehr in 1809 and distinguished them from other countries. This just let's add that officers who were assigned to the Landwehr from the army, have the right to retain their original former uniform.

General Count Kinsky, in whose brigade were included three Landwehr battalions of the Loket region and two from Saaz and Rakovnik, indicated the actual state of the Landwehr’s equipment in a report to the FML Sommariva (early May 1809): “The bad state of uniforms and lack of shoes is the cause of many diseases among the units. The 2nd Königgrätz Battalion had to be again completely withdrawn, due to bad arming, from the South Bohemian border and replaced by the 4th Chrudim battalion.” [35]

This may suggest that the Landwehr, like in a common volunteer battalion, should have to be equipped with different uniforms, based on the regular infantry-style. Maybe this manifestation was captured by Josef Eder and was confirmed by several other sources.

The third image “Moravian Landwehr (?) A volunteer corps” illustrated a “Moravian Landwehr” with a typical Jäger clothing - here the author obviously made a mistake in the description. In 1809 in Moravia no volunteer Jäger formation emerged, which could be incorporated into the Feldjäger corps; those uniforms are likely to be perhaps accredited to the Prague volunteers (Watterich) battalion, or to the Feldjäger or to the the Lobkovitz Kinsky formation.

In order to end this short trip among the Czech Landwehr uniforms ther is a rather “hot and picquant” note related to the Legion troops of Archduke Charles, left by FML Klenau in his report dated March 24, 1809:

“The Landwehr men serving in the legion, as well as the new recruited ones, do not wear underwear (kleinen Montur) under the coat. Therefore I consider it necessary to allocate shirts and underwear (Gati) to the men, in order, at least, to partially hide their nudities. This deficiency results from poverty and from the fact that the majority, when Legion was rallied, took with him only one shirt, which is by now completely worn”. [36]

Joking with Landwehr in 1809 [37]

War preparations continued in Prague so zealously that, on October 31, 1808, Czech Lords resolved to give the State Council cash of 1.509.000 zl. for the newly established army, the Landwehr, and, in addition, to provide a further 4.000.000 zl. contribution to be spending by the war fund.

Over the winter, certain of the pending war, all became tense and eager to setting up the Land’s defense, Landwehr, which were quickly dressed in uniform and trained to the field service of war.

The hurry and the rush of training territorials inspired confidence in the regular troops, by their supposed military superiority, and they became jealous, so they laughted at their old land-soldiers upon the meaning of the letters LW (which meant Land Wehr), saying the letters meant  “Lauf weg !“, in German “Run away !” and questioned about their fitness and the various antics uttered by this new army. Also even there were composed skittish songs about Territorials. So sang soldiers of the regiment Vogelsang in Prague:

 “Not far from Vienna in a village small and fine - Flagbearer Landwehry at the waist carrying a swine .....”

And perhaps they would have even more teased Territorials, when an abrupt spring called to arms people from Prague up to the field, against Napoleon. Therefore, on May 1st, 1809, after the Territorials, volunteers and students got the 1800 flags and went from Prague to the Klattau region, occupying the Bohemian border. That year the month of May was, in Bohemia, same as “Month of War”, so that even during the feast of St.John Nepomucene in Prague, instead of wandering devout pilgrims, walked brilliant fellows singing war songs and ballads against the detested Napoleon, pro the celebrated Archduke Charles and laughing at the Territorials ... For the security and the safety of Prague had been discarded the palisades and the city was fortified with trenches with embankments around, where several thousand people worked for a day pay of 30 kr.

THE LANDWEHR INFANTRY

Ordered by Recruitment District

Bohemia commanders Archduke Ferdinand and BurgCount FZM Wallis

1

Berauner Kreis

(2 Bn.)

10

Königgrätzer Kreis

(5 Bn.)

2

Bidzower Kreis

(4 Bn.)

11

Leitmeritzer Kreis

(5 Bn.)

3

Budweiser Kreis

(3 Bn.)

12

Pilsener Kreis

(3 Bn.)

4

Bunzlauer Kreis

(6 Bn.)

13

Prachiner Kreis

(4 Bn.)

5

Caslauer Kreis

(3 Bn.)

14

City of Prague

(2 Bn.)

6

Chrudimer Kreis

(4 Bn.)

15

Rakonitzer Kreis

(2 Bn.)

7

Elbogener Kreis

(3 Bn.)

16

Saazer Kreis

(2 Bn.)

8

Kaurimer Kreis

(2 Bn.)

17

Taborer Kreis

(2 Bn.)

9

Klattauer Kreis

(3 Bn.)

 

BERAUNER Kreis – Beraun

The 2 Bns. were in the Brig and Div. Franz Kinsky in Prague under Riesch and Loudon

I Bn. Seltschau – Major Count Wrtby

- at Wagram: brig. Wratislaw, Div Vukassovich, III Corps
- after Wagram : brig. Schneller, Div. Vukassovich, III Corps

II Bn. Hostomer - Major Count Wilhelm Klebelsberg

- at Wagram: brig. Schneller, Div. Vukassovich, III Corps
- after Wagram.: brig. Wratislaw, Div. Vukassovich, III Corps

BIDZOWER (Bydzower) Kreis - Bydzow

The 4 Bns. were in the Brig Szénassy (fortress Jaromir-Josefsstadt) under Riesch and Loudon.

I Bn. Hohenelbe – Major Krisar later Major Count Carl Khevenhüller.

- Facts: reserve in Josefstadt.

II Bn. Jićin – Oberstleutnant Heinrich von Hoffmeister later Major Joseph von Borwitz

- Facts: reserve in Josefstadt.

III Bn. Miletin – Major Joseph Fils.

- Facts: reserve in Josefstadt.

IV Bn. Bidzow – Major Count Leopold Kinsky later Major Baron Joseph Ottlilienfeld.

- Facts: reserve in Josefstadt.

BUDWEISER Kreis – Budweis (České Budějovice)

The 3 Bns. in the Brig and Div. GM Richter at Pisek under Riesch and Loudon

I Bn. Budweis - Major Count Carl Wratislaw

- Recruitment: in Böhmerwald (Bohemian Forest) region.
- Facts: along the border of the Böhmer Wald.

II Bn. Wittingau - Major Leonhard Halpert.

- Facts: not known.

III Bn. Krumau - Major Anton von Künstlern after Major Alois von Reisinger

- Facts: not known.

BUNZLAUER Kreis (Jung-Bunzlau)

1 Bns. was in the brig. and Div. Schönthal at Leitmeritz, 5 Bns. were in the Brig Novak, Div. Schönthal under Riesch and Loudon.

I Bn. Niemes-Gabel - Major Friedrich Clam-Gallas

- Facts: in Reserve along the Iser.

II Bn. Reichenberg (Liberec) - Major Christian Clam-Gallas

- Facts: in Reserve along the Iser, then at Prague.

III Bn. Turnau - Major Carl von Pflüger

- Facts: Theresienstadt (Terezín ) garrison

IV Bns. Münchengrätz - Major Count Ernst Waldstein

- Facts: Reserve at Prague.

V Bns. Nimburg - Major Franz Prizichowsky

- Facts: along the Iser, in the Bayreuth campaign at Gefrees.

VI Bn. Melnitz - Major-Oberstleutnant Prince Anton Isidor Lobkowitz.

- Facts: at Theresienstadt, then with Am Ende, at Dresden.

ČASLAUER Kreis – Časlau

The 3 Bns. in the brig. Oberdorf at Časlau, Div. Franz Kinsky under Riesch and Loudon.

I Bn. Deutsch Brod (Havlíčkův Brod) - Oberstleutnant Wenzel Sporck then Major Plauser

- Facts: in the Bayreuth campaign

II Bn. Časlau - Major Plauser , later from Aspern to Wagram: Major Prince Wilhelm Auersperg

Facts: in Oberösterreich, it fought at the battle of Urfahr-Linz.

III Bn. Kuttenberg (Kutná Hora) - Major Count Sebastian Trautmannsdorf.

- Facts: in the Bayreuth campaign

CHRUDIMER Kreis – Chrudim

The 4 Bns. in the Brigade Bautin at Chrudim-fortress and Königgrätz under Riesch and Loudon.

I Bn. Leitomischl (Litomyšl) - Oberst Count Georg Waldstein later Major Count Anton Borosini von Hohenstern

- Facts: before Aspern did a Mutiny, then in the III Corps (Kolowrat)

II Bn. Landscron (Lanškroun) - Major Carl Strauss

- Facts: in Königgrätz.

III Bn. Pardubitz (Pardubice) - Major Count Johann Breda

- Facts: in Königgrätz .

IV. Bns. Hermann-Mestetz (Hermanuv Mestec) - Major Christian von Geisztler

- Facts: at Eger, then in the III Corps (Kolowrath)

pragaguard809troopELBOGENER Kreis – Elbogen (Loket)

The 3 Bns. in the Brig Ullrich, Div. K. Kinsky under Riesch and Loudo

I Bn. Eger (Cheb) - Major Carl Frasmüller Edler von Weidenburg later Hauptmann Johann Werbeck, finally Major Sérenyi

- Facts: in the Bayreuth campaign

II Bn. Schlackenwerth - Major Peter von Pfisterer

- Facts: in the Bayreuth campaign

III Bn. Buchau - Major Fortunatus Erdelly

- Facts: in the Bayreuth campaign


KAURZIMER Kreis - Kaurzim (Kouřim)

The 2 Bns. in the brig. Oberdorf in Caslau, Div. Franz Kinsky under Riesch and Loudon

I Bn. Brandeis - Hauptmann Fischer

- Facts: in Prague, then in the III Corps (Kolowrath)

II Bn. Schwarz-Kosteletz - Major Count Prokop Wratislaw

- Facts: along the Iser, then in the III Corps (Kolowrath)

KLATTAUER Kreis – Klattau (Klatovy)

The 3 Bns. in the brig. Rosenhayn at Horazdiowic, Div. Richter under Riesch and Loudon

I Bn. Bischofsteinitz - Major Baron Wenzel Kotz von Dobrz

- Facts: along the Bohemian border.

II Bn. Klattau - Major Count Anton Thun

- Facts: in the Böhmerwald

III Bn. Nepomuk - Major Count Friedrich Schönborn

- Facts: in the Böhmerwald

KÖNIGGRÄTZER Kreis – Königgrätz (Hradec Králové)

First 5 Bns. in the brig. Szénassy in Jaromirz-fortress Josefsstadt under Riesch and Loudon

I Bn. Trautenau - Major Count Franz Deym

- Facts: in Josefstadt

II Bn. Nachod - Major Michael Mayer

- Facts: in Josefstadt

II Bn. Opocus - Major Johann von Bohunek

- Facts: in Josefstadt

V Bns. Geyersberg - Major Joseph von Nostitz

- Facts: at Prague, then in the Bayreuth campaign

VI Bn. Königgrätz - Major Joseph von Borwitz, later Hauptmann Carl Würth (Wörth)

- Facts: at Dresden, then at Theresienstadt

LEITMERITZER Kreis – Leitmeritz (Litoměřice)

First 3 Bns. in the brig. Waldstein at Pilsen, other 2 Bns. in the Brig Schönthal, Div. Schönthal under Riesch and Loudon

1. Bns. Leitmeritz and Theresienstadt - Major chevalier von Chlumecsansky

- Facts: in Saxony with the corps Am Ende, then at Paschkopole, corps Am Ende, then at Theresienstadt.

pragaguard809II Bn. Bilin - Obst Count Joseph Waldstein then Major Canal von Ehrenberg

- Facts: in Saxony with the corps Am Ende, then at Paschkopole, corps Am Ende, then at Theresienstadt.

III Bn. Tetschen - Major Count Carl Clary

- Facts: in Saxony with the corps Am Ende, then at Paschkopole, corps Am Ende, then at Theresienstadt.After Wagram was with the brig. Bianchi

IV. Bns. Auscha - Major Georg von Dangl, then Obstltn. Nowak

- Facts: in Saxony with the corps Am Ende, then at Paschkopole, corps Am Ende, then at Theresienstadt.

V. Bns. Rumburg – Major Count Johann Salm

- Facts: in Saxony with the corps Am Ende, then at Paschkopole, corps Am Ende, then at Theresienstadt.

PILSENER Kreis - Pilsen

3 Bns. in the brig. and Div. K. Kinsky in Pilsen under Riesch and Loudon

I Bn. Groß Marep (Haide) - Oberstleutnant Joseph Obermeyer von Ebernberg

- Facts: at Wagram in the III Corps

II Bn. Plan - Major Mathias chevalier von Godart

- Facts: in the III Corps (Kolowrath), then in Moravia.

III Bn. Pilsen - Major Baron Johann Hildebrand

- Facts: was in Upper Austria 

PRACHINER Kreis

2 Bns. in the Brig Rosenhayn in Horazdiowic, Div. Richter, 1 Bns. in the brig. and Div. Richter in Pisek under Riesch and Loudon

I Bn. Pisek - Major Count Carl Berchtold

- Facts: in the Böhmerwald, then in the III Corps (Kolowrath).

II Bn. Brzeznitz - Oberst Hartmann von Hartenthal later Major Count Prokop Hartmann von Klarstein

- Facts: before Aspern was part of the brig. Richter, IV Corps. At Wagram was sent in the Böhmerwald

III Bn. Schüttenhofen - Major Count Leonhard Rumerskirch

- Facts: before Aspern was part of the brig. Richter, IV Corps. 

IV. Bns. Welschbirken - Oberst Wenzel chevalier von Puteani, then Major Prokop Neukirchen

Prag_2- Facts: before Aspern was part of the brig. Richter, IV Corps. At Wagram was in the outposts of the Böhmerwald

PRAGUE city District

1st Bn.in the brig. and Div. Franz Kinsky in Prag under Riesch and Loudon.

I Bn. - Oberst Count Johann Wratislaw

- Facts: was at Prague and in Bohemia till Wagram, then was split in parts.

II Bn. – Major Count Johann Pachta

- Facts: was at Prague and in Bohemia till Wagram, combined with the 1st battalion before Aspern and then was split in parts taking the name :

Combined Landwehr battalion of Prague- Oberst Count Johann Wratislaw

- Facts: brig. Wratislaw, Div. Vukassovich, III Corps . After Wagram brig. Wratislaw, Div. Schneller, III Corps -

 RAKONITZER Kreis

1 Bns. in the brig. and Div. Schönthal in Leitmeritz, 1 Bat in the brig. and Div. Franz Kinsky under Riesch and Loudon

I Bn. Welwarn - Major Prince Ferdinand Kinsky, then, interim, Hauptmann Ambros Hubel, later Major Joseph Kurz 

- Facts: in Theresienstadt.

II Bn. Rakonitz - Major Joseph Hofmann later Major Baron Bohusz.

-  Facts: in Theresienstadt.

SAAZER Kreis

2 Bns. in the brig. and Div. Karl Kinsky in Pilsen under Riesch and Loudon

I Bn. Komotau - Oberstleutnant Prince Joseph Lobkowitz

-  Facts: first was at the Paschkopole, then in Theresienstadt .

II Bn. Saaz - Major Baron Anton Wodniansky

-  Facts: not known.

TABORER Kreis

2 Bns. brig. Richter under Riesch and Loudon

I Bn. Pilgram - Major Joseph Kriegern von Maisdorf

-  Facts: in the Bayreuth campaign.

II Bn. Tabor - Major Count Joachim Woracsiesky later Major-Oberstleutnant Baron Vinzenz Zesner

- Facts: was a previous battalion of the Legion Archduke Charles. Not known others.


Karel Sáček

Alphabetic Index of the Landwehr Battalions Commanders - 1808-1810 - Bohemia

Commander of the Battalion

Nation

Name of theBattalion

sequence of comm.

Auersperg, Wilhelm Fürst, Major

Bohemian

2nd battalion Časlau district

1/2

Berchtold, Carl Graf, Major

Bohemian

1st battalion Prachin district

1/1

Bohunek (Nohynek), Johann von, Major

Bohemian

3rd battalion Königgrätz district

1/1

Bohusz, Freiherr von, Major

Bohemian

2nd battalion Rakonitz district

2/2

Borosini von Hohenstern, Anton, Major

Bohemian

1st battalion Chrudim district

2/2

Borwitz, Joseph, Major

Bohemian

2nd battalion Bydzow district

I 2/2

Bohemian

5th battalion Königgrätz district

II 1/3

III 3/3

Breda, Johann Graf, Major

Bohemian

3rd battalion Chrudim district

1/1

Call, Freiherr von, Major

Bohemian

2nd battalion Saaz  district

1/2

Clam-Gallas, Christian Graf, Major

Bohemian

1st battalion Jungbunzlau  district

1/1

Bohemian

2nd battalion Jungbunzlau  district

1/2

Clary, Carl Graf, Major

Bohemian

3rd battalion Leitmeritz  district

1/1

Dangl, Georg von, Major

Bohemian

4th battalion Leitmeritz  district

1/2

Deym, Franz Graf, Major

Bohemian

1st battalion Königgrätz district

1/1

Erdelly, Fortunatus, Major

Bohemian

3rd battalion Elbogen  district

1/1

Fils, Joseph, Major

Bohemian

3rd battalion Bydzow  district

1/1

Fischer, Hauptmann

Bohemian

1st battalion Kaurzim  district

1/2

Fronmüller Edler von Weidenburg, Carl, Major

Bohemian

1st battalion Elbogen  district

1/3

Geisztler, Christian von, Major

Bohemian

4th battalion Chrudim district

1/1

Godart, Matthias Ritter von, Major

Bohemian

2nd battalion Pilsen  district

2/2

Halpert, Leonhard, Major

Bohemian

2nd battalion Budweis  district

1/1

Hartmann von Hartenthal, Oberst

Bohemian

2nd battalion Prachin district

1/2

Hartmann-Klarstein, Prokop Graf, Major

Bohemian

2nd battalion Prachin district

2/2

Hildebrand, Johann Freiherr von, Major

Bohemian

3rd battalion Pilsen  district

1/1

Hoffmeister, Heinrich von, Oberstleutnant

Bohemian

2nd battalion Bydzow  district

1/2

Hoffmeister, Oberstleutnant

Bohemian

2nd battalion Klattau  district

1/2

Hofmann, Joseph, Major

Bohemian

2nd battalion Rakonitz  district

1/2

Hubel, Ambros, Hauptmann (ad interim)

Bohemian

1st battalion Rakonitz  district

2/3

Chlumeczansky, Adalbert Ritter von, Major

Bohemian

1st battalion Leitmeritz  district

1/1

Khevenhüller, Carl Graf, Major

Bohemian

1st battalion Bydzow  district

2/2

Kinsky, Ferdinand Fürst, Major

Bohemian

1st battalion Rakonitz  district

1/3

Kinsky, Leopold Graf, Major

Bohemian

4th battalion Bydzow  district

1/2

Klebelsberg, Wilhelm Graf, Major

Bohemian

2nd battalion Beraun  district

1/1

Kotz von Dobrz, Wenzel Freiherr von, Major

Bohemian

1st battalion Klattau  district

1/1

Kriegenr von Maisdorf, Joseph, Major

Bohemian

1st battalion Tabor district

1/1

Krisar, Major

Bohemian

1st battalion Bydzow  district

1/2

Künstlern, Anton von, Major

Bohemian

3rd battalion Budweis  district

1/2

Kurz, Joseph von, Major

Bohemian

1st battalion Rakonitz  district

3/3

Lažansky, Graf, Oberstleutnant

Bohemian

2nd battalion Pilsen  district

1/2

Lobkowitz, Anton Isidor Fürst, Maj.-Obtl.

Bohemian

6th battalion Jungbunzlau  district

1/1

Lobkowitz, Joseph Fürst, Maj.-Obtl.

Bohemian

1st battalion Saaz  district

1/1

Malowetz, Ernst Freiherr von, Hauptmann

Bohemian

1st battalion Kaurzim  district

2/2

Mayer, Michael, Major

Bohemian

2nd battalion Königgrätz district

1/1

Neukirchen, Prokop, Major

Bohemian

4th battalion Prachin district

2/2

Nostitz, Joseph Graf, Major

Bohemian

4th battalion Königgrätz district

1/1

Novak, Oberstleutnant

Bohemian

4th battalion Leitmeritz  district

2/2

Obermayer von Ebernberg, Joseph, Oberstleutnant

Bohemian

1st battalion Pilsen  district

1/1

Ottlilienfeld, Joseph Freiherr von, Major

Bohemian

4th battalion Bydzow  district

2/2

Pachta, Johann Graf, Major

Bohemian

2nd battalion města Prahy

1/1

Pfisterer, Peter von, Major

Bohemian

2nd battalion Elbogen  district

1/1

Pfluger, Carl von, Major

Bohemian

3rd battalion Jungbunzlau  district

1/1

Plauser, Major

Bohemian

2nd battalion Caslau  district

I 2/2

Bohemian

1st battalion Caslau  district

II 2/2

Przichofsky, Franz Graf, Maj.-Obtl.

Bohemian

5th battalion Jungbunzlau  district

1/1

Puteany, Wenzel Ritter von, Oberst

Bohemian

4th battalion Prachin district

1/2

Reisinger, Alois von, Major

Bohemian

3rd battalion Budweis  district

2/2

Rumerskirch, Leonhard Graf, Major

Bohemian

3rd battalion Prachin district

1/1

Salm, Johann Graf, Major

Bohemian

5th battalion Leitmeritz  district

1/1

Serényi (Serinni), Major

Bohemian

1st battalion Elbogen  district

3/3

Schönborn, Friedrich Graf, Major

Bohemian

3rd battalion Klattau  district

1/1

Sporck, Wenzel Graf, Oberstleutnant

Bohemian

1st battalion Caslau  district

1/2

Storr, Ferdinand, Major

Bohemian

2nd battalion Jungbunzlau  district

2/2

Strauss, Carl, Major

Bohemian

2nd battalion Chrudim district

1/1

Thun, Anton Graf, Major

Bohemian

2nd battalion Klattau  district

2/2

Trauttmansdorff, Sebastian Graf, Major

Bohemian

3rd battalion Caslau  district

1/1

Waldstein, Ernst Graf, Major

Bohemian

4th battalion Jungbunzlau  district

1/1

Waldstein, Georg Graf, Oberst

Bohemian

1st battalion Chrudim district

1/2

Waldstein, Joseph Graf, Oberst

Bohemian

2nd battalion Leitmeritz  district

1/2

Werbeck, Johann, Hauptmann

Bohemian

1st battalion Elbogen  district

2/3

Wodniansky, Anton Freiherr von, Maj.

Bohemian

2nd battalion Saaz  district

2/2

Woracziczky, Graf, Major

Bohemian

2nd battalion Tabor district

1/2

Wratislav, Carl Graf, Major

Bohemian

1st battalion Budweis  district

1/1

Wratislaw, Johann Graf, Oberst

Bohemian

1st battalion města Prahy

1/1

Wratislaw, Prokop Graf, Major

Bohemian

2nd battalion Kaurzim  district

1/1

Wrtby, Graf, Major

Bohemian

1st battalion Beraun  district

I 1/1

Wrtby, Graf, Major

Bohemian

Combined  Berounský battalion

II

Würth (Werth ?), Major

Bohemian

5th battalion Königgrätz district

2/3

Zesner, Vincenz Freiherr von, Maj.-Obstl.

Bohemian

2nd battalion Tabor district

2/2

Maj.-Obstl. = Major-Oberstleutnant  ---  města Prahy = City of Prague

1809 – Volunteers Units of Bohemia

On March 1st, 1809, the Government allowed also the creation of volunteers’ battalions for the incoming war. The 1808 Landwehr Patent contained many exemptions, especially for students, skilled workers, merchants and townspeople, but they could always enroll as volunteers for the so-called “Freiwillige” units, sometimes augmented by the Landwehr itself and prepared to serve outside their districts. Volunteers signed up for the duration of the war. All officers and NCOs had to have military experience and so were retired or drafted regulars. The distinguishing uniform feature of all western volunteer battalions was the cuffs red.CharlesLegion

FREIWILLIGE or the true free-corps of Volunteers (Freikorps, often also Jäger Bns. or only Jäger named), set up in the empire by nobles (who called themselves also as proprietaires) or early nationalist (Schill) or a mixture of both (the Duke of Brunswick - Braunschweig, i.e.) and the Freiwilligenbattalione (FreiBns. in the contemporary literature).

The Archduke Charles Legion

Legion Erzherzog Carl

Böhmisches Freikorps

was also comprehensive of the Moravian Volunteers Battalion

The Legion Erzherzog Carl had this name since 1794. Units which gave origin to this Corps were:

On 1792 the Limburg Volunteers (Limburger Freiwillige) which was in Luxenbourg near Rochefort outposts, when they took prisoners the French general Lafayette together with other 2 generals, 2 colonels and 2 Adjutanten.

On 1794 was called Legion for the first time and took part to the combat at Verviers.

On 1795 (October 29) in the vanguard of the 1st Column, 2 companies of the Legion seized the entrenchment of Mainz.

On 1796 it distinguished itself during the clash of Aschaffenburg (September 6) under Hauptmann Johann de Meys.

On 1798 it was disbanded and changed into 2 Light infantry battalions (2nd and 14th).

flagLEKThe former uniform was completely dark-grey with crimson facings and white buttons. On November 1800 the Legion was raised again (with one Jäger Corps and 22 Militia battalions) but it never fought.

On 1801, after the Luneville Treaty it was again disbanded and raised in 1809.

About the Students' Legion of 1800 ... the Dr. Mudroch Tale[38]

In a student pub, the beer hall at Michelská Ovocny market, young doctor in Law, Antonín Mudroch, remembered the students’ legion of 1800. He recalled the glorious period and younger companions told him to tell that, with enthusiasm and admiration, listening to what happened and how it was the matter.

“We had our equipments!” Boasted Dr. Mudroch. “Brown suits with red Epaulettes on shoulders and six rows of lines on the chest, blue trousers, boots to the knees, black and white cock feathers and an alongside sabre!” “When the Archduke Charles came to Prague for the academic establishment of the Legion of students on November 9, 1800, he called on its members and promised various benefits, it was addressed with cheers and more praised when Archduke said that the Academic Legion will reach the rank of a battalion, not only that of a company.”

DpragastudentOffr. Mudroch searched in his cuir bag and lit his pipe emitting a massive cloud of smoke, before continuing:

“Indeed, the idea that the voluntarily signing up students legion, from about one company it will become now four companies, an entire battalion of 638 men, prompted the Archduke welcomed! So instead of the students Corps company there was a student Corps battalion, which had its own special commander and each company had its own leader, lieutenants, feldwebel and corporals, selected from a field regiment here quartered. Legionnaires had no rank between them and, unlike other volunteers, have adorned Epaulettes of silver and red silk, porte-epée in leather with black and white silk laces. We got the uniform (Montur) from the clothing Commission at 4 gold pieces and 30 kr. And in order to avoid to go far away from school and to not neglect lectures, we were under exercise during weekdays, in the morning, from quarter to eleven to quarter to one, in the large refectory “Klementina”.

 

 

 

 

 

So far, the war reached a danger alarm of such size that it was decreed that the Supreme commander of the army against Napoleon, would have been the Archduke Charles himself, in the midst of December. Earlier than it happened, ignoring the Prague set up, three battalions of volunteers, the Count Černin battalion, the battalion of Count Desfours battalion and the Academic Corps marched in Parade. Wow ... that was on Saturday, December 13, at the Cattle Market, where half of Prague came together to the show. Our Archduke gave us his special attention as students and the day after he went to the army, at Vöcklabruck, to get the Generalissimus title. The commander of the Students Legion was Count Jan Vratislav. He also donated the state flag with, on one side the Czech lion and, on the other, the imperial emblem. Above the lion were the Latin words: “Legio Archiducis Caroli Bohema-Moravica-Silesiaca” and underneath “Pro Rege”. Above the eagle and the metal tip of the battalion it was engraved: ”Sieg oder Todt” (Victory or Death). The ribbons, which Countess Schliková gave the legion battalion were embroidered, “We defend Motherland, Let us stand firm, God and Carl with us!”

pragastudentAt this point Dr. Anton Mudroch grabbed his hair with the right hand, as his storytelling was inside his head, then continued to revive memories.

“The Consecration ceremony of the Academic Legion battalion, with battalion flags and battalions Černín and Desfours, was held on the second Christmas holiday, on St. Stephen, at 10 hours in the morning, in the Týn Temple. The Archbishop of Prague, Prince Salm-Salm celebrated the pontifical Mass, with the sacred flags laying on a table before the main altar and all officers of the three battalions standing around them in two rows. After the Mass, the Archbishop consecrated banners and then they were brought to the large Old Town market place, where the battalions were in a large quarry. The next day, on 27 December, 10 hours in the morning, in the university square Klementina, the Academic Legion swore to serve our country as brave and honorable soldiers. And then we went against the enemy”.

The eyes of  the young doctor filled with tears as he told:  

“No matter what happened on Sunday, 28 December morning, when we were gathered in the Klementina and quietly, after the Holy Mass, we marched through the Cattle Market street towards Vysehrad gate and into the field. ... “

In 1809 six battalions were raised in Bohemia and each consisted of four normal companies armed with the musket and two jäger companies. The First Battalion, raised from students of the Prague University, wore the bicorn hat with national cockade and red-over-white plume, the Jäger companies wearing the “Corsehut” with yellow-and-black pompon and the normal companies wearing the new 1806 Shako. Coats were tobacco brown with scarlet collar, cuffs and turnbacks and piping and decorated with scarlet braid on the breast. Breeches were sky-blue and worn with black leather knee boots. All belting was black leather and as for the line infantry or jägers. Officers wore the “Schiffhut” and coats of infantry officer pattern with facings and decoration as for the men. The officers of this Legion were permitted to wear the waist-sash.

I Battalion or Wattrich Jäger Battalion

(students of Prague; Prager Jäger or Böh­misches Jägerkorps; Watterich or Watrich Jäger) . It was a Jäger battalion, dressed in the Feldjäger fashion.

Commander: Major Philipp Watterich von Waderichsburg.

Recruitment: Prague with the Ferdinandeum Studenten Legion volunteers.

- Before Aspern : Brig. Moritz Liechtenstein, Div. Vukassovich, III Corps - then Div. Klenau, II Corps - then Brig. Kayser, Div. Lusignan, III Corps

- Between Aspern and Wagram: IV Corps

- At Wagram: Brig. Provenchères, Div. Radetzky, IV Corps

II Battalion – Major Prince Ferdinand Kinsky

Recruitment: from the Bohemian Landwehr districts Beraun and Rakonitz.

- Before Aspern: Brig. Peter Vécsey, Div. Klenau, II Corps

- At Aspern: Brig./Div. ? Siegenthal, II Corps then in the Brig. P. Vécsey, autonomous, II Corps later Brig. Mayer, Avantgarde II Corps. The report of the Corps Commander FML Prince Hohenzollern spoke upon the bravery of Major Prince Ferdinand Kinsky of the Legion Erzherzog Carl, whilst that of the IV Corps Commander FML Prince Rosenberg spoke upon Major Vetter (Moravian Volunteers) both shown during the battle of Aspern 1809.

The Armee-Befehl of May 24, 1809 awarded Major Fürst Ferdinand Kinsky, Commander of the 2nd battalion, and Archduke Charles personally gave him the MTO Cross.

- At Wagram: Div. Siegenthal, II Corps and then Brig. Ignaz Hardegg, autonomous, II Corps or Brig. Ignaz Hardegg, Div. Siegenthal, II Corps

- After Wagram: Brig. Ign. Hardegg, Div. Ulm, II Corps

2Landwehr1809III Battalion Major Count Carl Laugier (Lougier)

Recruitment: from the Bohemian Landwehr districts Chrudim and Königgrätz

- Before Aspern: Brig. Moritz Liechtenstein, Div. Vukassovich, III Corps

then attached to the autonomous Div. Dedovich

- At Aspern: not engaged.

- At Wagram: Brig. Adler, Div. Hohenfeldt, VI Corps

- After Wagram: idem

IV Battalion Major Count Ludwig Trogeff

then (after Wagram) Oberstleutnant Benedikt Jannek

Recruitment: from the Bohemian Landwehr districts Bidzow, Bunzlau, Leitmeritz, Saaz.

- Before Aspern: Brig. Crenneville, Div. Fresnel, II Corps and later Brig. Nostitz, Div. Fresnel, I Corps

- At Aspern: Brig. Lützel, Div. Fresnel, I Corps, not engaged.

- At Wagram: Brig. Motzen, Div. Fresnel, I Corps

- After Wagram: Brig. Schaeffer, Div. Fresnel, I Corps

V Battalion - Major Count Joachim Woracziewsky

Recruitment: from the Bohemian Landwehr districts Klattau, Pilsen, Prachin.

- Before Aspern: Brig. Waldegg, Div. Blankenstein, IV Corps then to the Brig. Reinwald, Div. Schustekh, V. Corps then Brig. Reinwald, Div. Reuss Plauen, V Corps (while Angeli gives Brig. Reinwald, Div. Hohenlohe-Bartenstein, IV Corps)

- At Wagram: not engaged.

VI Battalion – Major Count Wolfgang Czernin (Černin)

Recruitment: from the Bohemian Landwehr districts Budweis, Caslau, Kaurim, Tabor.

- Before Aspern: Brig. Waldegg, Div. Bartenstein, IV Corps then Brig. Reinwald, Div. Schustekh, V Corps. In May Brig. Reinwald, Div. Reuss Plauen, V Corps (while Angeli gives Brig. Reinwald, Div. Hohenlohe-Bartenstein, IV. Corps)

- At Wagram: not engaged.

The Lobkowitz Jägerkorps[39]

Commander: Major Franz Germain

Organization: at Prague, raised in May among the city’s garrison. Their uniform was similar to the Feldjäger.

- Before Aspern: Brig. Schneller, Div. Sommariva, II Corps (in Bohemia). After the Urfahr-Linz battle general Schneller had order to withdraw, with the 4 companies of Lobkowitz Jäger, 2 battalions and 2 squadrons of hussars Hesse-Homburg, towards Freistadt. Then Schneller rallied at Neu-Helmonsöd, reinforced by troops of Sommariva Division.

- At Wagram: Brig. Schmuttermayr, independent, III Corps then  Brig. Schneller, Div. Vukassovich, III Corps.

- After Wagram: Brig. Schmuttermayr, Div. Schneller, III Corps.

Notes:

[1] Marcel de Serres, Voyage en Autriche, ou essai statistique et géographique sur cet empire: avec une carte physique, des coupes de nivellement, et divers tableaux comparatifs sur l'étendue et la population de l'Autriche, Arthus Bertrand, 1814.

[2] Grenz-Kordon troops (not to be confused with the Military Border southern regiments) were rather Militia than infantry, whose duties were to serve at Customs watching the borders of the hereditary lands. The Kordon troopers of Bohemia were six companies led by an Oberstleutnant, whose office was at Prague. Each such company had an Hauptmann or a Capitän-leutnant, 1 Oberleutnant and 2 Unterleutnant, some taken from the retired officers (Pensionsstande) and some from the so called half-invalid men of the Line regiments (from which ranks also came the half-invalids Kordon troopers).

[3] Vacant (Vakat) meant without actual Owner, while the former Owner’s name is provided.

[4] Masak, Wenzel Stefan, Die tapferen und ausgezeichneten Thaten des k. k. Infanteire- Regimentes Nr. 11 seit seinem  Errichten 1629 bis zum Jahre 1887, Prague 1887.

[5] Neuwirth Victor Ritter von, Geschichte des k. u. k. Infanterie-Regimentes Alt Starhemberg Nr. 54,  Olmütz 1894.

[6] Baron Andrássy was a very skilled commander. Born 1762 at Raab, enlisted in the 32nd regiment (1778) in which he became Oberleutnant. After the 1809 campaign he fought in Russia (1812) commanding the 33rd regiment distinguishing at Podubie where he obtained the rank of Generalmajor for his bravery. He died during the Dresden battle (1813) and was buried at Räcknitz.

[7] Another (old) way to define the village of Essling.

[8] Streffleurs (Österreichische) Militärische Zeitschrift, 1819 band 3 pag 293.

[9] The regiment lost half of its strength (1727 men). Before the battle it had 4 Staff’s and 60 officers, 236 NCOs and 3336 troopers for a total of 3701 men.

[10] Schmedes Emil, Geschichte des k. k. 28. Infanterie-Regiments FZM. Ludwig Ritter von Benedek, Vienna 1878.

[11] Streffleurs (Österreichische) Militärische Zeitschrift, 1847 band 2, pag 299.

[12] FML Count patrick Stuart died at Prague on April 21, 1808, a year before the campaign beginning.

[13] Amon von Treuenfest, Gustav Ritter von, Geschichte des k. k. Infanterie-Regimentes Nr. 18, Constantin Grossfürst von Rußland, von 1682 bis 1882, Vienna,1882.

[14] The Imperial Order G 2900 of May 24 assigned the regiment to Baron d’Aspre. He however will die at Wagram, so the regiment was forced to change Inhaber for the second time and became “property” of  FZM Fürst Heinrich XIII Reuss-Greitz (November 18, 1809).15>

[15] FML Bersina von Siegenthal, directly led the Light brigade Hardegg, during the battle.

[16] Bleibtreu S., Geschichte des k. k. 36. Linien-Infanterie-Regiments,  Prague 1875.

[7] Mayerhofer von Grünbühl, E. Frhr, Geschichte des Infanterie-Regimentes Nr. 42,  Vienna: 1874.

[18] May Joseph, Geschichte des kaiserlich und königlichen Infanterie-Regimentes No. 35, Pilsen 1901.

[19] Count Zedzwitz died at Vienna on April 14, 1808.

Trautsch Alois, Geschichte des k. k. 25. Infanterie-Regiments FZM Freiherr Lazarus von Mamula, Prague 1875.

[20] It was the former brigade Fölseis and will be the future brigade Paar at Wagram; the future brigade Quallenberg  after Wagram.

[21] Amon von Treuenfest, Gustav Ritter von, Geschichte des k. u. k. Infanterie-Regimentes Nr. 47, Vienna 1882.

[22] Capitulanten: former soldiers who did voluntarily extend their duty period (weiterdienen).

[23] Franz Kurz, Geschichte der Landwehre in Oesterreich ob der Enns, Band I – II, Verlag Haslinger, 1811.

[24] Haythornthwaite Philip, Fosten Bryan, Austrian Army of the Napoleonic Wars (I): Infantry, Osprey Publishing Men at Arms Series # 176.

[25] Allmayer-Beck Johann Christoph - Lessing, Erich. “Das Heer unter dem Doppeladler. Habsburgs Armeen 1718-1848“, Wien, 1981. p. 215

[26] From  Zehetbauer, Ernst, „Landwehr gegen Napoleon. Österreichs erste Miliz und der Nationalkrieg von 1809“, Vienna 1999 and from „History ck zeměbraneckého Kromeriz Infantry Regiment No. 25“ (edited by Karel Langer), Kroměříž, 1909.

[27] Frankenberger, Otakar, „Landwehr of Czech lands in 1809“. In: Historie a vojenství, n. 2/1969, s. 227.

[28] Radimský, Jiří, “Contributions to the history of military reform in the year 1808”  In: Časopis Vlasteneckého spolku musejního v Olomouci, roč. (Journal of the Homeland Association of Olomouc Museum), Vol. 57, 1948, No. 209 and 210, p. 51.

[29] Hollins Dave - Younghusband Bill. “Austrian Auxiliary Troops 1792-1816”, Osprey Publishing, Men-at-Arms, 1996 (reprint 2002), s. 34. Although the central processing of English history should be approached very critically and with great caution, it was not the case of Hollins’ “Ospreys”. His knowledge, also under relative absence of appropriate references to sources, currently is specialized in military uniforms and it is well known the author is a reference guide for several military historians about life and culture of the Austrian Empire. Only in the case of attribution of facings with the same color as their territorially competent ordinary infantry regiments, just the lacking of the source can raise doubts that Hollins made a mistake in the description of the state of 1813.

[30]Zástěra Karel, “Acts and attractions, cultural and other images from the Bohemian East.” Skutč, 1896, s. Works, 1896, p. 223. 223. Referring to the above provisions for the Austrian battalions is wrong to assume that Landwehr were not uniformed. They had only to issue uniform coats only during fire exercises.

[31] Tanestry = tornistry, pagnety = bayonets. Řezníček, Vácslav. Naše zlatá matička, Díl II. “Our golden nut”, Storm, Prague, 1923, p. 140.

[32] Source: Austrian Landwehr in 1809: the Uniform Plates of Joseph Eder. Also in the Napoleon Series (Copyright by Markus Stein).

[33] In Saxony came the X Corps of Am Ende (June 1809) which included six battalions of Bohemian Landwehr: 2, 3, 4, 5 Leitmeritz, the 6th of Hradec Kralove and the 6th of Boleslav. Coincidentally, in the city historical museum of Leipzig there is an Austrian Landwehr hat of 1809 - the classic Corsican type.

Hollins – Younghusband, “Austrian Auxiliary Troops”, p. 39. It is very interesting also the similar representation of the Czech Landwehr of 1813, which comes from the Lipperheide Berlin gallery. Soldier has his “blanket” on head, which Hollins describes as “Corsican hat”.

[34] Similar headgears between Bohemian Landwehr 1809 and Czech volunteers of 1800 became the cause of several mistakes. The first was committed by Gilbert Anger,”Illustrirte Geschichte der kk Armee”, II. Band, Vienna, 1887, p. 1772 - 1178, whenunder the image of a 1800 volunteer he placed the label “Czech Landwehr”, while the following text clearly shows that it was 1809 Landwehr. The same mistake repeated Haythornthwaite Philip - Fosten Bryan, “Austrian Army of the Napoleonic Wars (I): Infantry”, Osprey Publishing, Men-at-Arms, 1986, s. 31 which were apparently inspired by Anger.

[35] Zehetbauer, „Landwehr gegen Napoleon“, p. 269, 293 (see above).

[36] Zehetbauer, „Landwehr gegen Napoleon“, p. 238, 245.

[37] Řezníček Vácslav, “Naše zlatá matička”, Díl II. Bouřky, kapitola Stíny. Praha, 1923

[38] Řezníček Vácslav, “Naše zlatá matička”, Díl II. Bouřky, kapitola Stíny. Praha, 1923

[39] The Lobkowicz family (Lobkovicové in modern Czech) is one of the oldest still existing Bohemian noble families dating back to the 14th century. Historically, the best known member of the Lobkowicz family is probably Joseph Franz Maximilian Lobkowicz (1772-1816), one of Beethoven's patrons. The Lobkovice estate is situated in Bohemia on the river Elbe in the region of Kourim. It is situated three miles from Prague, about half way between Melník and Brandýs. It consists of: the Lobkovice castle and the village of Lobkovice with 29 houses and 464 inhabitants, both situated on the left bank of Elbe, the village of Neratovice with 31 houses and 213 inhabitants and one subject in the village of Kojetice.

 

Placed on the Napoleon Series: May 2010

 

Organization Index ]



© Copyright 1995-2013, The Napoleon Series, All Rights Reserved.

Top | Home ]