Military Subjects: Organization, Strategy & Tactics

The Austrian Imperial-Royal Army (Kaiserliche-Königliche Heer) 1805 – 1809:

THE AUSTRIAN IMPERIAL-ROYAL ARMY

The Austrian Cavalry in 1809

By Enrico Acerbi

AUSTRIAN UHLANS 1809 [1]

Uhlans (in Polish: "Ułan"; "Ulan" in German) were Polish light cavalry armed with lances, sabres  and pistols. Uhlans typically wore a double-breasted jacket (kurta - kurtka) with a coloured panel (plastron) at the front, a coloured sash, and a square-topped Polish lancer cap (czapka) (later Tatarka) [2] also spelt 'chapka,' chapska and schapska. This cap or cavalry helmet was derived from a traditional design of Polish cap, made more formal and stylised for military use.

Their lances usually had small, swallow-tailed flags (known as the lance pennon) just below the spearhead.

In 1809 Austria had 3 uhlan regiments - each of 1.479 men and 1.414 horses in 8 Sqns. Uhlans were characteristic plain raiders, originary from Poland and Ruthenia (Galicia), lands in which they were recruited. French army had its uhlans (Polish lancers) too. They wore the characteristic hat called Czapka differentiated by the colour of the square cover on the hat. Many uniform names came from the Polish tradition: Rock = Kurtka, Boots = Topanken, ammunition bag = Ladownica)

The uhlans carried 2 pistols, curved saber and a lance. Each squadron of uhlans had 8 men armed with rifles and 8 with carbines. In uhlan regiment of 4 divisions, the central 2 divisions were armed with lances, the 2 flank divisions with carbines.

The jacket was dark-green with red lapels for all regiments. The pennons on lances were black over yellow. All wore green trousers with red stripes and strengthened with black leather on the bottom. On campaign they wore grey overalls.


K.K. Galizische Ulanen regiment n° 1 – GM-GdK Maxmilian Count Merveldt

Recruitment: Galicia. 1 Depot (Res.) Sqn. in Pisek, Div. Richter under Riesch and Loudon It began the campaign with 1361 men and 1185 horses.      

Depot Kadre:

Klattau (Klatowice) - Pardubitz

 

Commander:

baron Joseph Bogdan von Sturmbruck

 

Commander:

baron Ludwig von Wilgenheim

 

Oberstlieutenant:

Count Emmanuel Mensdorff Pouilly

1st Major

Franz Zarczinski

Johann Haim von Haimhofen

2nd Major

Alfred prince zu Windischgrätz

 

3rd Major

baron Ludwig Malowetz (dead at Ratisbon April 21)

In the 2nd Corps Kollowrat fought at Ursensollen - Amberg. 3 Sqns. were in the Klenau vanguard, other 3 and ¾ in the same formation under the Brig. Crenneville. One Zug was at the blockade of the Oberhaus fortress with the Brigade GM Johann von Richter. At Eggmühl 2 Sqns. remained with Crenneville, detached at Hemau. The rest with Klenau while another detached Zug was with the Detachment Oberstleutnant Wilhelm von Feuchtersleben, for the defence of a position battery. Parts of the regiment were involved in the Regensburg battles, on April 21 and later at Stadt am Hof . 6 squadrons later went to the Division Sommariva, III Corps, where they were split “Abteilungsweise” in various units. The 1st major division (major Haim) was sent to watch the Saxon frontier. One sqn. was with Brig. Radivojevich and the other 2nd, with the commander, with brigade Am Ende; (In July they were in Bohemia and then against Saxons in the battles of Gefrees, Nürnberg).

- before Aspern: some sources give one squadron with the Radetzky vanguard at Ebelsberg (VI Corps). At Urfahr with the Div.Sommariva they deployed half Sqn.with Detachment oberstleutnant baron Georg von Suden on the Pöstlingberg, half with Detachment oberst Ignaz von Leuthner, 4 Sqns with the brigade GM comte Carl Crenneville (Vukassovich Column) half Sqn. with the Detachment major Emerich Zaborsky de Zabora and the last half Sqn. probably with the VI Corps (Radetzky). 

- at Aspern: it did not take part at the battle, staying with Sommariva in the left Danube defence. The regiment then conducted its own „little war“ harassing the rear line of communication of the French army.

- after Wagram: on July 12 Sommariva got the order to retreat in Bohemia and the campaign ended.

K.K. Galizische Ulanen regiment n° 2 – FM  prince Carl Philipp Schwarzenberg

Recruitment: western Galicia. 1 Depot (Res.) Sqn. brig. Ullrich in Elbogen, Div K. Kinsky under Riesch and Loudon. It began with 1143 men and 1400 horses.         

Depot Kadre:

Saaz – Elbogen - Brandeis

 

Commander

Count Ignaz Hardegg

Carl Schmuttermayer

 2nd Colonel:

Count Friedrich Schlottheim

 

Oberstlieutenant:

Carl Schmuttermayer

Matthias Steyerer von Edelsberg baron Johann Metzger

1st Major

Matthias Steyerer von Edelsberg

Count Bartholomäus Alberti

2nd Major

baron Johann Metzger

baron Carl Mengen

3rd Major

count Johann Wratislaw

 

- before Aspern: it began the campaign in the I Corps Bellegarde, 4 Sqns in their commander Brig. Ignaz Hardegg, Div. Fresnel, 2 Sqns. in the Brig. Nostitz. 1 Sqn. was sent at the Saxon border with the Brig. Am Ende, and the last Sqn. with the GM Oberndorf Detachment at Topl and Carlsbad. On April 14 the 2 Sqns. of Nostitz fought at Ursensollen. On April 19 the 4 Sqns. of Hardegg took part at the seize of the town of Berching. After the retreat in Bohemia the regiment gathered under the Avant-garde division FML comte Johann Klenau (I Corps).

- at Aspern: Klenau took the vanguard of the IV Corps Brig. Johann Ignaz Franz von Hardegg auf Glatz und im Marchlande. It had an hard engagement also the night before the battle (May 20) and fought the two days of Aspern. It lost 9 men and 30 horses dead, 39 wounded, 3 men and 24 horses missing.

- at Wagram: the were 6 Sqns. with the commander colonel Schmuttermayer (some sources refer this as the Brig. Schneller, who instead was with Nordmann) in the III Corps Kollowrath. It did fight at Stammersdorf in order to cover the infantry retreat during the second day of the battle.

- after Wagram: they retreated towards Znaim with the Brig. Rothkirch (some sources assigned them to the Div. Schneller), Div. Nostitz fighting against the French vanguard of general Grouchy. On July 11 they camped at Budwitz.

K.K. Galizische Ulanen regiment n° 3 – Generalissimus Erzherzog Karl (archduke Charles Uhlans)

Recruitment: Galicia. 1 Depot (Res.) Sqn. Brig. Dunoyer in Ung. Hradisch, Div. St Julien under Argenteau . The regiment went in war with 1331 men and 1199 horses.

Depot Kadre:

St.Georgen (Hungary) – Gaja (Moravia)

2nd Owner

FML Count Philipp Grünne

 

Commander

Count Johann Klebelsberg

Count Heinrich Hardegg

 2nd Colonel:

   

Oberstlieutenant:

Count Heinrich Hardegg

baron Ludwig von Wilgenheim Carl von Gorczkowski

1st Major

baron Ludwig von Wilgenheim

 

2nd Major

Carl von Gorczkowski

 

3rd Major

Count Franz Coudenhowe

baron Wilhelm Mengen

- before Aspern.: it begans in the austrian Innviertel with the Brig. Radetzky, Div. Schustekh, V Corps (archduke Louis). With the avant-garde of the V Corps, Brig. Radetzky, it entered       Bavaria (2 Sqns) and was at the 1st clash of Landshut (April 16); the other 6 Sqns. were with the Brigade GM baron Josef Mesko de Felsö-Kubinyi, Div. Schustekh. The same brigades were also at Abensberg, where they were able to withdraw. The regiment gathered itself under GM Radetzky forming the rear guard of the retreating corps and fighting also the 2nd Landshut battle.

The brigade Radetzky was at the battle of Neumarkt, forming the avant-garde of the right wing. The regiment and its brigadier then were attached to the Div. FML Schustekh and Vincent to form the rear-guard at Ebelsberg. During the following retreat the 1st Major-division (von Wilgenheim) was send to support the retreating brigade Mesko and had some rearguard clashes with the French Light cavalry. The largest clash was at Ybbs, where fought 4 Sqns.under command of Count Johann Klebelsberg. The regiment there lost: 63 deda, 31 wounded, 96 prisoners, 53 horses dead and 44 wounded. Then Radetzky marched to Mautern, crossed the bridge and deployed to control the Danube banks from Stockerau till Tulln.

- at Aspern: the Brig. Radetzky stood at Gaspolthohen, the regiment remained at Stockerau, not participating at the battle.

- at Wagram: the V Corps (Reuss-Plauen) controlled the Danube bank, the Bisamberg hill, the river till Krems and the Schwarze Laken island. At Wagram only the 1st Oberst-Division had an indirect part in the battle (combat of Stammersdorf). Then it fought the rear battles of Schöngraben and Hollabrunn distinguishing itself at Znaim. There the Regiment commander Count Heinrich Hardegg had the MTO (Maria-Theresia Order award).

- after Wagram: the former commander, now brigadier, led the Brigade GM count Klebelsberg, Div. Weissenwolff, with the 7 Sqns. of the regiment marching beyond the town of Znaim in Reserve.

RATJA ! [3]
AUSTRIAN (Hungarian) HUSSARS 1809

Dave Hollins, in his excellent book [4] states the term Hussar would come from the latin “Cursarius” or raider. Many other sources think it could come from the hungarian “húsz” or 20 (being 20 the men each village had to offer to answer to the feudal noblemen call-to-arms as cavalry assistants). The hungarian motto “an hussar worth twenty” seems to consolidate the relationship with the number twenty. So “húszar” was one of the twenty recruits of the village.

Hussars recruits were not to be less than 18 nor more than 30 years old, since “the former are too weak for the military drills and the latter are too stiff and awkward” (grey hair was considered an automatic bar) and preferably over 5 Fuss 4 Zoll (1.68 m) tall. The necessity to leave men for the agricultural jobs, in Hungary, made the recruitment very difficult in some times.

Those who enrolled as volunteers would sign a Capitulation to serve for two to three years or, during wartime, for the duration of hostilities). Otherwise, the reform of 1802 standardised all cavalry regular service to 12 years, although this was emended to 14 in 1811. Recruits received also an initial “Handgeld” of 5 Ducats (46 Gulden or Florins) or 2 Ducats when transferred from another unit.

In 1809, while the Heavy cavalry (Cuirassiers) regiments had 3 divisions (6 Sqn.) each, all light cavalry of austrian Empire had 4 divisions or 8 Sqn. Each squadron had 149 horses (so a division had 298 horses and the whole regiment 1192). Some Hussars regiments raised two more squadrons (a division) organized (and paid) by single hungarian nobles with well-balanced incomes. These 5th divisions, otherwise, did not begin the war. Thei men were merged with the regular squadrons and some were sent to the Insurrectio “levée” system. In 1809 the Hussars regiments were 12.

The table lists the evolution and the main colours of the Hussars regiments.

Hussars

Pelisse  Dolman

Botton

Breeches

Shako

Inhabers

1

Dark blue

yellow

Dark blue

black

Emperor Franz

2

Light Blue

yellow

Light Blue

scarlet

Arch. Joseph

3

Dark blue

yellow

Dark blue

grey

Arch. Ferdinand Carl d'Este

4

Parrot green

white

red

Light Blue

Von Vecsey => Hessen Homburg

5

Dark green

white

crimson

scarlet

vacant => Baron Ott

6

Light Blue

yellow

Light Blue

black

Blankenstein

7

Light Blue

white

Light Blue

green

vacant => Lichtenstein

8

Parrot green

yellow

red

black

Barco => Würmser => Nauendorff => Kienmayer

9

Dark green

yellow

crimson

black

Erdödy => Frimont

10

Light Blue

yellow

Light Blue

green

Meszaros => Stipsics

11

Dark blue

white

Dark blue

black

Szekler Grenz Hussars (Transylvania)

12

Middle grey

white

middle grey

black

1801 : Hussars Grenz Croat./slavon.
1802 : Hussars Palatins

The Provision of August, 18, 1805, had stated a wide reduction on the regimental transports also in the cavalry branch. Each light cavalry regiment (8 squadrons) had:

 

Wagons with harnesses - (Fuhrwesen mit Geschirr)

Horses

 

4-h. drawn wagons

2-h. drawn wagons

Ärarische(of the army)

Regiment Fuhrwesen

wagon with coverDeckelwagen

open Wagon
Leiterwagen

Feldschmiede

Stabswagen

Under the Army control

1

4

1

1

78

After 1808 the cavalry regiments (8 squadrons) had 24 Train horses (Fuhrpferde) and 9 servants, in addition to their packhorses dotation.

Regular cavalry standing at the end of 1807 (the same as in 1811)

Regiments

N.

Regiments

N.

K.K. Cuirassier regiments

8

K.K. Hussars regiments

12

K.K. Dragones regiments

6

K.K. Ulans regiments

3

K.K. Chevauxlégers rgts.

6

 

New Cavalry Regulations came from the Hofkriegsrat indication of August 7, 1810, approved by H.M. the Emperor on January 2, 1811 with the definitive layout of August 10, 1811. A Cuirassier or Dragoons Regiments had 6 Squadrons:

A Chevaux-léger Regiment had 8 Squadrons like Uhlans [5] and Hussars:

Staff

Horses

Uhlans Hussars [6] and Chevaux-léger Rgt

1

1

Superior and Regiments Inhaber

1

1

Superior and Regiments Commandant

1

1

Oberstlieutenant

2

2

Majore

1

1

Regiments Kaplan (priest)

1

1

Regiments Feldarzt

1

1

Regiments Auditor

1

1

Regiments Rechnungsführer

1

1

Regiments Adjutanten

6

--

Fourieren

4

4

Divisions-trompetern

4

4

Standarte-führern

1

1

Profosen

1

1

Riemer

4

--

Ober-Ärzte

4

--

Unter-Arzten

1

1

Stabs-trompeter

1

--

Oberschmied

5

--

Privatdiener

1

1

Sattler

46

total

 

Men

Horses

Uhlans Hussars and Chevaux-léger Rgt

1

1

Rittmeister

2

2

Oberlieutenant

2

2

Unterlieutenant

2

2

Wachtmeistern

1

1

Trompeter

12

12

Corporalen

4

--

Privatdiener

1

--

Fourierschützen

1

--

Schmied

1

--

Sattler

In war, each cavalry regiment had to raise a Reserve Squadron. The Staff increased by:

Men Horses Cavalry Regiment Staff

1

 

Oberfourier

2

 

Unterschmied

2   Ordinäre-fouriers

The force of the Reserve Squadron was:

Men
Horses
Cuirassier or Dragoons Regiment

1

1

1er Rittmeister

2

2

Oberlieutenant

2

2

Wachtmeistern

1

1

Trompeter

1

--

Fourierschütz

12

12

Corporale

1

1

2er Rittmeister

2

2

Unterlieutenant

1

--

Unter-Arzt

1

--

Fourier

5

--

Privatdiener

1

--

Schmied

1

--

Sattler

 

Men

Horses

Hussars or Uhlans  Regiment

Men

Horses

 

1

1

1er Rittmeister

1

1

2er Rittmeister

2

2

Oberlieutenant

2

2

Unterlieutenant

2

2

Wachtmeistern

1

--

Unter-Arzt

1

1

Trompeter

1

--

Fourier

1

--

Fourierschütz

5

--

Privatdiener

12

12

Corporale

1

--

Schmied

The men of the Reserve Squadrons were the supernumerary ones and the half-invalids of the regiment.

The Szekler Hussars (Grenz)-regiment had 8 squadrons:

Men

Horses

Szekler Hussars regiment

Men

Horses

8 Squadrons

1

1

Oberst (commander)

1

1

Oberstlieutenant

2

2

Majoren

1

1

Regiments Auditor

1

1

Regiments Caplan

1

1

Regiments Feldarzt

1

1

Regiments Rechnungsführer

4

--

Ober-Ärzte

1

1

Regiments Adjutant

4

--

Unter-Ärzte

5

--

Fouriere

1

1

Stabs-Trompeter

4

4

Divisions Trompetern

4

4

Standarte Führern

1

--

Oberschmied

1

--

Riemer

1

--

Sattler

2

--

Schneidern

1

1

Profoß

4

--

Fourierschützen

4

-

Halb-invaliden Privatdienern

1

--

Ganz-invaliden Privatdiener

         

For the Rechnungsführer

Men

Horses

Szekler HussarsSquadron

Men

Horses

 

1

1

Erster Rittmeister

1

1

Zweiter Rittmeister

2

2

Oberlieutenante

2

2

Unterlieutenante

2

2

Wachtmeistern

1

1

Trompeter

1

--

Schmied

12

12

Corporalen

1

--

Fourierschütz

     

5

--

Halb-invaliden Privatdienern

     

Proprietors of Hussars regiments 1792 – 1815 (in blue 1809 reference)

Blankenstein, Ernst Graf (Blankenstein Hissars)

   

1791/98

1799/1814

   
   

HR16

HR6

   

Erdödy de Manyorókerek, Johann Nepomuk

 

1783/89

1789/1798

1798/1806

   
 

HR9

HR11

HR9

   

Erzherzog Ferdinand Carl d’Este (archduke Ferdinand Hussars)

   

1794/98

1798/1850

   
   

HR32

HR3

   

Erzherzog Joseph Anton, Palatin von Ungarn (arch. Joseph Hussars)

   

1795/98

1798/1847

   
   

HR17

HR2

   

Erzherzog Leopold Alexander, Palatin von Ungarn

 

1784/89

1789/1795

     
 

HR15

HR17

     

Frimont von Palota, Johann Count , Fürst von Antrodoco (Frimont Hussars)

         

1806/1832

         

HR9

Hessen-Homburg, Friedrich Erbprinz (1820 Landgraf) zu (Hessen-Homburg Hussars)

         

1803/1829

         

HR4

Kaiser Franz II.(I.) (Emperor Hussars)

 

1792/98

1798/1835

     
 

HR2

HR1

     

Kienmayer, Michael Freiherr von (Kienmayer Hussars)

         

1802/1828

         

HR8

Liechtenstein, Johannes Fürst (Liechtenstein Hussars)

         

1801/1836

         

HR7

Meszáros (Mészáros), Johann von (1797 Freiherr)

   

1797/98

1798/1802

   
   

HR35

HR10

   

Nauendorf, Friedrich August Count

     

1799/1802

   
     

HR8

   

Ott von Bátorkéz, Carl Freiherr (Ott Hussars)

       

1801/1809

 
       

HR5

 

Palatinal (Erzherzog Joseph Anton, Palatin von Ungarn 1800-1847)

       

1800/02

1802/1847

       

HR

HR12

Radetzky von Radetz, Joseph  (Redetzky Hussars)

         

1809/1814

         

HR5

Stipsicz von Ternova, Joseph Freiherr (Stipsicz Hussars)

       

1802/1814

 
       

HR10

 

Vécsey von Hajnácskeö, Siegbert Freiherr

   

1791/98

1798/1803

   
   

HR34

HR4

   

Wurmser, Dagobert Sigmund

1775/80

1780/89

1789/1798

1798/1799

   

HR30

HR24

HR30

HR8

   

K.K. Hussars regiment n° 1 – Kaiser Franz II (Emperor’s Hussars)

Recruitment: district of the IR 32 – Alt-Ofen (Budapest). 1Depot (Res.) Sqn. Brig. Kerekes in Pressburg under Alvinczy. It began the campaign with 1262 men and 1176 horses.

Depot Kadre:

Siedlec - Troppau

 

2nd Owner

GM baron Sigmund de Szent-Kerészty

Commander:

count Adam Neipperg

 Commander:

baron Anton Horwáth de Szentgyörgy

 2nd Colonel:

count Ignaz Guadagni former Oberstlieutenant

Oberstlieutenant:

Count Johann Magi (Maggi)

 

1st Major

Count Josef Gatterburg

2nd Major

Count Friedrich Hoditz, transferred to HR 12

3rd Major

Georg Mocséry

Jakob Derra

Before Aspern: in Poland with the VII Corps archduke Ferdinand in the Brig. Branovatzky, Div. Schauroth, later in the vanguard Brig. GM baron Mohr. Often acted in small detachments as autonomous units. In April 25 it fought at Grochow and in May it was again in Div.Schauroth. On June 9 it fought the cavalry clash of Tuszow and later had a combat along the road to Jedlinsko.

K.K. Hussars regiment n° 2 – Erzherzog Joseph Anton, Palatin von Ungarn (Archduke Joseph Hussars)

Recruitment: Transylvania. – the Reserve Sqn. with the Brig. Daniel at Ödenburg (Sopron) under Alvinczy. It began the campaign with 1104 men and 1011 horses.

Depot Kadre:

Reps – Nagy Enyed

 

2nd Owner

baron FML Daniel de Mecséry

Commander:

baron Ignaz Splényi de Mihaldy (before Wagram)

Commander:

baron Leopold Geramb (GM in 1814)

2nd Colonel:

Johann von Lipsky

 

Oberstlieutenant:

count Georg Preidt

Baron Leopold Geramb

1st Major

Baron Leopold Geramb

2nd Major

count Stephan Wesselényi

3rd Major

Johann Graff

Emerich von Turcsany

Before Aspern: in the Inner Austria army, XI Corps baron Ignaz Gyulai, cavalry Div. FML Wolfskehl, Brig. Splényi. During the battle of Pordenone the regiment seized the main road between Rorai Grande and Talponedo. On April 16 (battle of Sacile or Fontanafredda) 6 Sqn. were with GM Splényi (support of the left wing by Porzia) while two were with the detachment Oberstlieutenant Volkmann (behind the central part of the right wing).

Later, after the advance till Verona, the regiment acted as arrière-garde of Inner Austria army, Div. FML Frimont, Brig. Bésán, VIII Corps. Two Sqns. were sent to Treviso to support the detachment of Oberstlieutenant Collenbach (who was attacked by the French troops of Durutte), while the remaining 6 Sqns. stood along the line Trivignano (right) and Sala di Campagna (left). There the French cavalry Div. Pully attacked but was repulsed. After the Piave battle, on May 8, other two Sqns. were sent with the Brig. Kálnassy to cover the left army flank at Cimadolmo. On May 11 the regiment had another clash at Cisterna.

- between Aspern and Wagram: On June 12 it fought again at Csának in Hungary. At the Raab battle the regiment, now committed with the hungarian Insurrectio, Div. FML Mecséry von Tsoor, Brig. GM Andrássy, acted with the 5th Hussars regiment, under its new commander Geramb. Finally the regiment was again with the former Brig. Bésán, Div. Frimont, VIII Corps till the armistice.


K.K. Hussars regiment n° 3 – Erzherzog Ferdinand Carl d’Este (archduke Ferdinand Hussars)

Recruitment: district Ofen (Budapest). 1 Depot (Res.) Sqn. Brig. Pietsch in Troppau, Div. St.Julien under FM Argenteau. It began the campaign with 1234 hussars and 1171 horses.

Depot Kadre:

Troppau (Moravia) – Sáros-Patak

2nd Owner

GdC chevalier Rudolf von Otto

Commander:

baron Peter Vécsey de Hajnácskeö (GM in 1809)

Commander:

Ferdinand, prince zu Sachsen-Coburg

2nd Colonel:

   

Oberstlieutenant:

Jozsef de Gösztonyi

 

1st Major

Leonhard von Röhrig

2nd Major

Joseph Devay

3rd Major

Emerich Béöczy

András Bartos

- before Aspern: in the III Corps Hohenzollern, Div. Vukassovich, Brig. Moritz Liechtenstein.

On April 18 it had the first victorious clash at Neu-Eglofsheim. At Teugen 2 squadron were detached to the Brig. Kaiser, Div. Vukassovich then the same division went under Brigade GM Josef von Bieber, Div. St.Julien. At Eggmühl another division formed the detachment prince Coburg, Div. St.Julien, gaining in battle the nickname of „Coburg hussars“. Other 4 Sqns. were always in the Brig. Moritz Liechtenstein. The division under GM von Bieber took part in the evening battle of Alt-Eglofsheim. The regiment followed the army in the retreat to Bohemia in the rearguard Div. Vukassovich (Brig. Pfanzelter). In May was attached to the Division FML prince Victor de Rohan, Brig. Stutterheim and sent to Freystadt (north of Linz) in order to control the main road to Budweis.

- at Aspern: the regiment (now 821 men) was with the IV Corps Rosenberg column, Div. Rohan, part with the Brigade GM baron Carl Stutterheim and part with the Brig. colonel Grätze, covering the left flank during the attack against Essling. There it lost: 7 men and 33 horses dead, 56 men and 48 horses wounded and 1 hussar prisoner.

- at Wagram: the regiment was with the IV Corps Rosemberg coming from the cavalry reserve of FML count Nostitz division. It was with the Division FML Radetzky de Radetz, deployed with the light Brigade GM Dolmaire (Dollmayer) de Provenchères on the left wing, in the low hills of Markgraf Neusiedl. The losses of the regiment from June 29 till July 11 were heavy: 107 men and 192 horse dead or wounded.

- after Wagram: it remained with the Div. Radetzky, IV Corps, not at Znaim battle. At the July’s end the regiment did have only 377 horse, enough to form only two operative squadrons.

K.K. Hussars regiment n° 4 – Friedrich, Erbprinz zu Hessen Homburg (Hessen Hussars)

Recruitment: district Fünfkirchen (Pecs). 1 Depot (Res.) Sqn. Brig. Kerekes in Pressburg under Alvinczy. It began the campaign with 1235 men and 1164 horses.

Depot Kadre:

Konskie - Zolkiew

2nd Owner

none

Commander:

Severin von Kisielewsky dead at Wagram (July 6)

Commander:

Gustav prince von Hessen Homburg from  Wagram

2nd Colonel:

   

Oberstlieutenant:

Vincenz von Jünger

 

1st Major

Alexander Medvey

2nd Major

Alexander Forisch de Förohidvár

3rd Major

baron Joseph Simonyi de Vitezvár

 

Anton Geringer von Ödenburg

Before Aspern: it was in the III Corps Hohenzollern, kept in reserve duties and formally attached to the Brig. Pfanzelter, Div. Vukassovich. It had a minimal part in the combats of the 1st Landshut battle, operating in the flank of the Radetzky vanguard and in the Ratisbon cavalry clash. After the retreat in Bohemia it was with the Division baron Philipp Vukassovich when it marched towards Linz (battle of Urfahr). One Sqn. was with Brigade GM Josef von Pfanzelter, another three with the detachment Oberst Timotheus von Winzian, two squadrons were with the Division count Franz Saint Julien-Waldsee, Brigade GM Andreas von Schneller the rest in patrol duties along the Danube, actually all under the II Corps Kollowrath. It participated to the combats of the Postlimberg (Urfahr) and Götschker. It then controlled the outposts between Gallneukirchen and Neumarkt.

Before Wagram: it was not at Aspern. 

- at Wagram: the regiment was in the avant-garde of the Left army wing, Brig. Peter Vécsey, Div. Nordmann. Colonel Kisielewsky received an artillery shot (bullet) which destroyed his foot causing his death for fatal bleeding. On July 6 half regiment remained in the left wing, while the other half was in the Center under major Simonyi in the Brig. Hardegg (with Vincent Chevaulegers), blocked near Baumersdorf in flames.  At Wagram it lost 375 men dead or wounded. It was then attached again to the IV Corps Rosenberg (Div.Radetzky) and retreated in Bohemia.

K.K. Hussars regiment n° 5 – baron Carl Ott von Bátorkéz
later FML Count Joseph Radetzky von Radetz  (Radetzky Hussars)           

Recruitment: district Ödenburg (Sopron in Hungary). 1 Res. (Depot) Sqn. Brig Daniel in Ödenburg under Alvinczy. It began the war with 1098 men and 1045 horses.

Depot Kadre:

Esseg (Osijek – Vojvodina) then Warasdin (Croatia)

2nd Owner

none

Commander:

Wilhelm von Fulda dead at Fontanafredda (battle of Sacile)

Commander:

Ludwig Boros de Rákos

2nd Colonel:

   

Oberstlieutenant:

Ludwig Boros de Rákos

baron Franz Luzenszky

1st Major

baron Franz Luzenszky

2nd Major

Franz Kakonyi

3rd Major

Matthias von Gavenda

before Aspern: it began with the VIII Corps of the Inner Austria army (FML marquis Chasteler then FML Albert Gyulai), 2nd division FML Frimont, Brig. baron von Schmiedt. On April 14 at Pordenone it was in the division vanguard, Brig. Splényi (Div. Frimont). On April 16 during the battle of Sacile (Fontanafredda for the austrians) died the colonel commander and major Kakonyi was made prisoner (colonel Fulda sabel, shot by five bullet was sent to Verovetice in Slavonia to the count Pejacevich estate, where is shown in the so called Waffenkammer).

On May the regiment was with the VIII corps, on General staff duties (during the Piave battle it was at army HQ at Conegliano). It counterattacked the French dragoons after the Piave battle and opened the way to retreat, directly led by FML Frimont.

- before and after Wagram: at Raab was in the Div. FML Mecséry von Tsoor, Brigade Oberst Gosztóny and fought a very bloody affair. With the Brig. Bésán, Div. Frimont, VIII Corps was for a short period at Pressburg, before return in Croatia to Warasdin.

K.K. Hussars regiment n° 6 – GdK Count Ernst Blankenstein (Blankenstein Hussars)

Recruitment: district Großwardein (Nagyvárad) 1 Depot (Res.) Sqn. Brig. - Div. Schönthal in Leitmeritz, under Riesch and Loudon. Entered the campaign with 1340 men and 1200 horses.

Depot Kadre:

Gabel (Bohemia) – Rzeszow (Galicia)

2nd Owner

none

Commander:

Vincenz von Gillert

Commander:

 

2nd Colonel:

   

Oberstlieutenant:

Georg von Vieland

 

1st Major

Count Heinrich Blankenstein

2nd Major

Anton von Teschenberg

3rd Major

Franz Leibinger

other Staff officers

Count Franz Bigot de St. Quentin – Jozséf Legedics

before Aspern: with I Corps Bellegarde, Division FML count Johann Fresnel von Hennequin, Brigade GM baron Ferdinand Wintzingerode-Ohmfeld (2 Sqns.), Division FML Ludwig Vogelsang, Brigade count Ferdinand Wartensleben, former commander of the regiment (6 Sqns.). During the first part of the campaign it had only a partial combat at Amberg-Ursensollen. Stood in Bohemia with Brig. Wartensleben, Div. Fresnel, I Corps.

Brig. Winzingerode, Div. Fresnel, I. Corps then Did fight at

- at Aspern: 2 Sqns. were with the avant-garde Brigade GM baron Wintzingerode (2nd column or I corps Bellegarde); the rest of the regiment in the centre of the column with Brig. Wartensleben, Div. Fresnel. During the first day of the battle the 6 Sqns. of Wartensleben (with the Riesch dragoons) attacked the French heavy cavalry against its flank. The charge had a great success. During the second day Oberstlieutenant Georg von Vieland launched his hussars again inside the French cavalry. At Aspern the regiment lost: 35 men and 72 horses dead, 78 men and 44 horses wounded, 1 man missing.

In June the regiment received two new replacement squadrons and was in the cavalry Reserve of prince Liechtenstein, Brig. Wartensleben, Div. Nostitz. It send one division with Div. Frimont, Brig. Bésán, army of Inner Austria, which was at Raab battle.

- at Wagram: the Nostitz reserve units were assigned to the avant-garde Div. Nordmann, in the left wing of the IV Corps; they participated to the combats at Markgraf-Neusiedl. In the second battle day the IV Corps formed two columns to attack respectively Grosshofen and Glinzendorf. The regiment’s brigade formed a third cover column for the left flank. After the unlucky attack followed the afternoon retreat.

- after Wagram: the retreating Hussars had some rearguard battles at Hollabrunn and Schöngrabern. Having lost the contact with the IV Corps they were attached to the V Corps (Reuss-Plauen) in an autonomous unit under GM Klebelsberg, deploying behind the town of Znaim.

K.K. Hussars regiment n° 7 – GdK Fürst Johannes Joseph Liechtenstein (Liechtenstein Hussars)

Recruitment: district Fünfkirchen (Pecs). 1 Res. (Depot) Sqn. Brig. Daniel in Ödenburg under Alvinczy. It began the campaign with 1335 men and 1102 horses.

Depot Kadre:

Ungarisch-Brod, then Grosswardein

2nd Owner

none

Commander:

Franz von Vlasits

Commander:

 

2nd Colonel:

   

Oberstlieutenant:

Joseph Garnica

Emerich Mariássy

1st Major

Anton Spannagel

2nd Major

Count Max Nesselrods

3rd Major

Franz Wahler

other Staff officers

Count Carl Chamborant

- Before Aspern: with the VI Corps FML baron Johann von Hiller (gathered at Braunau) with half Rgt in the Avantgarde Brigade GM Armand von Nordmann (from Ach till the river Salza), half Rgt with the Brigade GM Hoffmeister von Hoffeneck, both under Div. Vincent. The first clash was fought at Haag. During the battle of Abensberg 1 Sqn. with the Detachment major von Scheibler, 1 Sqn. with the Detachment Rittmeister Spannagel, 3 Sqns. with Brig. Nordmann, 3 Sqns. with the Brigade GM comte Otto Hohenfeld. One division (Brig. Nordmann) fought at Landshut. The Detachment major von Scheibler, 1 Sqn. was also at Landshut. The reduced squadrons gathered under Nordmann at Neumarkt and retreated in Upper Austria. At Ebelsberg, left wing, 5 Sqns. were with the oberst Franz von Vlasits and one with Nordmann. The six squadrons marched till Vienna assigning one division to defend the city gates Burg Tor and Kärtner Tor. After the fall of the city they crossed the Danube and were attached to the Division FML Emmanuel von Schustekh at Grieskirchen and Lambach (Arrière-garde brigade GM Armand von  Nordmann). The six squadrons returned to be seven.

- at Aspern: the seven squadrons were part of the 1st column (VI Corps) Hiller, avant-garde Nordmann (640 men). They defended Kagran and Hirschstetten.

- at Wagram: the regiment returned to 8 squadrons in the Division FML Vincent, Brigade GM comte Wallmoden-Gimborn. There the regiment lost 148 men and 172 horses.

- after Wagram: after some minor rearguard combats at Korneuburg and Hollabrunn they went to Wolframitzkirchen, without participating at the Znaim battle.

K.K. Hussars regiment n° 8 – GdC baron Michael Kienmayer
also known as Barco Husaren  

Recruitment: district Pressburg (Pozsony or Bratislava). 1 Depot (Res.) Sqn. Brig Daniel in Ödenburg under Alvinczy . It began the campaign with 1097 men and 1040 horses.

Depot Kadre:

Nagy-Tapolcsán then Vienna

2nd Owner

none

Commander:

baron August Vécsey

Commander:

(after Aspern) count Franz Bánffy

2nd Colonel:

later comm. Franz Warlich von Bubna

Oberstlieutenant:

Franz Warlich von Bubna

baron Philipp Lilien

1st Major

Dominik Seibert

2nd Major

baron Franz Kienmayer

3rd Major

Franz Genczy (later Obstlt)

other Staff officers

Anton Zrinsky

Before Aspern: with the V Corps archduke Louis it had 2 Sqn. with Brig. Radetzky, 6 Sqn with the Brigade GM baron Josef Mesko de Felsö-Kubinyi, Division FML Emmanuel von Schustekh. At Abensberg 2 Sqns. remained with FML Schustekh, the other with the former brigades. After the retreat 4 Sqns formed the rearguard of Div. Vincent, while the other 4 Sqns. remained with Mesko and Schustekh, fighting at Landshut, Kloster Rohr and Riedau. At Neumarkt Mesko formed the avant-garde of the central (2nd) column, while at the battle of  Ebelsberg the regiment was attached to the Brig. Hohenfeldt, Div. Schustekh then also Div. Dedovich. After the march towards Vienna the regiment returned with the Brig.Mesko under Div. Vincent (now VI Corps Hiller).

- at Aspern: in the 1st column (VI Corps Hiller) with only 434 men (8 Sqns.) in the Brig. Mesko, Div. Vincent. It attacked Aspern and the French cavalry, which counterattacked the austrian infantry. The losses were: 2 men and 19 horses dead, 16 men and 7 horses wounded.

- at Wagram: the regiment was in the Division FML Vincent, Brigade GM comte Wallmoden-Gimborn, VI Corps Klenau. The regiment acted along the Danube banks and on the Stammersdorf hills. .

- after Wagram: as for the 7th Hussars, after some minor rearguard combats at Korneuburg and Hollabrunn, they went to Wolframitzkirchen, without participating at the Znaim battle.

K.K. Hussars regiment n° 9 – count Johann Frimont von Palota, Fürst von Antrodoco (Frimont Hussars)

Recruitment: district Veszprém then in Croatia at Esseg (Osjiek). 1 Depot (Res.) Sqn. Brig. 6 Div. Lippa under Kerpen. It began the campaign with 1305 men 1101 and horses.

Depot Kadre:

Pettau then Radkersburg (1810)

2nd Owner

 

Commander:

baron Georg von Wrede (1808)

Commander:

Friedrich von Bretschneider

2nd Colonel:

 

Oberstlieutenant:

Johann von Lipsky (see HR 1)

baron Emmanuel Brettfeld

1st Major

Adolf von Prohaska

2nd Major

baron Anton Callot

3rd Major

Anton Kolb

other Staff officers

Jozséf Ujhazy – Karl Gyurtsak

before Aspern: the regiment was part of the Inner Austria army, IX Corps Ignaz Gyulai, 2nd division Wolfskehl, Brig. Splényi. Two squadrons were detached to the Croatian defence force Div. Knesevich first in the brig. Tomachich, then in the Brig. Gyurkovich. At Sacile 4 Sqns. remained with the Brig. Splényi. At the Piave FML Frimont division was charged of the rearguard and the Brig. Splényi protected the army with all 6 Sqns.

later Brig. Splényi, Div. Wolfskehl, IX. Corps, Armée of Innerösterr. and then Arrièregarde - Armée of Innerösterr. Finally Res. Troops Lippa

- before Wagram: on June 23 the regiment was in the avant-garde on the right bank of the river Mur, Brig. GM Splényi with 4 Sqns (battle of Graz). On the left bank of the same river in the center IX Corps Gyulai other 2 Sqns. were in the Brig. Kengyel. The last 2 Sqns. were on patrol duty and engaged the French at St.Leonhardt (June 25).

K.K. Hussars regiment n° 10 – baron Joseph Stipsics von Ternova (Stipsics Hussars)

Recruitment: district Kaschau (Kassá), Epérjes and Presov. 1 Res. (Depot) Sqn. Brig. Kerekes in Pressburg under Alvinczy. It began the campaign with 1227 men and 1128 horses.

Depot Kadre:

1808-09 Vienna then Ujpécs (1810)

2nd Owner

none

Commander:

1808 baron Franz von Fröhlich (Frelich)

Commander:

count Anton Gundaker Starhemberg

2nd Colonel:

Maximilian von Paumggarten

Oberstlieutenant:

Nicolaus de Jóbbagyi

Matthias von Loy

1st Major

Joseph Thanhoffer

2nd Major

Mihályi Pechy de Pech-Újfalu

3rd Major

count Ludwig Esterházy

- before Aspern: the regiment was divided “Abteilungweise” into several detachments: 2 wings (Züge) were at the fortress Oberhaus blockade (Division FML baron Franz von Dedovich, Brigade GM count Rudolf von Sinzendorff); 2 Sqns. with the Brigade GM Paul von Radivojevich at the Bohemian border; other 4 Wings with the Brigade GM  chevalier Adrian Joseph Reinwaldt von Waldegg along the Danube; the main group, 5 Sqns., were in the Division marquis Hannibal Sommariva. 7 Sqns. re-united before the Eggmühl battle in the Brig. baron Carl von Stutterheim and GM Johann von Neustädter, IV Corps Rosenberg. Those 7 Sqns. attached to the Corps Rosenberg fought at Wenig (Landshut) Dinzling and Eggmühl.

After the retreat half squadron (probably the 8th Sqn. coming from Passau-Oberhaus) was attached to the Brig.Bianchi, Division FML prince Henry XV Reuss-Plauen, V Corps archduke Louis and fought in the 2nd Landshut battle.The other half detached squadron was with Brigade GM Sinzendorff, Division FML Dedovich.

At the battle of Neumarkt the two half squadrons re-united under the V Corps troops. However half squadron remained with Bianchi and the other was attached to the GM Reinwaldt brigade, Div. Reuss-Plauen (who was also the interim commander of the V Corps). Those troops fought at Ebelsberg.

The 7 Sqns. of IV Corps retreated in Bohemia with the main army and, in May, went in the Avant-garde division FML comte Johann Klenau, Brigade oberst baron Franz von Frehlich.

At Aspern: re-united, the regiment, now 861 men, fought in the clashes at Stadtl-Enzersdorf, Essling with the  Brig. Frelich (the former colonel commander), Div. Klenau, (IV Corps). There it lost: 6 men and 21 horses dead, 41 men and 50 horses wounded.

At Wagram: the regiment was sent in the left army wing, Brig. Frelich, avant-garde left Wing Div. Nordmann with 7 Sqns., the last Sqn. was detached to the Inner Austria Army, Brig. Bach (3rd column).

After Wagram: the regiment retreated with the Div. Radetzky, IV Corps. During the retreat it was at the battle of Mistelbach. 


K.K. Hussars regiment n° 11 – National-Grenzregiment Szekler Hussars (Szeklers)

Recruitment: (Hungary) Székler districts Háromszék, Csik, Aranyos and Hunyad county [7]. Since 1770 also from a former Valachian Dragoons district. It began the campaign with 1759 men and 1425 horses.

Depot Kadre:

Sepsi-Szent-György

Owner

no owner till 1848

Commander:

Baron Martin von Rakovsky

Commander:

 

2nd Colonel:

 

Oberstlieutenant:

baron Carl Kémenyi

Anton Schmidt

1st Major

Johann Reinisch

2nd Major

count Ladislaus Haller

3rd Major

 

other Staff officers

 

The regiment was in Poland under Erzherzog Ferdinand Corps (VII) and fought at Raczyn, Warsaw, Grochow, Sandomierz with the vanguard Brig. Mohr and with the Brig. Göringer, Div. Schauroth, VII Corps.

The “Husaren-brigade” GM Göringer (Geringer), Hussars Rgt. n. 11 and n. 12, was formed at Odzywol in April and sent forward till Nowe Miasto in order to cross the Pilitza river, which happened on April 15.

K.K. Hussars regiment n° 12 – Erzherzog Joseph Anton , Palatin von Ungarn (Palatinal Hussars)

Recruitment: (Hungary) district Jazygier- Kumanier and Hayduck towns. 1 Res. (Depot) Sqn. Brig. Bicking in Lemberg (L’vov), Div. Meerveldt under Hohenlohe Ingelfingen. It began the campaign with 1267 men and 1107 horses.

Depot Kadre:

Zolkiew-Rohatyn, Rzeszów

2nd Owner

none

Commander:

Joseph de Csanády (1808)

Commander:

Alexander de Illésy

2nd Colonel:

 

Oberstlieutenant:

Alexander de Illésy

count Friedrich Hoditz

1st Major

Ernst Fickweiler

2nd Major

Jakub von Olah

3rd Major

Stephan von Nemeth

other Staff officers

baron Ferdinand Szobek  - Adam Ballog

In 1800 raised as part of the hungarian Insurrection, becaming after a regular regiment with the name of "Palatinal - Husaren" and with 3 divisions. In 1802 inherited the N. 12 (former number of the disbanded Croatian-Slavonian Hussar regiment).

In 1809 it was under the Brig. Goeringer, Div. Schauroth, VII Corps (Erzherzog Ferdinand) in Poland, fought at Raszyn (4 Sqns. in the first line against general Rozniecki seized the hills of Wygoda-Karczma), Jedlinsko, and Zarnowice. One squadron under Rittmeister Silly was sent to Gora in order to watch the left bank of the river Vistula. In May the remaining 7 Sqns. were attached to the division FML Mondet and withdrew till Galicia, where the Polish army was menacing the river San line. The last squadron, now under Oberstlieutenant Alexander de Illésy was detached to defend Sochaczew. On June 12 one squadron was with FML Schauroth at the battle of Gorzyce.

Notes

[1] In the Turkic  Tartar  language (written oglan or uhuan) it means, amongst other things, a brave warrior or 'young man.' During the Polish-Lithuanian Union the name "Ułan" was the surname (family name) of Lithuanian Tatar noble family, whose male family members, like all Lithuanian Tatar nobles, regularly served as light cavalrymen for the Polish kings since at least the 15th century. One of the family members, colonel Aleksander Ułan, was a commander the Polish light cavalry regiment in the service of Polish-Saxon kings, August II Mocny (Augustus II the Strong) and Augustus III. After Ułan's death his regiment was nicknamed 'Ułanowe dzieci' (Ułan's children) and 'Ułanowe wojsko' (Ulan's army) and then shortened to Ułans. Prior to 1764 all Polish-Lithuanian Tatar cavalry regiments in Saxon service were named Ułani (Uhlans or Ulanen).

[2] Czapka (plural: czapki) is a Polish  generic word for a cap. However, it is perhaps best known to English speakers as a word for the 19th century Polish cavalry headgear, consisting of a high, four-pointed cap with regimental insignia on the front (full name in Polish: czapka rogatywka, initially: konfederatka) to which feathers or rosettes  were sometimes added. From 1784 onwards the Czapka was introduced by Austrian uhlans, during the time Galicia  was under Habsburg rule.

[3] The Hussars battlecry “Attack!!”

[4] Hollins D., Hungarian Hussar 1756-1815, ill. by Darko Pavlovic, Osprey “Warrior”, 2003.

[5] The Ulans had 2 Schneidern (Weavers) in the Staff.

[6] The Hussars had (in Staff) 1 Schneider (Weaver). This was the only one difference between Hussars and Chev.légers. The Szeklers Hussars had 8 Sqns. But no Inhaber.

[7] See the successive part upon Hungary for details.

 

Placed on the Napoleon Series: November 2010

 

Organization Index ]



© Copyright 1995-2013, The Napoleon Series, All Rights Reserved.

Top | Home ]