The Austrian Imperial-Royal Army (Kaiserliche-Königliche Heer) 1805 – 1809:
THE HUNGARIAN ROYAL ARMY
1805 – 1809
HUNGARIAN INFANTRY REGIMENTS
1809 REGULAR INFANTRY
K.K. (Kaiserliche königliche) Ungarischen Infanterie Regimenter
The name Székesfehérvár means "white castle with the chair/seat" and the city is known by translations of this in other languages (Latin: Alba Regia, German: Stuhlweißenburg, Slovak: Stoličný Belehrad, Croatian: Stolni Biograd). The word szék (meaning "seat" as "throne") is related to its important role in the first centuries of the Kingdom of Hungary: székhely means a (royal) residence, center. In accordance of the obligation from the Doctrine of the Holy Crown, the first kings of Hungary were crowned and buried here. Székesfehérvár or ALBA REGIA, using its medieval name, was the cathedral seat of Saint Stephan I (Saint Stephan) and also a coronation and burial place of the Hungarian kings during the centuries of the Middle Ages.
K.K. IR 19 – FM Jozséf Alvinczy de Berberek – 3 battalions 
Recruitment: Staff with the Brig. baron Franz Weidenfeld in Ofen. The 2 Depot comp. were at Stuhlweissenburg (Székesfehérvár), then in Ofen. The HQ was transferred with its 2 Battalion (6 comp.) and the 3rd (4 comp.) at Agram (Brig. GM Franz von Marziani).
before Aspern: entered the campaign with the IX Corps Gyulai, Div. Gorupp and Brig. Marziani, in the Inner Austria army of archduke John. It was in the first line at Sacile. On May 2, at Montebello and Olmo (near Vicenza) it lost 40 men dead, a very high number of wounded (no available datas), 60 missing and 180 prisoners, while covering the Austrian withdrawal from Venetian land. At that time the regiment was attached to FML Frimont rearguard, Brig. Marziani, deployed in line near the Alpone stream.
During the retreat, in May, it had several combats at the Piave and Tagliamento battles. The regiment opened the column in the difficult crossing of river Tagliamento river. On May 14 a bunch of 150 recruits of IR 19 defended Raibl pass in the Alps. In Carniola the regiment was attached to Div. Albert Gyulai, brig. GM count Colloredo, 1868 men in total, 500 of which were sick. The regiment (now 1st and 2nd Battalion) were attached to brig. Longueville, Div. Frimont at Villach.
between Aspern and Wagram: it was with the Div. FML Jellačić, Brigade GM Kleinmayer acting as a reserve corps but being partially involved in the battles of Papa (3rd battalion under hauptmann Bartholémy, which had reached the regiment) and Raab (all three battalions and the Grenadiers in the center, Szabadhegy hills, with Jellačić). The losses were: at Papa 2 dead, many wounded and 44 prisoners; at Raab, 79 dead, 228 wounded, 171 prisoners and 216 missing. At Raab Albeck had officially the rank of colonel commander.
After Raab the regiment was reorganized in the fortress of Komorn (div. Colloredo brig. De Vaux).
at Wagram: the regiment reached the Pressburg Bridgehead in the former Defence-Corps Bianchi, Brig. De Vaux. It successively participated to the attempt to reinforce the Emperor at Wagram with the archduke’s John Corps, bur, on July 11, it withdrew to Komorn, after the imperial order to abandon Pressburg.
The Hajducken Towns and Debrecen
In 1604-1606, István Bocskay, Lord of Bihar, led an insurrection against the Habsburg Emperor, whose army had recently occupied Transylvania and begun a reign of terror. The bulk of Bocskay's army was composed of serfs who had either fled from the war and the Habsburg drive toward Catholic conversion, or been discharged from the Imperial Army. These peasants were known as the “hajduk”, a term associated in the Hungarian language with the cattle drovers of the Great Plains. As a reward for their service, Bocskay emancipated the hajduk from the jurisdiction of their lords, granted them land, and guaranteed them rights to own property and to personal freedom. The emancipated hajduk constituted a new "warrior estate" within Hungarian feudal society. Many of the settlements created at this time still bear the prefix Hajdú such as Hajdúbagos, Hajdúböszörmény, Hajdúdorog, Hajdúhadház, Hajdúnánás, Hajdúsámson, Hajdúszoboszló, Hajdúszovát, Hajdúvid etc., and the whole area is called Hajdúság (Land of the Hajduk).
DebrecenIs now the second largest city in Hungary after Budapest. The " biggest village in Europe ", as the town was still described by an English traveller at the end of the 18th century, started to assume a more urban appearance in her outlook, too. After the largest fire of her history in 1802 Debrecen rose again from its ashes with the vitality of the phoenix, the symbol bird of the town. Near Debrecen there is the famous Hungarian Puszta.
Puszta or Hortobágy ranges from the edge of the Hajdúság to the Tisza River; it is a saliferous, grassy desert of 115 km2 home of the Hungarians horses farms. Hortobágy is more renowned for its herdsmen than for its natural beauty. The herdsmen are the symbol of the 'puszta', freedom and the natural way of life.
K.K. IR 39 –FML baron Peter Duka – 3 battalions 
Recruitment: 2 Depot comp. at Debrecen in the Brig. Elsnitz (Kaschau) under Alvinczy. Staff was at Sandec (Galicia), and then at Ofen (Budapest). The regiment moved to Mistelbach (Austria) under brig, GM Federico Bianchi.
before Aspern: entered Bavaria with the V Corps archduke Louis, Division FML prince Henry XV Reuss-Plauen, Brig. GM baron Federico Bianchi. At Abensberg the brigade was sent ahead to support the battered brig. Thierry, without success. During the retreat, on April 21, the regiment acted as rearguard at Seelingthal (Landshut bridges); its 3rd Battalion was in the Detachment colonel baron Emerich de Bakonyi, regiment’s colonel commander.
On April 22 it came under the united Corps of FML Hiller. It fought at Neumarkt (made a sturdy defence together with the IR 14 Klebek), Efferding (12 dead and 20 men missing) and Ebelsberg (Brig. Bianchi) being now definitively part of the VI Corps baron Hiller, Div. FML Friedrich von Kottulinsky. During the first part of the campaign the regiment lost: 157 men dead, 244 wounded and 536 missing, mainly prisoners. Also the 3rd battalion of the Dukas gave their men to replemish the other two battered battalions (like the twin IR 60).
at Aspern: during the days preceding the battle, the regiment had a combat at Stammersdorf and lost its colonel, severely wounded in a knee.
In the battle it was in the 1st Column (VI Corps Hiller) in the Brig. Bianchi (Div. von Kottulinsky under command of GM Hohenfeld), supporting also the Avant-garde Brig. Nordmann and being part of it during the attack against Aspern (extreme right wing of the 1st column). Its two battalion lost: 48 men dead, 181 wounded, 65 missing. The regiment two battalions together now counted around 773 men only.
On May 25, FML Klenau took command of the VI Corps and Oberstlieutenant Windrich became the interim commander.
between Aspern and Wagram: on May 28 the Brig. Bianchi was detached to the Pressburg defence. On June 23 archduke John took command at Pressburg and Bianchi returned to the VI Corps. On July 4 the regiment received the 3rd battalion from Prossnitz (hauptmann Grubits). Now the regiment had 1353 men with the 1st battalion led by major Habinay and the 2nd by hauptmann Del Rio.
at Wagram: was with the VI Corps, Div. Hohenfeld, Brig. Bianchi and retreated after two days of battle. It lost 156 men dead, 263 wounded many of which deceased or were taken prisoners, 45 missing.
after Wagram: the regiment retreated through Korneuburg where it had a combat (1 dead and 33 wounded), and joined the brigade at Hollabrunn (combat of Schöngraben with 1 man dead and 12 wounded). It did not fight at Znaim and remained with only 758 men.
K.K. IR 37– FML baron Carl Philipp Weidenfeld – 3 battalions 
Recruitment: 2 Depot comp. Brig. baron Lippe in Temesvár under Alvinczy (Nagyvárad).
before Aspern: at Cracow with Brig. Pflacher, Div. Dinnersberg then again in Brig. Pflacher, Div. Mondet, VII Korps archduke Ferdinand in Poland with 2072 men. During the battle of Raszyn it acted as support unit losing 9 men prisoners and 3 missing, while its 1st battalion had 22 wounded and 4 dead. On April 23 it entered Warsaw with the Corps. GM Trautenberg had the place command.
- between Aspern and Wagram: one battalion was with the colonel Schmelzern detachment (June 5) in the probe attack at Sandomierz. It supported the combat at Gorzyce (June 12) entering the village during the afternoon. There it lost: 60 men dead, 160 wounded and 50 prisoners. The 1st battalion (Szinkovics) participated in the attack against Sandomierz (June 14) (Brig. Geringer). After the second day of the combats it lost 30 men dead, 180 wounded, 29 prisoners and 18 missing. One battalion remained at Sandomierz as garrison after the capitulation (June 16). On June 30 the regiment had 121 men detached, 1137 ill, 121 unfit and 2525 men fit to duty at the Opatów camp (Brig. Pflacher, Div. Schauroth).
- at Wagram: in July the regiment retreated through Bochnia till Kety and there got the armistice news.
Budapest (became a single city occupying both banks of the river Danube with a unification only on 17 November 1873 of right (west)-bank Buda and Óbuda with left east-bank Pest). So, in that times, there were three different towns.
Buda (German: Ofen) was the western part of the current Hungarian capital on the west bank of the Danube. The name Buda takes its name from the name of Bleda, the Hun ruler, whose name is also Buda in Hungarian. The Roman name for Buda was Aquincum (waterish - "aqua" means "water" in Latin.). Buda was declared a free royal town in 1703, and became the Hungarian capital again in 1784, after Pressburg.
Óbuda has a name which means Old Buda in Hungarian (in German, Alt-Ofen). Óbuda's centre is Fő tér (Main Square).
Pest is the eastern, mostly flat part of Budapest, comprising about two thirds of Budapest's territory. It is divided from Buda, the other part of Budapest, by the Danube River. Pest was a separate independent city, references to which appear in writings dating back to 1148. In earlier centuries there were ancient Celtic and Roman settlements there. Pest became an important economic center during 11th–13th centuries. It was destroyed in the 1241 Mongol invasion of Hungary but rebuilt once again soon thereafter.
K.K. IR 32– FZM baron Nikolaus Esterházy de Galantha – 3 battalions 
Recruitment: 2 Depot comp. Brig. Szörenyi in Pest under Alvinczy. moved from Pest to Hainburg (Austria) under brig, Carl Friedrich von Riese, Div. FML Friedrich von Kottulinsky, VI Corps archduke Louis.
before Aspern: it reached the Corps definitively assigned to the Brig. Ettinghausen Div. Jellachich, VI Corps. On April 16 the regiment marched toward Munich, where stood one battalion, whilst the other two went on the Isar banks. It did not take part to the bavarian battles and withdrew from Munich to the Salzach creek on April 24. On 29th it defended the Laufen bridge. The 2nd battalion fought at Salzburg where it lost: 15 dead, 22 wounded, 31 missing and 276 made prisoners. On May 3 two companies defended the Abtenau pass.
- between Aspern and Wagram: on May 25 the regiment was at Mautern. There the Division was engaged by the Eugène Behouarnais’ army at St.Michael and the regiment was in the first line. It lost 32 dead, 104 wounded, 1122 prisoners with Oberstlieutenant von Hirsch, 35 missing. The remnants were some companies and the 1st Battalion led by major D’Assante. They tried to defend the Leoben’s bridge but they were overcome losing again 16 men dead, 6 wounded, 406 prisoners and 16 missing. Before the Raab battle it received 400 recruits from Pest (mainly for the 2nd Battalion). It was in the Brig. Eckhardt, Div. Jellachich (Inner Austria Army), the 2nd Battalion in reserve on the Martinsberg with major Tittus, the 1st and 3rd along the Panzia creek banks. After the battle they had 21 dead, 46 wounded, 87 missing, 115 prisoners.
Then the regiment marched toward the Pressburg fortress but ...
- at Wagram: on July 5 it received orders to reach the Wagram’s battlefield. Too late to be of some support.
K.K. IR 52– FML Erzherzog Franz Carl – 3 battalions 
Recruitment: 2 Depot comp. at Pecs (Fünfkirchen), Brig. baron Carl Weidenfeld (Ofen) under Alvinczy. The Staff at Görz (Gorizia) under brig. GM Anton von Gajoli (Klagenfurt), Div. FML marquis Friedrich von Bellegarde, IX Corps (Ban Ignaz Gyulai), army of Inner Austria.
before Aspern: attached to Brig. Marziani, Div. Görupp, IX Corps. Advanced in Italy. The 1st battalion was in the Detachment Oberstlieutenant Volkmann (advance from Raibl till Venzone – April 11). The battalion lost at Venzone: 4 dead, 63 wounded, 32 prisoners and 30 missing men. Then it was sent to Osoppo in order to make a road blockade, remaining there till April 19. The 2nd battalion came from Gorizia with the Brig. GM Gavassini restoring and crossing the Isonzo bridge. The colonel commander Gyurkovich had order to form a detachment to cover the army flank; in it was the 2nd battalion. They went to Latisana on Aprl 15 (time of Sacile battle) and then drove towards north (Conegliano) in order to cut off the fremch units retreating from Sacile.
The 3rd Battalion was attached to the avant-garde of the VIII Corps, Brig. GM von Wetzel, Div. Frimont and was at Pordenone (April 14). Advanced till Porcia it took part at the Sacile engagement. The 3rd Battalion lost 20 dead, 70 wounded, 29 missing.
Detachment Gyurkovich was then sent to Venice from Treviso with the 2nd and 3rd Battalion On April 30 they attacked Marghera bridgehead (called Malghera by austrians) and seized it (burnt it) after an hard combat. The 1st battalion had left Osoppo, having sent two detachments to the Malborghet and Predil forts, and had reached the main army. On April 29-30 they fought at Soave, with the Brig. Schmidt.
After the retreat orders, the regiment was attached to the rearguard division Frimont, but the Brig. Schmidt was sent to Bassano in order to link with the troops in Tirol, while Gyurkovics was recalled at Treviso, were they had an engagement on May 5. There the regiment lost: 22 dead, 50 wounded and 97 prisoners.
The regiment reunited at the Piave with all its three battalions in the rearguard division Frimont, under GM Splényi; the 1st Battalion (Toperczer) at Vidor, the 2nd Battalion (Ogrisovich) at Ponte di Piave and the 3rd Battalion (Collenbach) at the Ponte della Priula bridge. From May 7 till 9 they fought at the Piave. The french breakthrough against the austrian Piave Cordon isolated the 1st and 2nd Battalion from the main army. The 2nd Battalion recovered to Portogruaro, while the 1st withdrew northwards through Ceneda and the Higher Piave valley. It was then attached to the Tirol’s Corps Chasteler, brig. Fenner, at Innichen (on May 15 it had only 472 men under Toperczer). The 3rd Battalion remained with the Inner Austria army in the Brig. GM Kálnássy, which formally would have had also the 2nd Battalion It withdrew from Portogruaro till Palmanova, where it met the Zach Detachment and, with it, continued till Gorizia and the Isonzo, fighting at Sagrado with its 798 men. The retreat continued till Prewald (near Postojna) were the 2nd Battalion found GM Munkácsy brigade , deploying with them behind some field fortifications.
On May 17 the 3rd Battalion was engaged at Loitsch with its Kálnássy brigade. A division of the battalion was captured in the mountains together with its chief oberstlieutenant Collenbach, in total 396 men. At the same time the 2nd Battalion was attacked at Prewald. They defended the fortification for 4 days (like a fort Alamo!) but finally they fell prisoners. On May 21 the remaining 4 companies (3rd Battalion) withdrew till Neufstadtl.
- between Aspern and Wagram: in the meanwhile Chasteler with the 1st battalion withdrew in Carniola coming from the East Tirol. On June 6 they came in Klagenfurt (Carinthia). There was a combat in which the battalion lost 5 men dead and 137 prisoners. During the following retreat towards Croatia the 1st battalion met the rests of the 3rd in the rearguard Brig. Splényi. Finally on June 15 they reached Warasdin in Croatia with the IX Corps. At the Raab batle fought the Depot division of IR 52 in the Brigade Oberst Pétschy, Division FZM Davidovich while at the Graz battle (June 26) the 3rd Battalion followed the Banus Gyulai (Div. Knezevich, Brig Kálnássy) and fought as support unit losing other 90 men. After the battle and after the advance of the French toward Wagram, the Banus returned at Graz, seizing the town on July 3. There thay had the communication of the armistice.
K.K. IR 48– FML baron Philipp Vukassovich – 3 battalions 
Recruitment: 2 Depot comp. Brig. Daniel in Ödenburg under Alvinczy. Staff with Pflacher in Komarom, under Div. Dedovich, station Bátorkész.
before Aspern: it began the campaign at Radom in the VII Corps avant-garde Brig. Anton von Mohr. On April 19 at Raszyn they were under the command of FML Schauroth. The regiment was ordered to seize the village of Falenty. It lost 24 dead, 201 wounded, 28 missing and 7 prisoners. The bravery of the Vukassovich regiment granted to the provisional commander Gabelkoven the rank of colonel. On April 21 the Brig. Mohr was sent south of Warsaw, on the left Vistula bank, at Gora. On April 25 it was attacked at Grochow (2 dead, 4 wounded and 31 prisoners). In the meanwhile the Gora’s bridgehead was lost (May 3). Brigade Mohr was directed toward Thorn. On May 15 they attacked the Thorn fortress with success. The losses were not heavy (8 dead and 58 wounded) but the Austrians lost the VII Corps General Staff Chief, colonel Brusch von Neuberg (former regiment’s commander at Caldiero in 1805). The Poles’ threat against Sandomierz forced archduke Ferdinand to retreat to rescue the Galician border. FML von Mondet was left back at Warsaw with the brigades Mohr and Civalart. In May the regiment had its new commander, Oberst baron von Rechemberg.
- between Aspern and Wagram: on June 1-2 they abandoned Warsaw. On June 9 they left Radom and were attacked, during the night, at Jedlinsko (June 9). Two days later the regiment fought again in the same location. Mondet was forced to leave Radom and detached the 1st and 2nd Battalion IR 48 at Zarnowiec, while the 3rd, led by colonel Gabelkoven, drove to Pinkow, in order to link with the Div. Schauroth. The regiment fought at Zarnowiec on July 10, losing 26 dead, 68 wounded, 28 prisoners and 58 missing. On July 13 they reached Cracow where they got in touch with the 3rd battalion, but the day after they left the city. In August they camped at Myslenice and then Wadowice, under Brig. Civalart, and there they received the ceasefire orders. There they learnt also that the Owner of the regiment, baron Josef Phillip Vukassovich had found his death at Wagram.
The Reserve Depot division (874 men under hauptmann Jacope) defended the town of Raab during the June’s battle in the FZM Davidovich Division, Brigade Oberst Pétschy. When Raab surrendered 767 men were made prisoners.Finally, in November, the regiment had his new Owner: baron Josef Simbschen.
 In Balkan folkloric tradition, the hajduk (hajduci or haiduci in the plural) is a romanticised hero figure who steals from, and leads his fighters into battle against, the Ottoman oppressors. They are comparable to the English legend of Robin Hood and his merry men, who stole from the rich (which in the case of the “hajduci” happened to be also foreign occupants) and gave to the poor, while participating in a small guerrilla war against an unjust authority. Hajdú, formerly known as Hajdúság, is the name of a historic administrative county (comitatus-vármegye) of the Kingdom of Hungary.
 German name of the twin town Buda (Óbuda). Pest-Ofen = Budapest.
 Weissenbacher, Victor: Geschichte des k. u. k. Infanterie-Regimentes Nr. 19 Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand von der Errichtung 1734 bis 1896. Wien: 1896.
 Ordered to other tasks before the beginning of the campaign.
 Mayer, Ferdinand: Geschichte des k. und k. Infanterie-Regimentes Nr. 39 gegenwärtig Großfürst Alexis von Rußland von seiner Errichtung 1756 bis Ende 1875. Wien: 1875.
 Finke, Edmund: (Geschichte des Infanterie-Regimentes Nr. 37) Wien: 18?
 Seeliger, E.: Geschichte des k. u. k. Infanterie-Regimentes Nr. 32, für immerwährende Zeiten Kaisern und Königin Maria Theresia, von seiner Errichtung 1741 bis 1900. Budapest: 1900.
 Geschichte des k. und k. 52. Linien-Infanterie-Regiments Erzherzog Franz Carl. Wien: 1871.
 GM Munkácsy brigade (under FML Zach Corps) was formed by: 800 “green” recruits, 286 men of the Neustädt Landwehr, 3rd Garrison battalion (major baron Cazan), 430 men, a Cordon company of Braunitz and another Cordon unit, 236 men, 63 artillerymen and handlanger, 15 pioneers and 25 various troopers. The 2nd Battalion IR 52 had 798 soldiers.
10] Hold, Alexander: Geschichte des k. k. 48. Linien-Infanterie-Regiments von seiner Errichtung im Jahre 1798 an.Wien: 1875. From November 1809 the regiment’s Owner will be baron Joseph Simbschen.
Placed on the Napoleon Series: January 2011
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