The Austrian Imperial-Royal Army (Kaiserliche-Königliche Heer) 1805 – 1809:
THE AUSTRIAN IMPERIAL-ROYAL ARMY
The Austrian Cavalry in 1809
AUSTRIAN UHLANS 1809 
Uhlans (in Polish: "Ułan"; "Ulan" in German) were Polish light cavalry armed with lances, sabres and pistols. Uhlans typically wore a double-breasted jacket (kurta - kurtka) with a coloured panel (plastron) at the front, a coloured sash, and a square-topped Polish lancer cap (czapka) (later Tatarka)  also spelt 'chapka,' chapska and schapska. This cap or cavalry helmet was derived from a traditional design of Polish cap, made more formal and stylised for military use.
Their lances usually had small, swallow-tailed flags (known as the lance pennon) just below the spearhead.
In 1809 Austria had 3 uhlan regiments - each of 1.479 men and 1.414 horses in 8 Sqns. Uhlans were characteristic plain raiders, originary from Poland and Ruthenia (Galicia), lands in which they were recruited. French army had its uhlans (Polish lancers) too. They wore the characteristic hat called Czapka differentiated by the colour of the square cover on the hat. Many uniform names came from the Polish tradition: Rock = Kurtka, Boots = Topanken, ammunition bag = Ladownica)
The uhlans carried 2 pistols, curved saber and a lance. Each squadron of uhlans had 8 men armed with rifles and 8 with carbines. In uhlan regiment of 4 divisions, the central 2 divisions were armed with lances, the 2 flank divisions with carbines.
The jacket was dark-green with red lapels for all regiments. The pennons on lances were black over yellow. All wore green trousers with red stripes and strengthened with black leather on the bottom. On campaign they wore grey overalls.
K.K. Galizische Ulanen regiment n° 1 – GM-GdK Maxmilian Count Merveldt
Recruitment: Galicia. 1 Depot (Res.) Sqn. in Pisek, Div. Richter under Riesch and Loudon It began the campaign with 1361 men and 1185 horses.
In the 2nd Corps Kollowrat fought at Ursensollen - Amberg. 3 Sqns. were in the Klenau vanguard, other 3 and ¾ in the same formation under the Brig. Crenneville. One Zug was at the blockade of the Oberhaus fortress with the Brigade GM Johann von Richter. At Eggmühl 2 Sqns. remained with Crenneville, detached at Hemau. The rest with Klenau while another detached Zug was with the Detachment Oberstleutnant Wilhelm von Feuchtersleben, for the defence of a position battery. Parts of the regiment were involved in the Regensburg battles, on April 21 and later at Stadt am Hof . 6 squadrons later went to the Division Sommariva, III Corps, where they were split “Abteilungsweise” in various units. The 1st major division (major Haim) was sent to watch the Saxon frontier. One sqn. was with Brig. Radivojevich and the other 2nd, with the commander, with brigade Am Ende; (In July they were in Bohemia and then against Saxons in the battles of Gefrees, Nürnberg).
K.K. Galizische Ulanen regiment n° 2 – FM prince Carl Philipp Schwarzenberg
Recruitment: western Galicia. 1 Depot (Res.) Sqn. brig. Ullrich in Elbogen, Div K. Kinsky under Riesch and Loudon. It began with 1143 men and 1400 horses.
K.K. Galizische Ulanen regiment n° 3 – Generalissimus Erzherzog Karl (archduke Charles Uhlans)
Recruitment: Galicia. 1 Depot (Res.) Sqn. Brig. Dunoyer in Ung. Hradisch, Div. St Julien under Argenteau . The regiment went in war with 1331 men and 1199 horses.
- before Aspern.: it begans in the austrian Innviertel with the Brig. Radetzky, Div. Schustekh, V Corps (archduke Louis). With the avant-garde of the V Corps, Brig. Radetzky, it entered Bavaria (2 Sqns) and was at the 1st clash of Landshut (April 16); the other 6 Sqns. were with the Brigade GM baron Josef Mesko de Felsö-Kubinyi, Div. Schustekh. The same brigades were also at Abensberg, where they were able to withdraw. The regiment gathered itself under GM Radetzky forming the rear guard of the retreating corps and fighting also the 2nd Landshut battle.
The brigade Radetzky was at the battle of Neumarkt, forming the avant-garde of the right wing. The regiment and its brigadier then were attached to the Div. FML Schustekh and Vincent to form the rear-guard at Ebelsberg. During the following retreat the 1st Major-division (von Wilgenheim) was send to support the retreating brigade Mesko and had some rearguard clashes with the French Light cavalry. The largest clash was at Ybbs, where fought 4 Sqns.under command of Count Johann Klebelsberg. The regiment there lost: 63 deda, 31 wounded, 96 prisoners, 53 horses dead and 44 wounded. Then Radetzky marched to Mautern, crossed the bridge and deployed to control the Danube banks from Stockerau till Tulln.
RATJA ! 
Dave Hollins, in his excellent book  states the term Hussar would come from the latin “Cursarius” or raider. Many other sources think it could come from the hungarian “húsz” or 20 (being 20 the men each village had to offer to answer to the feudal noblemen call-to-arms as cavalry assistants). The hungarian motto “an hussar worth twenty” seems to consolidate the relationship with the number twenty. So “húszar” was one of the twenty recruits of the village.
Hussars recruits were not to be less than 18 nor more than 30 years old, since “the former are too weak for the military drills and the latter are too stiff and awkward” (grey hair was considered an automatic bar) and preferably over 5 Fuss 4 Zoll (1.68 m) tall. The necessity to leave men for the agricultural jobs, in Hungary, made the recruitment very difficult in some times.
Those who enrolled as volunteers would sign a Capitulation to serve for two to three years or, during wartime, for the duration of hostilities). Otherwise, the reform of 1802 standardised all cavalry regular service to 12 years, although this was emended to 14 in 1811. Recruits received also an initial “Handgeld” of 5 Ducats (46 Gulden or Florins) or 2 Ducats when transferred from another unit.
In 1809, while the Heavy cavalry (Cuirassiers) regiments had 3 divisions (6 Sqn.) each, all light cavalry of austrian Empire had 4 divisions or 8 Sqn. Each squadron had 149 horses (so a division had 298 horses and the whole regiment 1192). Some Hussars regiments raised two more squadrons (a division) organized (and paid) by single hungarian nobles with well-balanced incomes. These 5th divisions, otherwise, did not begin the war. Thei men were merged with the regular squadrons and some were sent to the Insurrectio “levée” system. In 1809 the Hussars regiments were 12.
The table lists the evolution and the main colours of the Hussars regiments.
The Provision of August, 18, 1805, had stated a wide reduction on the regimental transports also in the cavalry branch. Each light cavalry regiment (8 squadrons) had:
After 1808 the cavalry regiments (8 squadrons) had 24 Train horses (Fuhrpferde) and 9 servants, in addition to their packhorses dotation.
Regular cavalry standing at the end of 1807 (the same as in 1811)
New Cavalry Regulations came from the Hofkriegsrat indication of August 7, 1810, approved by H.M. the Emperor on January 2, 1811 with the definitive layout of August 10, 1811. A Cuirassier or Dragoons Regiments had 6 Squadrons:
A Chevaux-léger Regiment had 8 Squadrons like Uhlans  and Hussars:
In war, each cavalry regiment had to raise a Reserve Squadron. The Staff increased by:
The force of the Reserve Squadron was:
The men of the Reserve Squadrons were the supernumerary ones and the half-invalids of the regiment.
The Szekler Hussars (Grenz)-regiment had 8 squadrons:
Proprietors of Hussars regiments 1792 – 1815 (in blue 1809 reference)
K.K. Hussars regiment n° 1 – Kaiser Franz II (Emperor’s Hussars)
Recruitment: district of the IR 32 – Alt-Ofen (Budapest). 1Depot (Res.) Sqn. Brig. Kerekes in Pressburg under Alvinczy. It began the campaign with 1262 men and 1176 horses.
Before Aspern: in Poland with the VII Corps archduke Ferdinand in the Brig. Branovatzky, Div. Schauroth, later in the vanguard Brig. GM baron Mohr. Often acted in small detachments as autonomous units. In April 25 it fought at Grochow and in May it was again in Div.Schauroth. On June 9 it fought the cavalry clash of Tuszow and later had a combat along the road to Jedlinsko.
K.K. Hussars regiment n° 2 – Erzherzog Joseph Anton, Palatin von Ungarn (Archduke Joseph Hussars)
Recruitment: Transylvania. – the Reserve Sqn. with the Brig. Daniel at Ödenburg (Sopron) under Alvinczy. It began the campaign with 1104 men and 1011 horses.
Before Aspern: in the Inner Austria army, XI Corps baron Ignaz Gyulai, cavalry Div. FML Wolfskehl, Brig. Splényi. During the battle of Pordenone the regiment seized the main road between Rorai Grande and Talponedo. On April 16 (battle of Sacile or Fontanafredda) 6 Sqn. were with GM Splényi (support of the left wing by Porzia) while two were with the detachment Oberstlieutenant Volkmann (behind the central part of the right wing).
Later, after the advance till Verona, the regiment acted as arrière-garde of Inner Austria army, Div. FML Frimont, Brig. Bésán, VIII Corps. Two Sqns. were sent to Treviso to support the detachment of Oberstlieutenant Collenbach (who was attacked by the French troops of Durutte), while the remaining 6 Sqns. stood along the line Trivignano (right) and Sala di Campagna (left). There the French cavalry Div. Pully attacked but was repulsed. After the Piave battle, on May 8, other two Sqns. were sent with the Brig. Kálnassy to cover the left army flank at Cimadolmo. On May 11 the regiment had another clash at Cisterna.
K.K. Hussars regiment n° 3 – Erzherzog Ferdinand Carl d’Este (archduke Ferdinand Hussars)
Recruitment: district Ofen (Budapest). 1 Depot (Res.) Sqn. Brig. Pietsch in Troppau, Div. St.Julien under FM Argenteau. It began the campaign with 1234 hussars and 1171 horses.
- before Aspern: in the III Corps Hohenzollern, Div. Vukassovich, Brig. Moritz Liechtenstein.
On April 18 it had the first victorious clash at Neu-Eglofsheim. At Teugen 2 squadron were detached to the Brig. Kaiser, Div. Vukassovich then the same division went under Brigade GM Josef von Bieber, Div. St.Julien. At Eggmühl another division formed the detachment prince Coburg, Div. St.Julien, gaining in battle the nickname of „Coburg hussars“. Other 4 Sqns. were always in the Brig. Moritz Liechtenstein. The division under GM von Bieber took part in the evening battle of Alt-Eglofsheim. The regiment followed the army in the retreat to Bohemia in the rearguard Div. Vukassovich (Brig. Pfanzelter). In May was attached to the Division FML prince Victor de Rohan, Brig. Stutterheim and sent to Freystadt (north of Linz) in order to control the main road to Budweis.
K.K. Hussars regiment n° 4 – Friedrich, Erbprinz zu Hessen Homburg (Hessen Hussars)
Recruitment: district Fünfkirchen (Pecs). 1 Depot (Res.) Sqn. Brig. Kerekes in Pressburg under Alvinczy. It began the campaign with 1235 men and 1164 horses.
Before Aspern: it was in the III Corps Hohenzollern, kept in reserve duties and formally attached to the Brig. Pfanzelter, Div. Vukassovich. It had a minimal part in the combats of the 1st Landshut battle, operating in the flank of the Radetzky vanguard and in the Ratisbon cavalry clash. After the retreat in Bohemia it was with the Division baron Philipp Vukassovich when it marched towards Linz (battle of Urfahr). One Sqn. was with Brigade GM Josef von Pfanzelter, another three with the detachment Oberst Timotheus von Winzian, two squadrons were with the Division count Franz Saint Julien-Waldsee, Brigade GM Andreas von Schneller the rest in patrol duties along the Danube, actually all under the II Corps Kollowrath. It participated to the combats of the Postlimberg (Urfahr) and Götschker. It then controlled the outposts between Gallneukirchen and Neumarkt.
Before Wagram: it was not at Aspern.
Hussars regiment n° 5 – baron Carl Ott von Bátorkéz
Recruitment: district Ödenburg (Sopron in Hungary). 1 Res. (Depot) Sqn. Brig Daniel in Ödenburg under Alvinczy. It began the war with 1098 men and 1045 horses.
before Aspern: it began with the VIII Corps of the Inner Austria army (FML marquis Chasteler then FML Albert Gyulai), 2nd division FML Frimont, Brig. baron von Schmiedt. On April 14 at Pordenone it was in the division vanguard, Brig. Splényi (Div. Frimont). On April 16 during the battle of Sacile (Fontanafredda for the austrians) died the colonel commander and major Kakonyi was made prisoner (colonel Fulda sabel, shot by five bullet was sent to Verovetice in Slavonia to the count Pejacevich estate, where is shown in the so called Waffenkammer).
On May the regiment was with the VIII corps, on General staff duties (during the Piave battle it was at army HQ at Conegliano). It counterattacked the French dragoons after the Piave battle and opened the way to retreat, directly led by FML Frimont.
K.K. Hussars regiment n° 6 – GdK Count Ernst Blankenstein (Blankenstein Hussars)
Recruitment: district Großwardein (Nagyvárad) 1 Depot (Res.) Sqn. Brig. - Div. Schönthal in Leitmeritz, under Riesch and Loudon. Entered the campaign with 1340 men and 1200 horses.
before Aspern: with I Corps Bellegarde, Division FML count Johann Fresnel von Hennequin, Brigade GM baron Ferdinand Wintzingerode-Ohmfeld (2 Sqns.), Division FML Ludwig Vogelsang, Brigade count Ferdinand Wartensleben, former commander of the regiment (6 Sqns.). During the first part of the campaign it had only a partial combat at Amberg-Ursensollen. Stood in Bohemia with Brig. Wartensleben, Div. Fresnel, I Corps.
Brig. Winzingerode, Div. Fresnel, I. Corps then Did fight at
In June the regiment received two new replacement squadrons and was in the cavalry Reserve of prince Liechtenstein, Brig. Wartensleben, Div. Nostitz. It send one division with Div. Frimont, Brig. Bésán, army of Inner Austria, which was at Raab battle.
K.K. Hussars regiment n° 7 – GdK Fürst Johannes Joseph Liechtenstein (Liechtenstein Hussars)
Recruitment: district Fünfkirchen (Pecs). 1 Res. (Depot) Sqn. Brig. Daniel in Ödenburg under Alvinczy. It began the campaign with 1335 men and 1102 horses.
K.K. Hussars regiment n° 8 –
GdC baron Michael Kienmayer
Recruitment: district Pressburg (Pozsony or Bratislava). 1 Depot (Res.) Sqn. Brig Daniel in Ödenburg under Alvinczy . It began the campaign with 1097 men and 1040 horses.
Before Aspern: with the V Corps archduke Louis it had 2 Sqn. with Brig. Radetzky, 6 Sqn with the Brigade GM baron Josef Mesko de Felsö-Kubinyi, Division FML Emmanuel von Schustekh. At Abensberg 2 Sqns. remained with FML Schustekh, the other with the former brigades. After the retreat 4 Sqns formed the rearguard of Div. Vincent, while the other 4 Sqns. remained with Mesko and Schustekh, fighting at Landshut, Kloster Rohr and Riedau. At Neumarkt Mesko formed the avant-garde of the central (2nd) column, while at the battle of Ebelsberg the regiment was attached to the Brig. Hohenfeldt, Div. Schustekh then also Div. Dedovich. After the march towards Vienna the regiment returned with the Brig.Mesko under Div. Vincent (now VI Corps Hiller).
K.K. Hussars regiment n° 9 – count Johann Frimont von Palota, Fürst von Antrodoco (Frimont Hussars)
Recruitment: district Veszprém then in Croatia at Esseg (Osjiek). 1 Depot (Res.) Sqn. Brig. 6 Div. Lippa under Kerpen. It began the campaign with 1305 men 1101 and horses.
before Aspern: the regiment was part of the Inner Austria army, IX Corps Ignaz Gyulai, 2nd division Wolfskehl, Brig. Splényi. Two squadrons were detached to the Croatian defence force Div. Knesevich first in the brig. Tomachich, then in the Brig. Gyurkovich. At Sacile 4 Sqns. remained with the Brig. Splényi. At the Piave FML Frimont division was charged of the rearguard and the Brig. Splényi protected the army with all 6 Sqns.
later Brig. Splényi, Div. Wolfskehl, IX. Corps, Armée of Innerösterr. and then Arrièregarde - Armée of Innerösterr. Finally Res. Troops Lippa
K.K. Hussars regiment n° 10 – baron Joseph Stipsics von Ternova (Stipsics Hussars)
Recruitment: district Kaschau (Kassá), Epérjes and Presov. 1 Res. (Depot) Sqn. Brig. Kerekes in Pressburg under Alvinczy. It began the campaign with 1227 men and 1128 horses.
After the retreat half squadron (probably the 8th Sqn. coming from Passau-Oberhaus) was attached to the Brig.Bianchi, Division FML prince Henry XV Reuss-Plauen, V Corps archduke Louis and fought in the 2nd Landshut battle.The other half detached squadron was with Brigade GM Sinzendorff, Division FML Dedovich.
At the battle of Neumarkt the two half squadrons re-united under the V Corps troops. However half squadron remained with Bianchi and the other was attached to the GM Reinwaldt brigade, Div. Reuss-Plauen (who was also the interim commander of the V Corps). Those troops fought at Ebelsberg.
The 7 Sqns. of IV Corps retreated in Bohemia with the main army and, in May, went in the Avant-garde division FML comte Johann Klenau, Brigade oberst baron Franz von Frehlich.
At Aspern: re-united, the regiment, now 861 men, fought in the clashes at Stadtl-Enzersdorf, Essling with the Brig. Frelich (the former colonel commander), Div. Klenau, (IV Corps). There it lost: 6 men and 21 horses dead, 41 men and 50 horses wounded.
At Wagram: the regiment was sent in the left army wing, Brig. Frelich, avant-garde left Wing Div. Nordmann with 7 Sqns., the last Sqn. was detached to the Inner Austria Army, Brig. Bach (3rd column).
After Wagram: the regiment retreated with the Div. Radetzky, IV Corps. During the retreat it was at the battle of Mistelbach.
K.K. Hussars regiment n° 11 – National-Grenzregiment Szekler Hussars (Szeklers)
Recruitment: (Hungary) Székler districts Háromszék, Csik, Aranyos and Hunyad county . Since 1770 also from a former Valachian Dragoons district. It began the campaign with 1759 men and 1425 horses.
The regiment was in Poland under Erzherzog Ferdinand Corps (VII) and fought at Raczyn, Warsaw, Grochow, Sandomierz with the vanguard Brig. Mohr and with the Brig. Göringer, Div. Schauroth, VII Corps.
The “Husaren-brigade” GM Göringer (Geringer), Hussars Rgt. n. 11 and n. 12, was formed at Odzywol in April and sent forward till Nowe Miasto in order to cross the Pilitza river, which happened on April 15.
K.K. Hussars regiment n° 12 – Erzherzog Joseph Anton , Palatin von Ungarn (Palatinal Hussars)
Recruitment: (Hungary) district Jazygier- Kumanier and Hayduck towns. 1 Res. (Depot) Sqn. Brig. Bicking in Lemberg (L’vov), Div. Meerveldt under Hohenlohe Ingelfingen. It began the campaign with 1267 men and 1107 horses.
In 1800 raised as part of the hungarian Insurrection, becaming after a regular regiment with the name of "Palatinal - Husaren" and with 3 divisions. In 1802 inherited the N. 12 (former number of the disbanded Croatian-Slavonian Hussar regiment).
In 1809 it was under the Brig. Goeringer, Div. Schauroth, VII Corps (Erzherzog Ferdinand) in Poland, fought at Raszyn (4 Sqns. in the first line against general Rozniecki seized the hills of Wygoda-Karczma), Jedlinsko, and Zarnowice. One squadron under Rittmeister Silly was sent to Gora in order to watch the left bank of the river Vistula. In May the remaining 7 Sqns. were attached to the division FML Mondet and withdrew till Galicia, where the Polish army was menacing the river San line. The last squadron, now under Oberstlieutenant Alexander de Illésy was detached to defend Sochaczew. On June 12 one squadron was with FML Schauroth at the battle of Gorzyce.
 In the Turkic Tartar language (written oglan or uhuan) it means, amongst other things, a brave warrior or 'young man.' During the Polish-Lithuanian Union the name "Ułan" was the surname (family name) of Lithuanian Tatar noble family, whose male family members, like all Lithuanian Tatar nobles, regularly served as light cavalrymen for the Polish kings since at least the 15th century. One of the family members, colonel Aleksander Ułan, was a commander the Polish light cavalry regiment in the service of Polish-Saxon kings, August II Mocny (Augustus II the Strong) and Augustus III. After Ułan's death his regiment was nicknamed 'Ułanowe dzieci' (Ułan's children) and 'Ułanowe wojsko' (Ulan's army) and then shortened to Ułans. Prior to 1764 all Polish-Lithuanian Tatar cavalry regiments in Saxon service were named Ułani (Uhlans or Ulanen).
 Czapka (plural: czapki) is a Polish generic word for a cap. However, it is perhaps best known to English speakers as a word for the 19th century Polish cavalry headgear, consisting of a high, four-pointed cap with regimental insignia on the front (full name in Polish: czapka rogatywka, initially: konfederatka) to which feathers or rosettes were sometimes added. From 1784 onwards the Czapka was introduced by Austrian uhlans, during the time Galicia was under Habsburg rule.
 The Hussars battlecry “Attack!!”
 Hollins D., Hungarian Hussar 1756-1815, ill. by Darko Pavlovic, Osprey “Warrior”, 2003.
 The Ulans had 2 Schneidern (Weavers) in the Staff.
 The Hussars had (in Staff) 1 Schneider (Weaver). This was the only one difference between Hussars and Chev.légers. The Szeklers Hussars had 8 Sqns. But no Inhaber.
 See the successive part upon Hungary for details.
Placed on the Napoleon Series: November 2010
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