Military Subjects: Organization, Strategy & Tactics

The Austrian Imperial-Royal Army (Kaiserliche-Königliche Heer) 1805 – 1809:

THE AUSTRIAN IMPERIAL-ROYAL ARMY

INFANTRY

Kaiserliche-Königliche Heer 1805 – 1809

THE REGULAR INFANTRY

Ordered by Recruitment District

By Enrico Acerbi


Galicia (Ukrainian: Halychyna, Polish: Galicja, German: Galizien) is a historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine, named after Ukraіniаn city of Halych. In 1772, Galicia was the largest part of the area annexed by Austria in the First Partition of Poland. As such, the Austrian region of Poland and what was later to become Ukraine was known as the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria to underline the Hungarian claims to the country. To the first partition of Poland was added the district of New or West Galicia in 1795; but at the peace of Vienna in 1809 West Galicia and Cracow were surrendered to the grand-duchy of Warsaw, and in 1810 part of East Galicia, including Tarnopol, was made over to Russia.

However, a large portion of ethnically Polish lands to the west was also added to the province, which changed the geographical reference of the term, Galicia. Lviv (Lemberg, Lwów) served as capital of Austrian Galicia, which was dominated by the Polish aristocracy, despite the fact that the population of the eastern half of the province was mostly Ukrainian, or "Ruthenian", as they were known at the time..

Western Galicia Lesser Poland (also "Little Poland", Polish: Małopolska) is one of the historical regions of Poland. It forms the southernmost part of the country. Actually it was known as New Galicia or Western Galicia (Polish: Nowa Galicja or Galicja Zachodnia, German: West-Galizien) and was an administrative region of the Habsburg Monarchy, created after the Third Partition of Poland in 1795. In 1803 it was merged with Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, but retained some autonomy. It existed until the Austrian defeat by Napoleon in 1809, when the region was attached to the Duchy of Warsaw by the Treaty of Schönbrunn.

Circles (Districts) see map-image above (data from a 1814 gazeteer)

Galicia

Berezhany (Polish/Ruthenian :Brzeżany) - recruitment area (Kreis) Brzežany. Touched by the D’nestr the Circle was crossed by the rivers Lipa and Zlota-Lipa. It had 3 towns, 16 large villages, 324 villages, 33904 houses, 43370 dwellings and 192452 souls.

Brzeżany First written record about the town dates to 1375. First it was a normal village, which by the privilege of the prince Wladislaw Opolski (Vladyslav Opolsky). Ukrainians (or Ruthenians/Rusyns as they were called then), who comprised the most part of Berezhany population, were undergoing the the greatest social and national oppression. They were excluded from the town administration institutions, suffered the violences, they were not even allowed to liver in town center. In the end of 16th century, Berezhany numbered 413 courtyards, where 2.000 people lived.

Czernowitz (Polish/Ruthenian :Chernivtsi)- recruitment area (Kreis) Duchy of Bukowina. Bukovina or Austrian Moldavia took the name from Stephan V called the Great, prince of Moldavia, who having defeated the Poles there, forced the people to an eternal cultivation of oaks in order to remember his victory. Bukow, in the local language, meant oak. It had 3 towns, 3 large villages, 267 villages, 38890 houses, 223139 souls.

Czernowitz was at the time of the Austrian Occupation (1775) an unimportant village. It was created a town in 1786, and at the beginning of the 19th century it numbered only 5000 inhabitants. In 1777 the Porte, under whose ruleship Moldavia was, ceded Bukowina to Austria. It was incorporated with Galicia in a single province in 1786.

Czortków (Polish/Ruthenian :Chortkiv) - recruitment area (Kreis) Zalesczyki (Czortków). The old Zalesczyki district was split in two parts, where Czortków became the northern and Kolomea the southern.

First mentioned in documents dating back to 1522. Chortkiv was founded in 1522 by J. Czortkowski with the right of Magdeburg law. During the uprisings of 1648 Czortkow was one of the bases of the peasant rebels. From 1672 to 1683 the city was under Turkish rule then under Polish rule from 1699 and under Austrian rule from 1772. Until 1779. Czortkow castle was the residence of the Potocki magnates. The town declined in the second half of the 17th century, during the Polish-Turkish wars. Under Austrian rule it was the center of the Chortkiv district; later it became a county center.

Gródek – Horodok (Polish/Ruthenian :Gródek Jagielloński) - recruitment area (Kreis) Zolkiew. It was one of the northern districts and had 4 towns, 18 large villages, 264 villages, 35434 houses, 48590 dwellings and one population of 198313 inhabitants.

Horodok Already in XIII century town started to play an important role in the political and economical life of principality of Halychyna and Volyn. Horodok lied on an important trade route, connecting East and West, North and South. Town was a famous salt trade center. In XIV century it was annexed to Poland. Polish famous lord and king Vladyslav the II Yahailo lived in the town for a long time. In 1389 Horodok got the right of Magdebourg. In XV and XVI centuries town suffered destruction from Tatar troops. In 1591 Ukrainians of Horodok created a public organization that defended national rights.

Zółkiew Zhovkva (Zolkiewka)The Ukrainian for Zolkiew would be Zhovkva, the Russian Zholkva. The first mention refers to 1368 as WinnikI Untill 1556 belongs to familly WysockI After being bought by S. Zolkiewskiego it's name was change to Zolkiew in 1598. From 1620 till 1629 did belong to Danilowich fammily and from 1629 to royal familly SobieskI From 1740 was a property of Count Radziwill's family . Magdeburg Right was given in 1663. In 16th century it was a largest congregation of jewis population in Poland and Ormian in 17th . In 1772 was anexed by Austrian Empire .

Kolomea (Polish/Ruthenian :Kolomyja)- recruitment area (Kreis) Kolomea. This Circle matched the ancient Podolia (capital Zniatyn which will be the future siege of the circle) and was raised from the southern part of the former large Zaleszczyki district (see above). It was crossed by the large D’nestr river and by the Pruth at south. It had 1 main town, 7 large villages, 107 villages, 16126 houses and 19035 dwellings. It was one of the less populated: 84929 souls.

Kolomea is a very old town and is mentioned already in 1240, but the assertion that it was a Roman settlement under the name of Colonia is not proved. It was the principal town of the Polish province of Pokutia, and it suffered severely during the I5th and 16th centuries from the attacks of the Moldavians and the Tatars.

Jassel (Polish/Ruthenian :Jaslo) - recruitment area (Kreis) Jaslo. At the hungarian border, this Circle was of the smallest of Galicia. It was crossed by two main rivers, the Wisloka, at east, and the Jasiel. However an intricate web of smaller streams and channel croosed its territory. It had 5 towns, 11 large villages, 370 villages, 28523 houses and around 193857 inhabitants.

Jaslo The name derives from Old Polish common word for the "manger" or "trough [trof]" which sounded "jasło". In 1772, following the initial partition of Poland, Jasło region came under the rule of Austria. From 1780 years Lviv became the capital of Galicia and the siege of the governor. At that time Jaslo and adjacent areas were part of the Dukla Circle, which was one of the 18 new administrative units of Galicia. In 1790 Jaslo became the main administrative district and this fact positively influenced the development of the city. Jaslo at that time consisted of only 1500 inhabitants.

Lemberg (Polish/Ruthenian: Lwów/L’viv, latin Leopolis) - recruitment area (Kreis) Lemberg. A Circle of flatlands crossed by the Wereszyca rivers. It had 4 towns, 2 large villages, 148 villages, 18279 houses and 31463 dwellings with a populace of 134656 inhabitants.

Lemberg The inner town was formerly fortified, but the fortifications were transformed into pleasure grounds in 1811. L'viv was first mentioned in 1256 in connection with the fire of Kholm. but the first settlement appeared here in the 6th century. L'viv became the center of trade and commerce of the region. The city's location on the crossroads of trade routs led to its rapid economic development. It had 24000 souls in 1814.

Przemysl (Polish/Ruthenian :Peremyshl) - recruitment area (Kreis) Przemysl. A widely flat Circle, crossed by the San river. It had 5 towns, 12 large villages, 372 villages, 37008 houses, 51289 dwellings, and 210649 souls.

Przemysl Its location 12 km from the Polish-Ukrainian border-crossing Medyka, at the gateway to the Bieszczady Mountains, has directed its development strategy towards the town becoming a trade centre and an important transport junction

Reichshof (Polish/Ruthenian :Rzeszów) - recruitment area (Kreis) Rzeszów. This Circle had heavy forests in the northern part and was crossed by many rivers, of whom the most important were the San and the Wisloka. It had 4 towns, 12 large villages, 331 villages, 36804 houses and 52307 dwellings, with a population of  222669 souls.

Rzeszów A city of southeast Poland east of Crakow. Chartered in the 14th century, it passed to Austria in 1772. Its close proximity to Slovakia and Ukraine, crossings of major transportation routes leading from the north to the south and from the west to the east, made Rzeszów an important transportation hub

Saanig (Polish/Ruthenian :Sánok) - recruitment area (Kreis) Sanok. The Circle was crossed from north to south by the large river San and by the Wisloka. It had 10 towns, 10 large villages, 426 villages, 33148 houses, 51472 dwellings and 208472 souls.

Sánok was founded in 1339, and, in the same year, it obtained the Status of City. It is on the southern edge of its region, around half way between Rzeszów and Przemyśl. It is 45 km far from Jezioro Solińskie, on the river San banks and not far from its estuary.

Salzberg (Polish/Ruthenian :Bochnia) - recruitment area (Kreis) Bochnia. The smallest Circle in Galicia and one of the westernmost, Bochnia was crossed by the Vistula river (east-west) and by Raba river (north-south). It had 3 major towns, 9 large villages, 349 villages, 24219 houses, 37219 dwellings an a population of 160870 inhabitants.

Bochnia. The city of Bochnia lies 45 km east of Crakow, almost midway between Crakow and Tarnow. The city was established around 1200 CE and was closely linked to the discovery of salt deposits in the area (from which the name Salzberg : mountain of salt).

Sambir (Polish/Ruthenian :Sambor)- recruitment area (Kreis) Sambor. One of the larger Galician Circles, it was crossed (east-west) by the river Dn’estr and by the river Stry in the south. In the Circle existed 7 towns, 3 large villages and 353 villages, 49715 houses and 59896 dwellings, with a populace of 237362 souls.

Sambor It was founded in the 12th century and served as an important center of the Halich princedom. In the 13th century, the Tatars destroyed it, and in the year 1241 it was burnt down. According to the calculations, there were 3486 inhabitants in 1760. The number was smaller in the 18th century than it had been in the 16th and 17th , due to the diminution of the population in 1705 as a result of the cholera epidemic. Official statistics came in the 19th, according to which Sambor had, in 1828, 1281 houses and 8616 inhabitants.

Sandec a Circle with an irregular shape and crossed by large rivers like the Dunajec and the Poprad. This Circle had 8 towns, 5 large villages, 386 villages, 28128 houses, 42919 dwellings and 186554 inhabitants.

Neusandez (Polish/Ruthenian :Nowy Sącz) - recruitment area (Kreis) Sandec. By far the largest town of the region is Nowy Sacz (Sonch), which lies above the confluence of the Dunajec (Dunayets) and Poprad, 25 miles (40 km) west of Gorlice. Despite its name, it had already celebrated its 800th anniversary. Chartered in 1298, it passed to Austria in 1772.

Stanislau (Polish/Ruthenian :Stanisławów) - recruitment area (Kreis) Stanislau. This was a Circle with large rivers crossing: the D’nestr, the Pruth and the Bistrica. Its southern part was mountainous in the hungarian border. It had 6 towns, 18 large villages, 319 villages, 40414 houses and 52691 dwellings, with a population of 230122 inhabitants.

Stanislau Because of the large ethnic Polish population, the Polish town name, Stanislawow, was colloquially used by many people, in its shortened version of Stanislaw (pronounced Stanislav). Stanislau was founded by Stanislav Potocki (y. 1683).

Stryi (Polish/Ruthenian :Stryi) - recruitment area (Kreis) StryI The Circle, one of the largest in Galicia, is rather montainous and had 3 towns, 8 large villages, 289 villages, 30284 houses and 41551 dwellings with 171719 inhabitants.

StryI The town, on the road from Russia to Hungary, located on the Stryj riverside, falling into the Dniestr river, was settled in the valley, at the foot of East Bieszczady Mountains, part of Karpaty mountain chain.  This is the same road that was chosen by Swietoslaw, the son-in-law of the Polish King Boleslaw Chrobry, Prince of Kijev and his large family to escape from his brother.  According to old stories, here, not far from Stryj, in what is presently the large village of Siemiginow, Swietoslaw’s seven sons were killed. Stryy was first populated by Jews in the late 1500's. The first synagogue was built in 1660. After Poland was partitioned, Stryy became part of the Austrian Empire in 1772

Tarnau (Polish/Ruthenian :Tarnów) - recruitment area (Kreis) Tarnów.This Circle was mountainous in its southern part with mosly hills than mountains. It had 5 towns, 9 large villages, 461 villages, 30773 houses, 47747 dwellings and 205244 souls.

Tarnow The first recorded mention of Tarnów was in 1125. In 1264 Daniel of Galicia and Bolesław V the Chaste met in the town to establish the borders of their domains. It was granted city rights on March 7, 1330 by Władysław I the Elbow-high. It was annexed by Habsburg Austria in 1772 during the First Partition of Poland. The Diocese of Tarnów was formed in 1785.

Ternopil (Polish/Ruthenian :Tarnopol) - recruitment area (Kreis) Tarnopol. Ternopil' was founded as a fortress in 1540. Despite frequent raids by the Tatars in the 16th and 17th centuries, it developed into a trade center. In 1772 it passed to Austria, and grew in the 19th century. The town came into being around the Polish castle-fortress. The locality where the town was founded was called "arnopil" - "the black-thorn field" may be because of the Polish "tarn" (thorn).

Zolochiv (Polish/Ruthenian :Złoczów/Zolochiv) - recruitment area (Kreis) Zloczów. One of the nothern Circles of Galicia crossed by many rivers among which the main were the Bug and the StryI It had 6 towns, 19 large villages, 299 villages, 32910 houses and 45779 dwellings with 191432 souls.

Zloczów The first mention refers to the town in 1483. In 1520 the town was given the Magdeburg Right. Zloczow was mentioned as a town in the fifteenth century, but gained the status of a city in 1523. It held two trade fairs a year and a weekly market day. During the sixteenth century the town was damaged heavily by the invasions of the Tartars. The Sobieski family became the owners in 1598. A citadel was built to guard the town from enemies and invasions, and in 1649 the Cossacks captured the town. In that year there was a plague that badly injured those who survived the war. From

1687 until the end of the eighteenth century there was also an Armenian community. The town also suffered frequent fires. In 1772 when the area was annexed to Austria, Zloczow became the capital of a district, which included the large and important community of Brody. Although the city was the capital of a district, the Jewish community was under the jurisdiction of the Brody Jewish community.

Western Galicia (Little Poland)

Krakau (Polish/Ruthenian :Kraków) - recruitment area (Kreis) Crakow  city. History.Tradition assigns the foundation of Cracow to the mythical Krak, a Polish prince who is said to have built a stronghold here about A.D. 700. Its early history is, however, entirely obscure. It suffered from Tatar invasions; in 1290 it was captured by Wenceslaus II of Bohemia and was held by the Bohemians until, in 1305, the Polish king Ladislaus Lokietek recovered it from Wenceslaus III Ladislaus made it his capital, and from this time until 1764 it remained the coronation and burial place of the Polish kings, even after the royal residence had been removed by Siegmund III (1587 1632) to Warsaw. On the third partition. of Poland in 1795 Austria took possession of Cracow; but in. 1809 Napoleon wrested it from that power, and incorporated it with the duchy of Warsaw, which was placed under the rule of the king of Saxony.

The former Wojwodschaft (Voivodeship) Krakau in 1775 had 180000 souls.Crakow was a royal large city with more than 4000 houses (around 16000 inhabitants in 1775 and maybe 24000 in 1809 – 8894 inside city walls). [1]

Lublin (Polish/Ruthenian :Lublin) - recruitment area (Kreis) Lublin. The earliest, most significant settlement began in the 6th century, on a hill located in the suburb of Czwartek (in Polish Thursday, most likely in reference to the market day of the settlement). After the Third of the Partitions of Poland in 1795 Lublin was located in the Austrian empire, then since 1809 in the Duchy of Warsaw, and then since 1815 in the Congress Poland under Russian rule. The Wojwodschaft Lublin had, in 1778, around 250000 souls. Lublin town had 2623 souls (1829 houses).

Radom (Polish/Ruthenian :Radom) - recruitment area (Kreis) Radom. The original settlement dates back to 8th–9th century. It was an early mediaeval town in the valley of the Mleczna River (approximately on the location of present-day Old Town). Around the 2nd half of 10th century, it turned into a fortified town called Piotrówka. Radom was founded in 1340, and it belonged to the Sandomierz Voivodeship. Radom capital of the  Poviat (district) had, in 1778, 256 houses and 1160 inhabitants.

Sandomir (Polish/Ruthenian :Sandomierz) - recruitment area (Kreis) Kielce-Siedlec. The name of the city comes from Old Polish Sędomir, composed of Sędzi- (from the verb sądzić "to judge") and mir ("peace").After Polish lands were reunified in the 14th century, the former principality became the Sandomierz Voivodeship, incorporating large areas of southeastern Poland. At this time Sandomierz had about 3000 inhabitants and was one of the larger Polish cities. A great fire in 1757 and the First Partition of Poland in 1772, which placed Sandomierz in Austria, further reduced its status. As a result Sandomierz lost its role as an administrative capital. In 1809 the city was damaged during fighting between the forces of Austria and the Duchy of Warsaw during the Napoleonic Wars. The former Wojwodschaft (Voivodeship) Sandomirs had, in 1775, 68825 houses, and around 415000 souls. Sandomir had 2060 inhabitants in 1778 (616 houses) and was the main town of the Powiat (district).

Kielce By 1761 Kielce had more than 4,000 inhabitants. Note: Siedlec is not to be confused with the town of Siedlce, capital of Podlachia (see topmost green part of the above map) which was no a western Galician town.

The last two circles were Galician, but considered as western Galician district for military purposes.

Myslenice The westernmost of the Galician Circles surrounded by those of Bochnia and Sandec (east), Hungary (south), the Silesia (north) was one of the smallest in Galicia. It comprised 11 towns, 1 fortress, 320. villages, 35311 houses and 248720 inhabitants.

Wadowitz (Polish/Ruthenian :Wadowice) - recruitment area (Kreis) Myslenice. The first permanent settlement in the area of today's Wadowice was founded in late 10th century or early 11th century. According to a local legend, the town was founded by certain ‘Wad’ or ‘Wład’, a short form for the Slavic name of Ladislaus (Polish: ‘Władisław’).

Myslenice (German: Mischlenitz) The name of the city Myślenice goes back to the medieval male name "Myślimir. The first written records are from the years 1253-1258 in the "Code Tynieck”. There was a stronghold called "Mislimich”. It protected the trade route between Crakow and Węgry (Hungary) which ran on Myślenice. Since the first partition of Poland in 1772 Myślenice was one of Galicia and was part of Austria-Hungary . During this time the town was named Mischlenitz. Myślenice became the siege of a Circle. This happened until 1819, when Wadowice took over this function.

Zamosč (Polish/Ruthenian :Zamość)- recruitment area (Kreis) Zamość. Zamość owes its perfection to two men: Jan Zamoyski and Bernardo Morando. Nobleman Zamoyski wanted to build a private city in the middle of nowhere, and the architect Morando knew how to do it. They worked togheter for 25 years and created a masterpiece which we can still admire today. Little has changed in the general design since Zamoyski founded the city in 1580. Ambitious Zamoyski created a huge "country within the country". His lands within Poland spanned 6 400 km2 with 11 cities and over 200 villages. This was in addition to the royal estates he controlled of over 17 500 km2 with 112 cities and 612 villages.

He founded the private city of Zamość in order to circumvent royal tariffs and taxes as well as the capital for his mini-state and his managment centre. Zamoyski's lands functioned as an almost independent country - with its own army, judicature and university (Academy).

January 1809

Austrian Order of Battle in Galicia-Lodomeria

Field commander: GdK Graf Heinrich Bellegarde

Crakow Division FML Friedrich Franz prince zu Hohenzollern-Hechingen

Crakow Brigade GM count Carl Civalart

Solec - IR 50 Stain – (III battalion on 4 companies)
Sandomierz – IR 34 Davidovich -  (I and II Battalions of 6 companies; III Battalion of 4 companies; Grenadier division)
Pinczów – IR 7 Schröder – (half of III Battalion 2 companies) [2]
Neu-Slupia – IR 22 Coburg – (half of III Battalion 2 companies)

Konsk - 4th Hussars Hessen Homburg – 8 squadrons

Crakow  Brigade GM Franz Schulz von Rothbacker

Crakow  - IR 9 Czartoryski – (I and II Battalions or 6 companies; Grenadier division )
Kety - IR 57 Joseph Colloredo – (half of III Battalion or 2 companies)
Kalwarya - IR 15 Zach –  (half of III Battalion or 2 companies)
Niegardów - IR 10 Anton Mittrowsky – (half of III Battalion or 2 companies)

Crakow  Brigade GM Sebastian Solan Baron von Speth

Crakow  - IR 55 Reuss Greitz – (I and II Battalions or 6 companies; Grenadier division )
Crakow  – 5th Cuirassier Sommariva – 6 squadrons

Tarnów Division FML Ferdinand von Mondet

Tarnów Brigade GM Johann von Neustädter

Bochnia - IR 30 De Ligne – (I and II Battalions or 6 companies; Grenadier division )
Tarnów - IR 41 Kottulinsky – (I and II Battalions or 6 companies; Grenadier division )
Neusandez - IR 8 Archduke Ludwig - (half of III Battalion or 2 companies)
Mielec - IR 12 Manfredini - (half of III Battalion or 2 companies)
Krosno - IR 40 vacant Josef Mittrowsky – (half of III Battalion or 2 companies)
Dukla – IR 29 Lindenau - (half III battalion or 2 companies)
Myslenice - IR 56 Wenzel Colloredo – (half of III Battalion or 2 companies)

Rzeszów Brigade GM Baron Johann von Mohr

Lancut – IR 1 Kaiser Franz - (half III battalion or 2 companies)
Jaroslau - IR 9 Czartoryski – (III battalion on 4 companies)
Rzeszów – IR 20 Kaunitz - (half of III Battalion or 2 companies)
Jaroslau – 1st Chevaulégers Kaiser Franz – 8 squadrons
Rzeszów – 7th Cuirassiers Lothringen – 6 squadrons

Lemberg Division FML Earl Maximilian Merveldt

Lemberg Brigade GM Baron Peter von Dinnersberg

Lemberg - IR 30 De Ligne – (III battalion on 4 companies)
Lemberg - IR 63 Baillet – (III battalion on 4 companies)
Lemberg - IR 24 Strauch – (III battalion on 4 companies)
Tarnopol - IR 46 Chasteler – (III battalion on 4 companies)

Lemberg Brigade GM Gabriel (Gábor) von Hertelendy

Zamość - IR 23 Würzburg – (III battalion on 4 companies)
Lublin - IR 55 Reuss Greitz – (III battalion on 4 companies )
Konsko Wola - IR 38 Württemberg – (III battalion on 4 companies)
Siedlec – 1st Hussars Kaiser Franz – 8 squadrons

Crakow  artillery

Crakow  – 1st Artillery Regiment Schuhay – 2 companies
Crakow  – 3rd Artillery Regiment Rouvroy – 1 companies

January 1809

Austrian Resident Units in Galicia

Territorial commander (interim): FML Friedrich Karl Wilhelm Prince von Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen
Vice-commander ad Latus: FML Earl Maximilian Merveldt

Galician Territorial Division Earl Merveldt

Lemberg Brigade GM Anton Bicking von Sobinak

Lemberg - IR 30 De Ligne – (2 companies)
Lemberg - IR 63 Baillet – (2 companies)
Lemberg - IR 24 Strauch – (2 companies)
Lemberg - IR 46 Chasteler – (2 companies)
Lemberg - IR 58 Beaulieu – (2 companies)
Lemberg - IR 41 Kottulinsky – (2 companies)
Jaroslau - IR 9 Czartoryski – (2 companies)
Sambor - IR 44 Bellegarde – (2 companies)
Dukla – IR 29 Lindenau - (1 company)
Zolkiew – 12th Palatinal Hussars– 1 squadron

Crakow  Brigade GM Carl Starczynsky von Pittkau

Neusandez - IR 8 Erzherzog Ludwig – (1 company)
Tarnów - IR 12 Manfredini - (1 company)
Krosno - IR 40 vacant Josef Mittrowsky – (1 company)
Myslenice - IR 56 Wenzel Colloredo – (1 company)
Kety - IR 57 Joseph Colloredo – (1 company)
Kalwarya - IR 15 Zach –  (1 company)
Zator - IR 10 Anton Mittrowsky – (1 company)
Crakow  – 1st Chevaulégers Kaiser Franz – 1 squadron

Tarnów Brigade GM Bernhard von Grosser

Zamość - IR 23 Würzburg – (2 companies)
Zamość - IR 55 Reuss Greitz – (2 companies)
Lublin - IR 38 Württemberg – (2 companies)

Sándomierz Brigade FML Ignaz von Eggermann

Lancut – IR 1 Kaiser Franz - (1 company)
Rzeszów – IR 20 Kaunitz - (1 company)
Sándomierz – IR 7 Schröder – (1 company)
Sándomierz - IR 50 Stain – (2 companies)
Sándomierz – IR 22 Coburg – (1 company)

Total of Galician dGivision – 36 infantry companies or 7480 men – 2 cavalry squadrons or 125 men.

Galician Regiments

Ergänzungsbezirks Kom.

 

Werb-bezirk

Regular Army

No Landwehr

HQ Recruiting District

Polish - Ruthenian

Recruitment Area (Kreis)

IR

Uhlans Regiment All Circles

Wadowitz

Wadowice

Myslenice

15 - 56

 

Salzberg

Bochnia

Bochnia

12 - 57

 

Neusandez

Nowy Sącz

Sandec

20 - 1

 

Tarnau

Tarnów

Tarnów

12 - 10

 

Reichshof

Rzeszów

Rzeszów

29 - 8

 

Jassel

Jaslo

Jaslo

40 -20

 

Saanig

Sánok

Sanok

22 - 7

 

Sambir

Sambor

Sambor

44

 

Przemysl

Peremyshl

Przemysl

9

 

Stryi

Stryi

Stryi

58

 

Lemberg

Lwów

Lemberg

30

 

Gródek - Horodok

Gródek Jagielloński

Zolkiew

 

Stanislau

Stanisławów

Stanislau

58

 

Berezhany

Brzeżany

Brzežany

24

 

Kolomea

Kolomyja

Kolomea

41

 

Czortków

Chortkiv

Zalesczyki (Czortków)

 

Zolochiv

Złoczów

Zloczów

63

 

Ternopil

Tarnopol

Tarnopol

46

 

Czernowitz

Chernivtsi

Duchy of Bukowina

No units

former IR 42

Krakau

Kraków

Crakow  city

38

West Galicia

Sandomir

Sandomierz

Kielce-Siedlec

Zamosč

Zamość

Zamosč

23

Radom

Radom

Radom

50

Lublin

Lublin

Lublin

55

Numbers in bold mean a temporary area of recruitment in order to help the main District to reach the stated strength.

K.K. IR  9 – FML prince Adam Czartorisky-Sangusco - 3 battalions [3]

Recruitment: Galicia. 2 Depot companies BrigadeBicking in Lemberg, Division Meerveldt under Hohenlohe- Ingelfingen.

Galicia

Przemysl

09

Depot Kader:

Crakow, then Kaschau

 

Commander: oberst

Baron Wenzel Watlet

Baron Carl Mac Elligot

- before Aspern: it was in the BrigadeBrigade GM Johann von Neustädter, Division marquis Hannibal Sommariva, IV Corps, at Dinzlingen and at the defense of Ober-Leuchling (April 21). At Eggmühl it had its 3rd and 4th companies destroyed. The colonel commander was severely wounded and many officer fell prisoners of the enemy. The regiment withdrew towards Bohemia and (April 25) there met its 3rd battalion (major Mesemacre). Later  it was assigned to BrigadeNeustädter, Division Dedovich, IV Corps

- at Aspern: with the BrigadeNeustädter, Division Dedovich, IV Corps it marched from Raasdorf till Essling. During the march colonel Watlet was hit and fell onto the ground. Major Mesemacre took the regiment command. The losses at Aspern were: 325 men dead, 395 wounded, 228 missing.

- between Aspern and Wagram: the wounded colonel Watlet was promoted generalmajor and the command of the regiment passed to the former Oberstlieutenant Baron Carl Mac Elligot, now colonel. On June 26 the regiment was assigned to the V Corps Reuss-Plauen watching Schwarze-Laken with the autonomous BrigadeNeustädter then in div. Weissenwolf. There was attached also the 4th battalion Landwehr Seelowitz (Brünn) (major Hoffmann).

- at Wagram: it did not fight at Wagram.

- after Wagram: Brig. Neustädter, autonomous, with Corps.

Some sources [4] referred the engagement of the 3rd battalion in May, first with watching duties in the Avant-garde Brigade GM Armand von  Nordmann then in the reserve BrigadeWeissenwolf, Division Kottulinsky, VI Corps at the Ebelsberg battle. It was deployed on the Zieglhuber hill, in reserve, fact not related in the regiment’s history. For this source the battalione reached the regiment immediately before Aspern being part of the special task force (Brigade) GM comte Rudolf von Sinzendorff, detached from the Division Dedovich. Probably it was there as many other recruits’ divisions (two companies) from Moravia, Bohemia and Galicia, which were transferred, hurrying, to reinforce the battered VI Corps, under the reserve Gruppe of general Dedovich. Further research it will be welcome.

K.K. IR  23 – FM Ferdinand Kurfürst (Großherzog) von Würzburg – 3 battalions

2nd Owner: FML Baron Christoph von Lattermann

Recruitment: West Galicia-Poland. - initially  2 Depot companies BrigadeGrosser in Tárnow, Division Meerveldt under Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen. Before Aspern a reserve division remained in Galicia and defended the town of Zamosc.

Poland

West Galicia-Zamosc

23

Depot Kader:

Olmütz

 

Commander: oberst

Baron Ferdinand Sterndahl

 

- before Aspern: it was in the BrigadeAlois Liechtenstein, Division St Julien, with 2 battalions and took part to all actions in Bavaria together with the Manfredini regiment. However it was employed as reserve and so it did not fight very often. On April 25 the new raised 3rd battalion was the garrison of Braunau on river Inn.

The 3rd battalion (only 4 companies) was committed, together with many other reserve divisions and 3rd battalions (garrisons) in the special reserve corps or BrigadeSinzendorf of Division Dedovich later assigned to the VI Corps as reinforcement. At Ebelsberg it was the reserve battalion of the Brigade oberst Anton von Hammer (Division FML Reuss-Plauen, V Corps). On May 6 it returned to the BrigadeSinzendorf of Division Dedovich (VI Corps). At the same time the 1st and 2nd battalions were with Division Baron Philipp Vukassovich (Brigade GM Josef von Pfanzelter) in Bohemia. On May 17 they attacked at the Urfahr battle (Linz) being part of the FML Sommariva column.

The 3rd battalion was assigned to the II Corps (now Hohenzollern) first in the Brigade Mayer and then with GM Wied Runkel, without taking direct part at the Aspern battle.

- at Aspern: the regiment (Battalions 1 and 2) remained with the III Corps in Bohemia.
- at Wagram: the two battalions were with the BrigadeLilienberg, Division St Julien, III Corps and then (after Wagram) with the BrigadeReinhardt, Division St Julien, III Corps.

The regiment was disbanded after the war end.

K.K. IR 24 – GM-FZM Baron Gottfried Strauch – 3 battalions

Recruitment: Galicia. Depot comp: 2 BrigadeBicking in Lemberg, Division Meerveldt under Hohenlohe- Ingelfingen

Galicia

Brzezany

24

Depot Kader:

Neu Sandec - Crakow

 

Commander: oberst

Carl Titelsbach von Tigersburg

 

- before Aspern: BrigadeTrautenberg, Division Mondet, VII Corps

- between Aspern and Wagram: in campaign in Poland – Silesia. The three battalions marched with the VII Corps (Archduke Ferdinand). The regiment was at the Raszyn battle, where (Brigade GM Baron Trautenberg) it was in reserve duty at Janczewice. They were also at the clashes of Ivanisk, Obroków and Sandomierz. At Sandomierz (June 15) the regiment was with BrigadeGeringer. The struggle was very bloody and forced the Polish garrison to surrender the day after the battle.

K.K. IR 30 – FM Joseph prince De Ligne – 3 battalions

Recruitment: Galicia. Depot comp: 2 BrigadeBicking in Lemberg, Division Meerveldt under Hohenlohe- Ingelfingen. See also IR 41 for the initial organization.

Galicia

Lemberg

30

Zloczów

Depot Kader:

Sambor, Lemberg, Bochnia

 

Commander: oberst

Earl Alphons Fusco de Matanony

Johann Baptist de Meys

- before Aspern till after Wagram: BrigadeCivalart, Division Mondet, VII Corps in Polish campaign. It was at Raszyn [5] and Warsaw probably only with two battalions. At Raszyn the Civalart brigade had to force the passage towards Iwanowo, to seize the village and to breakthrough till Warsaw. See under IR 41 more details. The regiment took part also at the victorious Jedlinsko battle (June 11-12) led by colonel De Meys. They followed the retreating Poles till Koskie.

K.K. IR 38  – FML Ferdinand duke of Württemberg – 3 Battalions [6]

Recruitment: Galicia. - initially: 2 Depot companies BrigadeGrosser in Tárnow, Division Meerveldt under Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen . The Galician reserve division (2 companies) remained at Home in garrison duties and was at the Zamosc defense (May 19-20) where they were taken prisoners (losing however 17 dead and 31 wounded).

Poland

W.Galicia-Kielce-Siedlec

38

Galicia

Crakow

38

Depot Kader:

Lublin, then Brünn, Nikolsburg

 

Commander: oberst

Baron Ludwig Piret de Bihain

Emanuel de Lompret

- before Aspern: in was assigned to Brigade GM Josef von Bieber, Division St Julien, III Corps Hohenzollern. At Teugen the regiment occupied the Hausen village. Three companies took part to the attack and lost 239 (out of combat). At Eggmühl it was between the just named village and Laichling with BrigadeBieber, avant-garde Division Vukassovich, III Corps. It fought very hastily around Eggmühl and lost 658 men (dead, wounded and prisoner), while colonel Piret was taken prisoner. Later in the Brigade Josef von Mayer, div.Vukassovich, III Corps participated at the Urfahr battle.

The 3rd battalion on April 25 was committed to garrison the town of Schärding which defended losing 38 men. It was then retreated with the reinforcements of Division Dedovich, BrigadeSinzendorf, VI Corps and was present at Ebelsberg with the Brigade GM chevalier Adrian Joseph Rheinwaldt von Waldegg (V Corps). It was in reserve near the Castle and was engaged in the afternoon counterattacks losing about half of its strength (340 men out of combat). After the retreat to Vienna the 3rd battalion watched the right wing (BrigadeMesko) from Vienna till Leopoldstadt.

- at Aspern: the 3rd battalion (major Wauthier) present (?) in the Brigade GM prince Friedrich von Wied-Runkel or BrigadeMayer, Division FML Franz Weber von Treuenfels, II Corps Hohenzollern. The other two battalions remained at Freystadt with the III Corps. The third, weak, battalion was disbanded and the personnel assigned to the 1st-2nd Battalions reaching a total of 2250 men (two bns.) and a Grenadier division of 280.

- at Wagram: returned to the original BrigadeBieber, Division St Julien, III Corps and took part at the battle losing 353 men (out of combat).

- after Wagram: at Znaim in the same Brigade and without any engagement. During the autumn oberst Piret returned from the prisony and was again at the head of his troops.


K.K. IR 41 – GM-FML Baron Friedrich Kottulinsky – 3 Battalions [7]

Recruitment: Galicia. initially: 2 Depot companies BrigadeBicking in Lemberg, Division Meerveldt under Hohenlohe- Ingelfingen

Galicia

Czortzków

41

Kolomea

Depot Kader:

Tarnów

 

Commander: oberst

Martin Becker von Wallensee

oberst Franz Geyger

- before Aspern till after Wagram: according to the “Tabelle” of January 8 the regiment, its Grenadiers and the Staff were at Tarnow. It was enclosed in the Brigade Neustädter (div. Mondet in Tarnow) together with the IR 30 De Ligne one division for each IR 8 Arch. Ludwig, IR 12 Manfredini, Josef Mittrowsky IR 40, IR 29 Lindenau and IR 57 Josef Colloredo. Its third battalion was raised at Stanislau and was attached to IR 44 Bellegarde (Sambor), IR 58 Beaulieu (Lemberg), Palatinal Hussars n. 12 (Zolkiev), 1st Garrison battalion (Czernowitz) to form the Brigade Schauroth (Division Meerveldt) at Lemberg.

On March 1 the regiment had three battalions (the third on 4 companies) and 2 companies were left behind as „Reserve-Division“ of the regiment in Lemberg. It went to the Brig Civalart, with the IR 30 , DivisionMondet, VII Corps, then also in Division Schauroth. When Bellegarde took the command of the I field Corps the command in Galicia (interim) went to Prince Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen.

The VII Corps, after the crossing of the river Pilica, gathered at Odrziwol (April 13). Having reached the enemies at Raszyn, GM Civalart was sent (as the main column) across the Ruswa towards Jaworowo, with orders to occupy that village and then to march till Warsaw. However the advance was blocked and the regiment remained almost inactive (nonetheless losing 72 men missing or prisoners). On April 23 the VII Corps entered Warsaw. On May 2 the regiment moved to the Gora’s bridges and then reached Sochaczew where it camped. It was then assigned to a new avant-garde unit under its commander, Oberst von Becker, while the third battalion (major Donnhof) remained with the Corps. After the operations against Thorn the Austrians received the news of the Polish march southwards and of the approach of a Russian army. Archduke Ferdinand ordered to move towards Cracow in order to defend Galicia. The 1st and 2nd battalions (Civalart) remained in Warsaw with Mondet, while the 3rd marched to the south with the Brigade Pflacher.

On June 1 the division abandoned Warsaw and ten days later engaged the enemies at Jedlinsko, seizing the bridges and freeing the town of Radom from the enemy pressure. After a brief pursuit attempt the regiment was recalled at Rawa and Czestochau (Czestokowa) in order to organize the defense of Cracow. On June 21 the regiment took part at the deliverance of Opoczno town. Then it was deployed in the Circle of Crakow defense where it was reached (on July 12) by its 3rd battalion and by the new of the armistice.

Note: the two companies (Reserve division of Lemberg) were gathered by prince Hohenlohe at the time of the Polish advance against Sandomierz and Lemberg too. The force of this territorial defense group was, on May 24, of 3908 men and 386 cavalrymen (the various Reserve companies scattered in Galicia under the three territorial brigades Grasser, Kesslern and Bicking).

K.K. IR 44 – FML Marquis Friedrich Bellegarde – 3 battalions [8]

Recruitment: Galicia. - initially: 2 Depot companies BrigadeBicking in Lemberg, Division Meerveldt under Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen .

Galicia

Sambor

44

Depot Kader:

Olmütz, Lemberg

 

Commander: oberst

Louis Dubois de Fiennes

Johann Ogée (O’Schee)

- before Aspern: 2 Battalions with Brigade GM Baron Carl von Riese, Division FML  prince  Ludwig Hohenlohe-Wartenburg-Bartenstein IV Corps while the third battalion remained with the VII Corps. It fought at Teugen (combat of Dinzling, April 19). The 1st battalion (major Baron Reslitz) seized the village and the 2nd battalion occupied the right wing of the division, till the last houses of the above mentioned location. On April 21 the regiment moved to Laichling through Päring, and deployed in the wood between Unter and Ober Laichling. The local defense caused heavy losses. On April 22 the regiment was again engaged in the woods near Laichling, repulsing the French attacks of Davout’s troops. It had heavy losses and many were taken prisoners, reducing its strength by an half battalion. On April 23 it retreated to Ratisbon and then to Bohemia. There it was reached by the third battalion with many recruits from Moravia.

- at Aspern: it was with brig. Riese, div. Hohenlohe. The regiment was in the 5th column (Rosenberg) and marched to Baumersdorf crossin the Russbach. Their 1st and 2nd battalion had to attack the Essling left flank (the 3rd was in reserve). The combats in the woods were very hard and colonel De Fiennes ordered his 1st (major Tacco) and 3rd battalion (hauptmann Schick) to counterattack the French, clearing the woods. During these combats lost his life colonel De Fiennes.On the second day of the battle the regiment renewed the attacks against Essling. The losses of the Bellegarde were around 45 dead and 155 wounded. On May 27 colonel Ogée took the command. 

- at Wagram: with the BrigadeRiese, Division Nordmann (Avantgarde left Wing), the regiment marched to Gross Enzersdorf with orders to support the avant-garde. The 1st battalion, again under Reslitz, had orders to defend the village. Gross Enzerdorf was abandoned and the Bellegarde went back on another flanking line on the slopes in front of Markgraf-Neusiedl, from that place till Ober-Siebenbrunn. There was deployed the regiment which repulsed two French attacks. However the enemy artillery enfiladed that oblique line with terrible outcomes.[9]  Then the regiment in square formation suffered some cavalry charges and got the order of retreat.

Its rests, as those of other units, were assigned to GM Radetzky with the task to rally the troops and to lead them far from the danger.

- after Wagram: IV Corps withdrew towards Nikolsburg without utter combats.

K.K. IR 46 – FML Marquis Johann Gabriel Chasteler de Courcelles – old Tyroler Rgt. - 3 battalions

Recruitment: former Tyrol (1805) then Eastern Galicia. 2 Depot companies BrigadeBicking in Lemberg, Div Meerveldt under Hohenlohe- Ingelfingen. Staff at Pressburg.

Galicia

Tarnopol

46

Depot Kader:

Olmütz, Tarnopol

 

Commander: oberst

Carl Steyrer (Steyerer) von Edelberg

Franz Otto von Kirchberg

- before Aspern: it was, with its two battalions [10], BrigadeRiese, Division Hohenlohe Bartenstein, IV Corps. Note : the regiment was often in the same Brigade of the IR 44 Bellegarde participating at the same actions and battles (see above for details).

At Teugen, however, it had only tasks of support and the two Battalions were divided. One was with the Brigade oberst Carl Steyrer von Edelberg (their commander) together with 1 squadron of Chevaulégers n° 4 Vincent (Division Sommariva) behind the hills of Schneidhart. The 2nd was under the column commanded by von Grill (or maybe Riese, which was the former regiment’s commander, actually GM).[11] At Abensberg the 1st battalion returned in the BrigadeRiese, while the 2nd remained with Edelberg. It took part at the Laichling battle (Eggmühl) and lost in the Lüger Wald 65 dead, 243 wounded, 49 prisoners and 79 missing on April 21 ; 28 dead, 96 wounded, 126 prisoners and 68 missing on April 22. Then it withdrew in Bohemia where colonel Steyrer became a major general leaving the command to colonel Franz Otto von Kirchberg. Before Aspern it returned also in the BrigadeRiese.

The third battalion was employed in garrison duties at the bavarian border with the Brigade GM count Rudolf von Sinzendorff, and Division FML Baron Martin von Dedovich.

 - at Aspern: was in the BrigadeRiese, Division Hohenlohe Bartenstein, IV Corps only with two battalions. It took part at the attack against Essling. The losses were: 40 dead, 225 wounded, 113 prisoners and 36 missing. On May 25 the regiment officially received its 3rd battalion. [12]

- at Wagram: was in the BrigadeRiese, Division Nordmann (Avantgarde left Wing) with all three Battalions then in the “rescue” BrigadeRadetzky. They fought at Gross Enzersdorf and Neusiedel losing 278 dead, 149 wounded [13], 648 prisoners (practically the whole 3rd battalion).

- after Wagram: IV Corps withdrew towards Nikolsburg without utter combats.

K.K. IR 50   – FML-FZM Earl Leopold Stain – 3 battalions

Recruitment: Upper Austria then West Galicia and Poland. Initially: 2 Depot companies BrigadeEgermann in Sándomierz, Division Meerveldt under Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen. The reserve division remained in Galicia with the VII Corps, fighting at Sandomierz.

Poland

West Galicia-Radom

50

Depot Kader:

Radom, Sándomierz

 

Commander: oberst

Baron Franz Mauroy de Merville

Wolfgang von Urban

- before Aspern: the regiment (two battalions) entered Bavaria with the V Corps (archduke Ludwig) in the Brigade GM Josef von Mayer, Division FML  Baron Carl von Lindenau. At Teugen (April 19) and Abensberg the Stain and its Brigade were attached to the 1st Reserve (prince Liechtenstein). On April 19 arrived also the 3rd battalion (from Galicia) and took position as garrison along the Inn. The regiment fought at Eggmühl at the right wing of the Reserve corps and was definitevely separated from its original V Corps. The 3rd battalion was gathered and added to the Group count Rudolf von Sinzendorff (Division Dedovich) and watched the bavarian border. During the regiment’s retreat till Bohemia, the 3rd battalion continued the struggle with the Brigade GM chevalier Adrian Joseph Reinwaldt von Waldegg (V Corps, Reuss-Plauen) and took part at the Ebelsberg battle.

The Brigade Reinwaldt was then attached to FML Schustekh defensive system of the Danube (division or “Gruppe” under the III Corps). The 1st and 2nd battalions (BrigadeMayer) were also in Bohemia and on May 18 colonel Mauroy became general major, leaving the command to oberstlieutenant Urban.

- at Aspern: the 3rd battalion was in the Schustekh Group now under the III Corps while the regiment fought with the BrigadeMayer, Avantgarde II Corps Hohenzollern, suffering heavy losses.

- between Aspern and Wagram: the 3rd battalion was first with BrigadeBianchi (detached) later with the. BrigadeWeiss (detached) in the new GM Radetzky division, formed by the IV Corps.

- at Wagram: only the 3rd battalion, which was with the BrigadeWeiss, Division Radetzky, IV Corps

- after Wagram: same formation. On December the regiment was disbanded.

K.K. IR 55 – FZM Heinrich XIII prince Reuss Greitz – 3 battalions

Recruitment: West Galicia and Poland. 1 Depot companies BrigadeGrasser in Tarnow, Division Meerveldt under Hohenlohe- Ingelfingen

Poland

West Galicia-Lublin

55

Depot Kader:

Lublin, Turnau, Tarnów

 

Commander: oberst

Franz von Koller

Carl von Gober

- before Aspern: it was with Brigade GM Johann von Neustädter, Division Sommariva, IV Corps Rosenberg. Was in the Haupttruppe column at Teugen, and was deployed in the center of the battlefield at Abensberg. During the battle of Eggmühl it was in the left wing of Rosenberg. After the retreat in Bohemia the regiment and the BrigadeNeustädter were with the Division Dedovich, IV Corps. Its 3rd battalion was assigned to the territorial Corps Kerpen (Styria)  .

- at Aspern: always with the BrigadeNeustädter, Division Dedovich, IV Corps.

- between Aspern and Wagram: was reorganized under Division Rohan, IV Corps, whilst the 3rd battalion was still with Corps Kerpen and, later, detached to the Division Jellachich.

- at Wagram: assigned to the V Corps Reuss-Plauen in the BrigadeNeustädter, Division Weissenwolf. It got the 3rd Landwehr battalion Prerau as attachment. During all the described time it was always brigaded with regiment Czartorisky (see above for combats details).

- after Wagram: idem . Having lost its Circle of Recruitment it was disbanded at Turnau.

K.K. IR 58 – FML-FZM Baron Peter Beaulieu – 3 Battalions [14]

Recruitment: Galicia. 2 Depot companies BrigadeBicking in Lemberg, Division Meerveldt under Hohenlohe- Ingelfingen. The Reserve division in Lemberd had 564 men.

Galicia

Stanislau

58

Stryi

Depot Kader:

Przemysl, Stanislau then Lemberg

 

Commander: oberst

Peter von Fröhauf (Fröhauff)

 

- before Aspern: it came with two battalion under BrigadeSchulz, Division FML prince Henri XV Reuss-Plauen then directly under their commander Brigade Oberst Peter von Fröhauff, V Corps archduke Ludwig. The 3rd battalion came from Kalusz nad Stryi and had around 1000 soldiers. The Beaulieu fough at Landshut (21 April) in the rearguard of the Altdorf Hills. It lost few men but all baggages in the retreat. Retreating with the “Hauptkolonne” Baron Bianchi, brig. Fröhauff it was engaged at Neumarkt (April 24). It was the rear guard of the 1st column together with an artillery brigade battery. Prince Reuss-Plauen himself took the head of the regiment attacking a flank of the Bavarians. The regiment lost 16 dead, 57 wounded, and few missing. After the retreat to Linz the regiment was under BrigadeHammer, Division Reuss Plauen, V Corps. At the battle of Ebelsberg the two battalions attacked twice repulsing the French away from the Marketplatz. The battle was also the theatre of the heroic defense led by a young oberlieutenant: Peter von Pirquet. He was surnamed, by the ranks of the regiment, the “last Walloon” and got the Maria Theresia Cross (Ritter) for his energic action. Severely wounded he was found by a French grenadier, who saved his life sending him to the Linz hospital with high regard for his bravery. There the daughter of Baron Beaulieu (he had a castle near Linz) provided to transfer him in a private hospital. [15] The regiment’s losse were heavy: 65 men dead, 137 wounded almost all made prisoners. Note that many Austrian wounded were gathered under a wooden arch, waiting a transport, when a French grenade put in fire the building giving them all an horrible death.

The Beaulieu now had all its three battalions (but had a strength of a battalion: 1128 men) and was attached to the BrigadeSinzendorf of the div. Dedovich who marched to Vienna. Being impossible to defend the capital city of Austria, the regiment left the walls to reach the opposite bank of Danube. The rear guard detachment, around 25 men with all the musicians, went prisoners of the French. The 3rd battalion (hauptmann Wissiak) which was formed only by fresh recruits, was sent to Kremsier with watching tasks.

On May 18 the 1st and 2nd battalions (under brig. Hofmeister) were sent to Pressburg in order to reinforce the garrison (Brigade GM Bianchi). The regiment was not at Aspern.

In June the regiment took position at Engerau and defended the bridges of Pressburg (June 3). There the losses were: 18 dead, 24 wounded, 60 prisoners at the bridge and many other when Engerau fell. And when archduke Johann joined Pressburg (June 23) the weak regiment was assigned to the vanguard unit of FML Nordmann. The Beaulieus took position at Stadtl-Enzersdorf till Flösserhaus, engaging a rifle battle with the French in the two days preceding the Wagram battle. In those days the 3rd battalion reinforced the regiment.

- at Wagram: the 1st, the 3rd Battalions and the companies 7-8 of the 2nd battalion remained with the Brigade GM von Riese, Division Nordmann (Avant-garde of the left Wing) and then reinforced the BrigadePeter Vécsey, (Division Nordmann too). Four companies of the 2nd battalion (320 men) were attached to the 3rd Column of the Inner Austrian army (archduke Johann) in the Brigade GM Baron Bach with the IR 45 Baron de Vaux and sent to garrison Neudorf and Theben. The losses of the 1st and 3rd battalions were: 64 dead, 105 wounded, 113 prisoners.

- after Wagram: the Brigade Bach was followed by Beauharnais and engaged with violence at Stampfen (July 12). Many other men of the Beaulieu there fell prisoners (almost all 320), while few reached Olmütz where the regiment had to reorganize.

K.K. IR 63 – FML-FZM count Ludwig Baillet de Merlemont – 3 battalions [16]

Under the Imperial Act of July 20, 1807, L. 3032, the Emperor Franz stated that the regiment had to cease to be called as Archduke Joseph (since his sudden death) and that it had to get the name of its second Owner, Earl Baillet. By Decree of the army, January 16, 1808 was assigned to the regiment a Circle of recruitment in Galicia. Otherwise many Walloons were stil on duty and the regiment continued to be named as “Walloon”. Recruitment: Galicia. 2 Depot companies BrigadeBicking in Lemberg, Division Meerveldt under Hohenlohe- Ingelfingen.

Galicia

Zloczów

63

Depot Kader:

Zloczów

 

Commander: oberst

Josef Czerwinka

Caspar von Strauch

- before Aspern: on April 18 it was in reserve and did not fight at Raszyn (BrigadeTrauttenberg, Division Mondet, VII Corps). On April 23 it entered Warsaw. Then it moved north toward Gora in order to build a boats-bridge and to create a bridgehead on river Vistula. Under the command of Oberstlieutenant Strauch all three battalions began the works. Under the continuous harassments of the Poles the bridge was half mounted by May 2 and on the following day it was finished. Oberst Czerwinka took then command with his 1628 men and 3 guns and deployed in the bridgehead on the opposite (Polish) bank of the Vistula. Three Poles battalions attacked at half to 2 hrs. past midnight. The first attack was repulsed but at 2 AM came the second. The Poles arrived till the trenches but were sent back (leaving 100 prisoners). A third assault, which destroyed two guns of the bridgehead, was also repulsed. At 5 AM arrived a fourth attack which finally overrun the defenders. The losses were very heavy (around 499 dead or missing and 600 wounded, 29 officers and 1074 men were made prisoners by the Poles). The rest of the regiment (around 800 men) marched till Nowemiasto where the Poles exchanged and gave back the colonel and large part of the officers as a sign of respect and honour. On May 16 4 companies marched to Sandomierz with major De Best. The siege of the town lasted till the capitualtion of June 18. The Baillet lost 11 dead and 16 wounded.

They stood in Sandomierz for a brief time and then returned to Cracow. At the end of June the four companies formed the sole battalion of the regiment together with the remaining 2 companies come back from Nowemiasto. The regiment (battalion) marched to Olmütz and then to Teschen where stood from July 14 till August 14, when it received orders to go to Policzka. There, with new recruits and 400 men released from the prisony (for the armistice), was formed again the second battalion.

Campaign against Warsaw Duchy - OdB

K.K. VII Corps

GdK Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este

Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este 1781-1850, Son of Archduke Ferdinand Karl Anton of Austria and Princess Maria Beatrice d'Este of Modena. Field Marschall and Supreme Commander of the imperial Army in the Napolenic Wars, then Generalgouverneur of Transsylvania and Galicia.

Corps Adjutant: Oberst Graf Neipperg
Staff: 2 Staff Officers, 4 Captains, 4 Lieutenants.
Chief of General Staff: Oberst ritter von Brusch
Commander of Artillery: oberst von Gillet

Units gathered in the area Crakow, Radom and Konskie (March 1809). Total 25000 infantrymen, 5200 cavalrymen for a total of 30200. Artillery had 14 batteries and 94 guns.

Reserve Artillery (of the eight batteries only four will be at the Raszyn battle, April 19)

Heavy Battery (4 guns, 2 howitzers)
Heavy Battery (4 guns, 2 howitzers)
Heavy Battery (4 guns, 2 howitzers)
Position Battery (4 guns 6pdr, 2 howitzers 7”)
Position Battery (4 guns 6pdr, 2 howitzers 7”)
Position Battery (4 guns 12pdr, 2 howitzers 7”)
Position Battery (4 guns 12pdr, 2 howitzers 7”)
Horse Battery (4 guns 6pdr, 2 howitzers 7”)

Avant-garde Division Baron Mohr

On the Pilica river bank near Nowemiasto

K.K. 1st Hussars Kaiser Franz – 6 squadrons
VII autonomous Pioneers division (2 companies)
1st Valachian (Siebenbürger) Grenz battalion – 1 battalion
2nd Valachian (Siebenbürger) Grenz battalion – 1 battalion
K.K. IR 48 Vukassovich – 3 battalions
1 Brigade Foot artillery battery (8 3pdr guns)
Horse Battery (4 3pdr guns and 2 howitzers)

Division FML von Mondet

at Obrzywol

Brigade GM count Civalart

K.K. IR 30 De Ligne – 3 battalions
K.K. IR 41 Kottulinsky – 3 battalions
1 Brigade Foot artillery battery (8 6pdr pieces)

Brigade GM Baron Trautenberg

K.K. IR 24 Strauch – 3 battalions
K.K. IR 63 Baillet – 3 battalions
1 Brigade Foot artillery battery (8 6pdr pieces)

Brigade GM Baron von Pflacher

K.K. IR 34 Davidovich – 3 battalions
K.K. IR 37 Weidenfeld – 3 battalions
1 Brigade Foot artillery battery (8 6pdr pieces)

Cavalry Division FML Baron von Schauroth

at Obrzywol

1 horse artillery battery (4 3pdr guns and 2 howitzers)

Hussars Brigade GM Baron Geringer

K.K. 11th Hussars – Széklers – 8 squadrons
12th Palatinal Hussars – 8 squadrons

Brigade GM Baron von Speth

K.K. 7th Cuirassiers Lothringen – 6 squadrons
K.K. 5th Cuirassiers Sommariva – 6 squadrons

Troops sent near Olkusz

Autonomous Brigade GM von Branovatzky

K.K. 1st Chevaulégers Kaiser Franz – 8 squadrons
1st Székler (Siebenbürger) Grenz battalion – 1 battalion
2nd Székler (Siebenbürger) Grenz battalion – 1 battalion
1 horse artillery battery (8 6pdr guns)

Troops sent near Okuniéw (observation Corps of the right bank of the river Vistula)

Detachment major count Hoditz

K.K. 1st Hussars Kaiser Franz – 2 squadrons

On May 24

Territorial Defence Group F.M.L. Prince Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen (Lemberg)

Brigades Grasser – Kesslern - Bicking

Reserve-Divisions of 7 infantry Galician regiments, 1 division of the 1st Garrison battalion, hussars squadrons

In June:

FML Eggermanns (Cracow garrison)

3 Moravian Landwehr battalions

1st Battalion Teschen - major Förster von Felsenburg
2nd Battalion Friedeck - major Willibald Henzler von Lehnaburg
1st Battalion Troppau - Baron major Ignaz Wrbn

some Depot-companies:

IR 1 - Kaiser Franz
K.K. IR 7 –Schröder
K.K. IR 20 –Kaunitz Rietberg
K.K. IR 22 –Sachsen-Coburg

1 division Szekler-Grenz regiment

1 and half squadron Kaiser Franz Hussars

In Cracow

2nd Landwehrbattalion Jägerndorf - Baron major Ignaz Jókay
3rd Landwehrbattalion Zuckmantl - major Count Conrad Plunquet

Ruthenes

It was the name applied to those of the Little Russians who were Austrian subjects. The name is a form of the word Russian. The Ruthenians were separated from the bulk of Russians by the accident of the two feudal principalities of the old Red Russia, Halih and Volhynia, having fallen to Lithuania, which in turn was united with Poland. At the partition of Poland no one troubled about ethnological boundaries. The language is in substance like the Little Russian of the Ukraine, though it has marked differences; the most interesting dialects are those in the extreme West, which approach to Slovak and that of the Huzuli in Bukovina. Throughout Galicia the Poles formed the aristocracy, though in two-thirds of it Ruthenians formed the bulk of the population, while the middle class was Jewish or German. The Ruthenians were therefore under an alien yoke both politically and economically: in religion they mostly belonged to the Uniate Church, acknowledging the Pope but retaining their Slavonic liturgy and most of the outward forms of the Greek Church. Their intellectual centre was Lemberg (L’viv or Lwow),

The Galician Landwehr Infantry

Territorial commander Bellegarde and Wurmser. This Corps practically were never raised. Only some unit of volunteers were organized entering the campaign against the Poles and the Saxons.

The 1809 Volunteers Units of Galicia        

The Galician Volunteers battalions (Galizische Freiwillige) [17]

I Battalion Ostgalizien – major count Hussey

Raised with 4 companies, it was always in Upper Hungary without getting any contact with enemies.

- after Wagram: it was reinforced by 4 companies of fusiliers and 1 company of Jäger (Freikorps Schill).

II Battalion Westgalizien  „Erzherzog Ferdinand“– major  Adam Rétsey de Retse

Raised with 4 companies it was always in Galicia with garrison duties. It fought however aginst the Poles at Goržice and other clashes.

III battalion "Kaiserin Lodovica" – Hauptmann-major count Franz Neuhaus von St.Mauro

As above. Never in battle, it was always in Bohemia.

Arnauten Corps Bukowina [18] and Bukowinaer Freiwillige battalion

Major Chevalier Friedrich Forget de Barst

It was raised too late to fight (October) from the previous Arnauten of Bukowina and volunteers of East Galicia.

Galician Cossacks or Kosackenkorps (Österreichisches Kosakenpulk -Galizische Freikosaken

- Commander: major Baron Franz Fichtl.

In Galicia, the only volunteer cavalry unit formed was a corps of dismounted cossacks (Freikosaken-Abtheilungen zu Fuss) who wore native dress, fur or felt busby, bluejackets faced red, baggy red or blue trousers, with knife and pistols in the belt or red girdle; as there was a shortage of muskets, many carried only lances or pikes.

- Recruitment: Galicia reinforced by 3 Sqns. of the Schlesischen Freikorps Schill.

- they always acted in the VII Corps.

Schill Freikorps – major Ferdinand von Schill [19]

- Recruitment: from 2nd prussian Hussars Rgt Brandenburg, 1 prussian light infantry battalion of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

later (between Aspern and Wagram) attached to the Hussar-Uhlans cavalry (Husaren Ulanen Reitende Jäger), Infantry = some swedish-pomeranian Landwehr units, with some austrian elements.

- before Aspern: they acted in Mecklenburg – Pommern.

Schlesisches Freikorps Schill – Oberstleutnant Johann Georg  Schill

(unit different from the above) [20]

- Recruitment: Silesia and Poland

Notes:

[1] Geographisch-historische nachrichten von Westgallizen oder den neu erlangten östreichisch-polnischen provinzen, Verlag  Johann Otto, 1796.

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[2] These were the Galician companies which completed other regiments (i.e. bohemians or moravians) coming from the military districts called as “help Circles”.

[3] Sypniewski, Alfred Ritter von: Geschichte des k. u. k. Infanterie-Regimentes Feldmarschall Carl Joseph Graf Clerfayt de Croix Nr. 9. Jaroslau: 1894.

[4] Kerchnawe Hugo, Bei Linz und Ebersberg, anno Neun, Stern, Wien and Leipzig 1910.

[5] The first Battle of Raszyn was fought on April 19, 1809 between armies of the Austrian Empire and the Duchy of Warsaw. The Austrian army won and the Poles retreated to Warsaw. The Austrian army under the Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este invaded the Duchy of Warsaw in April, 1809. Polish troops under Prince Józef Antoni Poniatowski withstood the Austrian attack on Warsaw defeating them later at Radzymin and reconquered parts of former Poland including Crakow and Lemberg by beating the Austrians at near the villages of Góra and Grochów.

[6] Spiegefeld, Joseph Freiherr von: Geschichte des kaiserlich und königlichen Infanterie-Regimentes Freiherr von Molinary Nr. 38, seit seiner Errichtung 1725 - 1891.Budapest: 1892.

[7] Formanek, Jaromir: Geschichte des k. u. k. Infanterie-Regiments Nr. 41. 2nd vol. Czernowitz: 1886/87.

[8] Branko, Franz Von: Geschichte des k. k. Infanterie-Regimentes Nr. 44 Feldmarschall Erzherzog Albrecht, von seiner Errichtung 1744 bis 1875. Wien: 1875.

[9] Literarily “hook-like line” or “Hakenstellung”. I preferred this translation because it was probably a curved flanking position with a hook-like shape. This was suggested also by the Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon 1905: “Hakenstellung, Verteidigungsstellung in Hakenform mit Front nach zwei Seiten”. The flank was organized with the six battalions of regiments IR 4 Deutschmeister and IR 49 Kerpen, and with the, now weak, Nordmann’s regiments IR 58 Beaulieu, IR 44 Bellegarde and IR 46 Chasteler. The deadly bombardment of the French pieces completely disordered the flank. Large part of the 1st battalion Bellegarde was taken prisoner  and so the regiment continued only with two battalions.

[10] It began with the 1st and 2nd battalion with 6 companies of 160 men and with a raising 3rd battalion with 6 companies of 200 men. Dietrich von Hermannsthal, Friedrich, Geschichte des Tyroler Feld und Land später 46 Linien Infanterie-Regiments errichtet 1745, reduciert 1809,  Krakau: des “Czas” 1859.

[11] This is rather contradictory as many sources refer general von Grill was unfit at the time. His Brigade consisted of IR 22 prince Friedrich Josias Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld – 3 bns.; IR 8 archduke Ludwig Joseph  – 3 bns. and a Brigade battery.

[12] All orders of battle stated the regiment with only two battalions at Aspern, but it is possible the 3rd battalion could participate at the battle since its commander, major Neugebauer, was wounded at Essling.

[13] Strangely the number of wounded soldier is less than that of the dead. This is easily explained, as a general rule, since the main part of the prisoners were also wounded.

[14] Jacubenz,: Geschichte des k. u. k. Infanterie-Regiments Erzherzog Ludwig  Salvator Nr. 58., Verlag des Regiments Vienna: 1904. Sykora Joseph, Geschichte des Kaiserliche-Königliche Linien-Infanterie regiments Nr. 58 von Jahre 1757 bis 6. August 1846, Peter Piller, Lemnerg 1847.

[15] The legend of Peter Martin stopped after the Ebelsberg wounds. He retired as an awarded Capitän-leutnant but regained the army in 1814 in time to write another page of bravery in Italy. At Cesenatico (near Rimini) on April 23, 1815, in the main place of the town, Piazza Pisacane, Peter Martin Pirquet Von Kriehuber, then major, leading 264 men, attacked by surprise during the night a column of Neapolitans (1800 men of two Murat’s battalions). For that action, Pirquet was again awarded in 1818 becoming Baron with the surname “von Cesenatico”.

[16] Nobody could find a “Geschichte des 63. ...” etc. because the regiment was later renamed as K.K. 55 Infanterie-regiment. Its history is written together with the later 55 unit. Beran, Julius: Die Geschichte des k. u. k. Infanterie-Regimentes Freiherr von Merkl Nr. 55. Wien: 1899 and also Nahlik, Johann Edler von: Geschichte des kais. kön. 55. Linien-Infanterie-Regimentes Baron Bianchi, Brünn: 1863.

[17] Galician volunteers were also two unit of insurgents which fought for prince Poniatowsky. The first Uhlans volunteers squadron, raised in the Circle of Kameniecz, under Josef Dwernicki (born in Podolia) operated in East Galicia and along the D’nestr river. It crossed the Austrian border at Zawale and gathered with the Oberstlieutenant Strzynowski squadron, a Polish partisan who fought a little-war along the D’nestr banks. They did fight at Tarnopol, Wieniawka and Zaleczyki.

[18] Arnauten was a formal term which indicated muslim troops of slavic people. The word came from Arvaniten, which was the Greek name given to Albanians, as they emerged for the first time in written sources. From that term came also the Turkish Arnavutlar which in 18th Century was taken over also by European authors. Thus the German education Arnauten developed as a further synonym for Albanians. In the west the term was used frequently exclusively for the Muslim Albanians.

[19] “Ferdinand von Schill's Freikorps was never in Austrian service, although apparently several of his officers proposed exactly that to him in early May, a few days into his revolt. He opted for a northerly route, instead. There was a handful of Austrians in this Freikorps only because they had been Austrian POWs captured by the French, who then escaped and headed north during April/May. But it's literally just a handful; at most two dozen men. There were Mecklenburg troops in this Freikorps as well, somewhere between 200-400 depending upon the account, but they were the deserters and former prisoners from a Confederation regiment that had been sent to defeat Schill at Damgarten, about a week before the revolt was finally crushed, and who ended up being defeated by him, instead. The Prussian infantry in Schill's Freikorps comprised deserters from various regiments, including one whole company from the Leib-Regiment. The majority of Schill's infantry were Westphalians, and then a final levy of the local militia at Stralsund and the island of Rügen. “

Courtesy of Sam Mustafà (Napoleon Series).

[20] “The latter Schill was Ferdinand's elderly father, Johann-Georg, and his Freikorps appears to have existed primarily in his imagination. He offered himself for Austrian service only after the death of his son, and promised somewhat extravagantly to raise 2000-3000 men, but apparently recruited only a couple hundred, who were eventually disbanded without doing much of anything. He wrote to the Austrians requesting outsized quantities of munitions, money, and other things, none of which ever arrived. (Given the state of anxiety in Prussia after his son's uprising during May, I have no doubt that if Johann-Georg did manage to raise any kind of force in Silesia, it would have been squashed by Prussian forces before Napoleon would ever have had to worry about it.”

Courtesy of Sam Mustafà (Napoleon Series).

 

Placed on the Napoleon Series: August 2010

 

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