Military Subjects: Organization, Strategy & Tactics

The Austrian Imperial-Royal Army (Kaiserliche-Königliche Heer) 1805 – 1809:

THE AUSTRIAN MILITÄR GRENZE

REGULAR HUNGARIAN

and

MILITARY BORDER  REGIMENTS

"GRENZ-REGIMENTS"

1805 – 1809

By Enrico Acerbi

 


Introduction to the Military Border System [1]

After 1699 the Border of the Habsburg Empire was definitely stabilized on the rivers Sava and the Danube. A conflict between military and church authorities broke out on the issue of organization of the newly conquered regions. The bishops and Court Chamber tried to turn as many peasants as possible into serfdom, while the Generals tended to have them all in military service for the new parts of the Border. The status of the Border Guard was favoured among the population, and it was very difficult to distinguish the guardsmen from the contributors. It was done in 1703, although incompletely, so that the chaos of the disposition of population continued during whole first half of the eighteenth century, until the reforms of Maria Theresa in 1740s.

During the first half of the eighteenth century the disposition of the population, as well as the division between the paor (serfs) and military men was completely chaotic. Bandits and uprisings spread all over the area. The Border was organized no sooner than the middle of the century, when the reforms were issued by Maria Theresa. During the “War for Austrian Succession” (1741-1748) the Border troops were to be used in European battlefields, so that the standardization and unification of the Border were initiated. In 1743 the Empress dissolved the Kriegsrat in Graz, and in 1748 the maintenance of the Border was transferred to the state budget, and the administration handed over to the Hofkriegsrat. The forming of regiments was ended until 1750.19 In 1754 the reforms were rounded up with new administrative and court regulations, named Militaer-Grenz-Rechten.

The border was divided into 11 regiments. The Upper Border consisted of four: the regiments of Lika, Otocac, Ogulin and Slunj. The Banal Border was divided into two regiments: the first and the second Banal regiment. The Lower Border, i.e., the Border of Slavonia, consisted of five regiments: the regiments of Križevci, Gjurgevci, Gradiška, Brod and Petrovaradin.

Thus, in the era of Enlightened Absolutism, the process of reconstruction of the Military Border was completed and it became subordinated directly to the Court as a corpus separatum and the ruler’s instrument. Thus, the constant conflict with the estates was originated. Since the estates did not want to bear costs for the defence any longer, and the Court could not do it, the military fief for the support of the communal household was established. Thus, the fief became the basis and the main source of the communal household economic independence.

Beside the military fief, the basis of the military organization was the zadruga (joint family household) and regiment organization. [2] Some convulsions occurred when županije (comitats) were divided from the Border. That, however, brought stabilization of population and more favourable economic conditions.

To the end of the Border history (until 1873), no significant changes in the Border organization occurred. Its importance was decreasing; it was incapable to adapt to the demands of the time, both in military and economic respect. In 1787, Joseph II attempted to share the power between the military and civilian authorities in the regiments. This corresponded to his ideas about the functioning of a modern state, but after his death this experiment, as well as most of his reforms, failed. The last attempt to modernize the Border - the reforms of Archduke Karl - occurred at the beginning of the next century, in 1803, but it was also a failure. The frontiersmen supported themselves by tilling the soil, without any time spare to learn new military skills.

Military Border Territories (Militär Grenze) 1809. An year to be forgotten [3]

In 1809 every one of the 17 regiments had 2 battalions with a strength of around 2966 (among them were 44 artillerymen and 240 snipers or scharfschützen).[4] Every regiment had one Reserve (third) battalion (Kader) of 1437 men and the 13 regular Grenzregiments had also a Landwehr (or Insurrectio) battalion of 675 men (i.e. the Warasdin brigade of the Insurrectio had a strength of 10000 men). In order to avoid gaps from desertions, the Landwehr coys had to be made with 200 men (instead of the 180 men regular companies). The Reserve and Landwehr battalion were organized after the August 20, 1808 Order of the Grenze-commander in chief, archduke Louis of Austria. The third or Reserve battalions had 1171 men (six coys of 180 men) while the Landwehr (IV battalions) had 1291 men (six coys of 200).

The Szekler Hussars had 8 squadrons and the Tchaikjsten battalion had 1000 men in field. All the Grenzer’s manpower was, so, around 100.000 men.

The staff and company organization of the grenz regiments were as follows:

Regimental Staff before the 1809 French rule:

1

Oberst (Colonel)

6

Cadets

1

Oberstleutnant (Lieutenant Colonel)

9

Quartermaster sergeants

2

Major (Majors)

1

Regimental Auditor

1

Catholic Chaplain (Croatians)

1

Regimental Accountant

   

1

Regimental Adjutant

   

1

Provost

1

Regimental Surgeon

6

Assistant Surgeons

2

Battalion Adjutants

2

Senior Surgeons

6

Domestics or Servants

1

Regimental Drummer

6

Standard bearers

8

musicians

Companies (battalions):

8

Hauptleute (Captains)

18

Sergeant-majors

4

Capitanlieutenants

12

Fourierschützen (Batmen)

12

Oberlieutenants (Senior lieutenants)

24

Drummers

12

Unterlieutenants(Junior lieutenants)

144

Corporals

12

Fähnrichs (Cadets)

24

Carpenters

36

Domestics or Servants

50

Artillerists

2,160

Fusiliers (battalion)

   

2,516

Total

   

In the year of Wagram they were so distributed:

Regular Army

the 2 battalions of Grenzregiment n. 9 Petrovaradin (Peterwardein) under the III Corps.
the 2 battalions of Grenzregiment n. 12 Deutsch-Banater of Pancsova under the IV Corps.
the 2 battalions of Grenzregiment n. 13 Wallachisch-Illyrisches (Karansebes) under the IV Corps
the 2 battalions of Grenzregiment n. 7 Brod an der Sava under the V Corps
the 2 battalions of Grenzregiment n. 8 Nova Gradiska under the V Corps
the 2 battalions of Grenzregiment n. 5 Varazdin (Kreuzer) under the VI Corps
the 2 battalions of Grenzregiment n. 6 Varazdin (St.Georger) under the VI Corps
the 2 battalions of Grenzregiment n. 14 Szekler under the VII Corps in Poland.
the 2 battalions of Grenzregiment n. 15 Siebenbürgisches-Romänen (Transylvania) under the VII Corps
the 8 squadrons of the Szekler Hussars under the VII Corps
the 2 battalions of Grenzregiment n. 10 or First Banal (Glina) under the VIII corps
the 2 battalions of Grenzregiment n. 11 or second Banal (Petrinja) under the VIII Corps
the 2 battalions of Grenzregiment n. 3 Ogulin under the IX corps
the 2 battalions of Grenzregiment n. 4 Szluin under the IX Corps
the 2 battalions of Grenzregiment n. 2 Otoschatz (Otočac) under the IX Corps

GrenzCorps general Stojčević (with one sqn. of Hohenzollern Chevau-légers)

the 2 battalions of Grenzregiment n. 1 Lika

the 4 Reserve battalions of Grenzregiment n. 1-2-3-4

the 4 combined Landwehr battalion

one sqn. of Carlstädter Serezaner

120 Serezaner infantry

Note the numbers of the manpower had few differences, during the peace periods and during wartime, because the Military Border territory was considered as “always in war-alarm land”. These were the definitive 1809 numbers:

Grenz battalions

Peace time

Wartime

Wartime

Reserve Battalion

Landwehr

 

staff

manpower

staff

manpower

regiment manpower

Land duty

War duty

Manpower

Croatia and Slavonia

37

1286

16

1308

2677

1406

1439

1406

Banat

37

1286

16

1308

2677

1406

1439

1406

Transylvania

42

1130

?

1164

2387

 

775 with 50 artillery

 

Szekler Hussars

   

51

1299 (1237 horses)

 

Reserve Squadron

180 (171 horses)

 

Czajkisten

 

1289 with the  staff and 139 artillerymen

 

376 Reserve Division

316 Landes Division

RANKS IN GRENZ CROATIAN-SLAVONIAN UNITS

FRANCUSKI (French)

AUSTRIJSKI (Austrian)

HRVATSKI – POVIJESNI

(Croatian - historical)

marechal

Feldmarschall

maršal

colonel général

 

general pukovnik

général en chef

Feldzeugmeister

general armije

général de division

Feldmarschall-leutenant      

general divizije /podmaršal

général de brigade

General-major

brigadni general

adjudant commandant

 

brigadir

colonel

Obrist/Oberst

pukovnik

colonel-major

Obristleutenant/Oberstleutenant           

potpukovnik

colonel en second

   

lieutenant colonel

   

major

   

chef de bataillon

Major/Oberstwachtmeister

major, četnik

capitaine

Hauptmann

kapetan, stotnik, satnik

lieutenant

Oberleutenant

natporučnik

sous lieutenant                     

Fähnrich

potporučnik/zastavnik

adjudant major

 

časnički namjesnik

sergent major

Feldwebel                           

feldbaba, stražmeštar

sergent

Corporal

kaplar

caporal fourrier

Fourier

opskrbattalionik, končar

caporal

Gefreiter

kaplar

table courtesy of: Dr. Vladimir BRNARDIĆ (Zagreb)

Grenzer uniforms

With the “kaiserliche Entschliessung” of August 18, 1808 the former difference between Home and Field uniforms was abandoned. Difference from Home and War uniform disapperaed but still remained differences between campaign uniforms and camp uniforms. Campaign uniforms were received by the central Government without fee, while camp uniforms had to be home made, with a little compensation from the regimental cash.

In fact, earlier during the war, while going outside the Military Border, Grenzers were obliged to carry Battalion white “Montur”, which they got from the military warehouse or from military suppliers. Domestic and peacetime uniforms were brown and were worn during service in areas within the Military Border. The new regulations had eliminated differences in color between the two uniforms, so that both were brown. The only difference between them was what actually they intended for peacetime uniform: old ones or made within the home cooperatives. The color brown began to become the distinguishing hue of the Grenzers, easy to note among the white infantry. The main reason which led to the adoption of this new colour, was the depot large availability of the former old Home uniforms.

As another reason for the introduction of brown colours we must tell about the fact that were introduced, for Grenzers, in 1805, the black belts worn over the jacket. It also mentioned the fact that the soldiers in the white uniform had chiefly a great disadvantage during the reconnoissances of the enemies.

According to Article 2. of the 1808 regulations, in the robes were comprised: shako (čakov), linen camp-cap (Foragiermütze), the croat national neck tie, the black “Halsbindel” [5], two pairs of lower and upper underwear, two shirts, a white “Weste”, the dark brown military jacket (jakna) (Waffenrock – same colours for Unter and Ober officers), the work “jakna” (Kittel), an overcoat, required only in war (Mantel), tight blue pants “à la hongroise”, heavy shoes with laces (Schnürschuhe) and bag of bread. NCOs in addition of the aforementioned things had to have leather gloves and the saber (Porte d’Épée). Auditore, Rechnungsführern and Verwaltung officers had same uniforms but without shako (they wore the “Dreispitz” hat, tricorne). The selection of the Uniform magazine and the tissues quality were left to the Grenzer regiments choice. This determined a bit of confusion.

Note: with the 1807-1808 reform the Grenzer battalions had to change the old white jackets with the new brown ones, comprehensive of black shoulder belts. In 1809 few units had assumed the new ordinance uniform and among them coexisted regiments dressed in different way. Moreover the regimental facings, at least regarding some colours, had a bad impact on the new brown background. Insofar, in the following years, some regiments changed also their own historical facings. This table regards facings:

Regiment

n.

buttons

old facing

new colour

year of change

Carlstädt-Liccaner (Lika)

1

GOLD

violet

Emperor Yellow

1807-1808

Carlstädt-Otoschatzer (Otočac)

2

Silver

violet

Emperor Yellow

1807-1808

Carlstädt-Oguliner (Ogulin)

3

GOLD

Orange

Orange

1807-1808

Carlstädt-Szluiner (Szluin

4

Silver

Orange

Orange

1807-1808

Warasdiner-Kreuzer

5

GOLD

Crab

Crab

brown jacket-1814

Warasdiner-St. Georger

6

Silver

Crab

Crab

brown jacket-1811

Slavonian-Brod

7

Silver

gris-de-lin

pale red

1807-1808

Slavonian-Nowa Gradiska

8

GOLD

gris-de-lin

pale red

1807-1808

Slavonian-Peterwardein

9

GOLD

pike-grey

light pike grey

1807-1808

1st Banal - Glina

10

GOLD

carmine

crimson

1807-1808

2nd Banal - Petrinja

11

Silver

carmine

crimson

1807-1808

Deutsch-Banater

12

Silver

dark brown

light blue

1810

Wallachisch-Illyrische

13

Silver

pike-grey

light pike grey

1810

1st Szekler

14

GOLD

rose

rose

1810

2nd Szekler

15

Silver

rose

rose

1810

1st Walachische

16

GOLD

poplar green

poplar green

brown jacket-1813

2nd Walachische

17

Silver

poplar green

poplar green

brown jacket-1813

Titler (Czajkist battalion)

18

Silver

     

The 1809 Campaign

Croatians - Regiments of the Carlstädt Croatian area (Carlstädter Generalat [6])

Military Border Regiment n. 1 Licca
Lička graničarska pukovnija br. 1 - Grenzregiment n. 1 Lika (Liccaner)

Organized in 1746 – disbanded in 1873

Depot Kader HQ

Gospić (Gospich)

Commander oberst

marquis Josef Belcredi

Oberstleutnant

Andrej Ivanković von Streitenberg

Majors

Josef Rukavina von Liebstadt

 

1810 Staff

None. Under French rule.

History: Licca regiment aws formed in 1746. as the first of eleven Border Regiment of the Croatian and Slavonia territories. Since 1764 the regiment was divided into 4 battalions, each battalion had 4 company. That year changed the internal structure of the regiment (reduced the number of soldiers). The regiment then had three battalions, 2 had 6 companies (satnje), and the third (depot) 4 companies.

Facts: HQ Command of the Border Regiment was the highest military, administrative and judicial authority of the territory. Companies (Satnje) were the lowest military, territorial and command-administrative units of the regiment. A company was led and operated by a Captain (Satnik) and they have also administrative officers and clerks.

The regiment was divided into 12 companies: Zrmanja n. 1, Srb n. 2, Donji Lapac n. 3, Bruvno n. 4, Udbina n. 5, Podlapac– Zvonigrad n. 6 (Krbava), Gračac n. 7, Lovinac n. 8, Medak n. 9 (Lika), Kaniža n. 10, Smiljan n. 11, Osik n. 12. Each Company had its recruiting villages. The administrative system was based on house numbers on which they numbered soldiers, for the control of conscripts (male population of 20 - 60 years). The headquarters of the company was not a military headquarter, they were regional administrative regiments’ offices, such as forestry and land office.

The regiment was subordinated to the united General Command of Karlovač-Ban-Varaždin under a superior HQ at Karlovač / Zagreb (Agram), subordinater to the Royal Military Council in Vienna, and, from the 1848 directly to the Zagreb general Command (General Command for Croatia) and to the Ministry of War.

Baron Filip Vukasović (Vukassovich) returned to its regiment, in year 1794, becaming the commander of the Liccaner.

1809: (2 regular battalion, one Reserve or third battalion)

Recruitment District: southeastern area of the Carlstädter Generalat, the former county of Licca and Corbavia (Lika-Krbava). Reserve battalion in Dalmatia.

- Before Aspern.: 3 Batt. with the Brig. Stojchevich - Stojčević, Div. Knesevich, detached from the Inner Austria army.

The so called Grenzcorps of general Stojchevich - Stojčević was formed by the 1st and 2nd Liccaner battalions, the four Reserve battalions of the Carlstädt area (R1 to R4), four combined croatian Landwehr battalions, one squadron of mounted scouts (Seressaner or Serezaner) and 120 Serezaner infantry (with a Sqn. of Hohenzollern Chevaulégers). Around 6000 men (10000 with the Landwehr). Only 2/3 of the Landwehr was (home) armed, many without uniforms and mantles, many without shoes. With impracticable roads till April 20, they also remained without food and supplies. In that day Stojchevich - Stojčević began to march with his Grenzer (but with all the Landwehr units) and with the 7th, 8th and 9th companies of the Liccaner contingents of recruitment (Gračac).

During the night (April 26-27) they entered Dalmatia. They marched in two columns (the first led by Oguliner major Slivarich-Slivarić, the second under the Otochaner major Novich - Nović) across the Velebit against the left flank of the Marmont’s troops.

During the French counterattack at Klavibrod one Liccaner battalion (major Kapcherment) defended the bridge of that town. The two Liccaner line battalions then occupied the center of the division and defended the deployment during a French encircling attempt. On May the Liccaner people defended their villages against the pillaging attempts of the Turks, supporting the French operations.

On May 16 marmont did attack. It seemed the objective should have been the Klavibrod bridge, but it was a fake. The French drove directly towards the Kitaberg hills (Pliševica hills), where a Landwehr comp. of Licca was entrenched. The opponent column led by general Masséna broke the line forcing the Liccaner commander, colonel Rebrovich, to take the leadership, having lost the communications with Stojcevich. Rebrovich with the main column and the guns withdrew till Zrmanja, the Kitaberg detachment (captain Gerstorf) covered the main column retreat. One Liccaner comp. was cut off; captain Hrabovsly retreated inside the Bosnian territory, gathered other seven Grenzer comp. in rout along the Border and, forcing marches, reached Gospić on May 19.

In the Kitaberg clash the Grenzers lost 700 men dead or missing and 300 wounded.

May 21-22 (days of Aspern) Battle of Bilaj (Gospić) [7]

Rebrović placed most of his troops, five infantry battalions (the 2 Licca operational battalions, a Dalmatian Freikorps, 1 Otočac reserve battalion) and the artillery in the center on left bank of Lika river at the Bilaj bridge; to secure his right flank on the line Ribnik-Citluk-south of Divoselo he placed the reserve battalion, 2 Licca land detachments and local Landwehr defenders; left flank was secured at Barleta, north of the Jadova stream with nine detachments and Otočac Landwehr. Against the bulk of the Border Observation corps, protected by the unfordable Lika river, Marmont placed his skirmishers (voltigeurs) while moving the Clausel and Montrichard divisions in direction of Barleta-Ostrovica-Budak, so threatening the left flank of the Border corps and the road Gospić- Otočac, its main communication line.

Noting the French move, Rebrović moved his center across the Bilaj brigde and then, splitting it in three columns, moved forward in order to capture the surrounding hills, from which he planned to attack the French left flank. However the crossing of Lika river took a long time and Marmont had enough time to turn bache the Montrichard division in order to attack Bilaj. In an hasty combat the French seized the central hill in front of Bilaj, engaging parts of Clausel division in battle, and pushed back Austrian Grenzers across the Lika river. According to French sources, the counterattackers had around 200 dead and 800 wounded, including 3 generals, but captured around 2000 Grenzers. According to Austrians sources, the Grenzers lost 64 dead, around 500 wounded and 500 captured. In the meantime the French 8th Light Regiment (division Clausel) crossed the Jadova stream at Barleta and pushed back the weak Grenzer flank detachment, when captain Hrabovski, who was in command of the Austrian flank, managed to hold the advancing French south of Ostrovica, with the help of two Banal reserve battalions, just arrived from reserve.

On the following day, May 22, Rebrović reinforced his left flank at Ostrovica, so allowing Hrabovski to deploy 4 regular and 2-3 irregular militia battalions beside the Landwehr. At the same time Marmont moved, across the Jadova, his 5th, 23rd and 81st regiments, with all his artillery, beginning the final assault. The positions south of Ostrovica were bitterly held by Grenzers and seized till the nightfall, despite of heavy casualties. Under the cover of the darkness, the Austrian corps withdrew towards Karlovać. French entered Gospić and marched northwards through Otočac and Senj.

Battle of Bilaj (Gospić) austrian Order of Battle

1 --- two field Liccaner battalions (Lika I and Lika II) colonel Rebrović - Rebrovich

2 ---- four Reserve battalions of the Carlstädt regiments (Lika III, Ogulin III, Otočac III under major Nović, Szluin III)

3 --- other four Combined Landwehr battalions (from recruitment areas of Carlstädt - Varazdin and Ban) (Landwehr I – II – III and IV) –They had names such as Combined Carlstadter-Banal Landesbataillon etc.

4 --- 1 squadron chevaulégers Hohenzollern of the 1st Major-division Lachowsky

5 --- 1 Combined squadron of Serezaner (Eclaireurs à cheval) Rittmeister Lonçar

6 ---- 120 Serezaner infantry.

7 --- A bunch of Dalmatian volunteers. (Guides)

8 --- when the Corps was split in 2 lines in order to defend one of the Barleta bridges (on the Jadava) and the other near Ribnik (bridge on the Lika). Under the first “Treff” colonel Rebrović sent his 700 armed peasants in the mountains (milice from Liccaner and Otochaner people).

Here the corps was reinforced with 2 Reserve battalions of the Banal regiments Glina and Petrinja (III battalions), from the brig. Stojčević (Stojchevich).

- between Aspern and Wagram: 2 Batt. in the Brig. Rebrovich, Kolonne Zach, IX Corps, 1 Batt. with Brig. Stojchevich - Stojčević, detached from the Inner Austria army. Many Liccaner units were made prisoners or marched in the mountains beginning their “kleine krieg” as partisans.

In July the austrian general Peter Knezevich made a second attempt to invade Dalmatia. He advanced with the Liccaner reserve battalion, three comp. of the Liccaner Landwehr and one Serezaner Sqn. ( a total of 4200 men). The expeditionary force, which aimed for Zara (Zadar), had two lucky combats at Benkovac (July 23) and Zemonica (July 25). At Benkovac the main “conquest” of the Liccaner was the capture of 110 oxen. Then 1st Lieutenant Gobosac and captain Čorić (both Liccaner) formed two small units (Streifabteilungen) harassing the inner French lines of communication.

Military Border Regiment n. 2 Otočac
Otočka graničarska pukovnija br. 2 - Grenzregiment n. 2 Otoschatz
Organized in 1746 – disbanded in 1873

Depot Kader HQ

Otočac (Otoschatz)

Commander oberst

Josef von Soretti (Soreth)

Oberstleutnant

Josef Schmidt

Majors

chevalier Peter Vukassovich

Jacob Rukavina von Liebstadt

1810 Staff

None. Under French rule

History: like the n° 1. It was the second Border regiment formed.

Facts: the regiment was divided into 12 Companies: Kosinj n. 1, Klanac n. 2, Perušić n. 3, Bunić n. 4, Zavalje n. 5, Korenica n. 6, Vrhovine n. 7, Škare n. 8, Sinac n. 9, Otočac n. 10, Brlog n. 11, Sv. Juraj n. 12.

Organization and subordinations: same as the n. 1 Licca.

Recruitment District: upper area of the Carlstädter Generalat and part of the Coast area.

Kapitanate: Zengg, Bründl, Otocac .

1809. (2 regular battalion, one Reserve or third battalion led by major Nović). Inner Austria army.

- before Aspern: it began the campaign with 2 Batt. in the Brig. Kalnássy, Div. Wolfskehl, IX Corps – 3rd Batt. with Brig. Stojchevich, Div. Knesevich, Inner Austria army in Dalmatia, with the combined Landwehr battalion;

at Sacile, left flank, fought the detachment of colonel Gyurkovich with 3 comp. Otoschaner. The 1st and the 2nd battalion (the remaining 9 comp.) were in the vanguard of the IX Corps. On May 2 they fought at Tavernolo and Ponte di Brenta. At the Piave battle (May 8) they were in the brig. Marziani (not Gavassini), IX Corps. There the 2nd Otoschaner battalion was sent ahead in order to help the Brig. Kalnássy at bay. (For the reserve battalion see campaign in Dalmatia under rgt. n.1).

- between Aspern and Wagram: 1 battalion and 2/3 were in Carniola with Brig. Gavassini, division Zach, Corps Ignaz Gyulai und Knesevich , the III reserve battalion at the Graz battle, was employed to help the Brig. Munkácsy. At St.Leonhard they were with the Brig. Kalnássy.

The Landwehr combined battalion was always in Dalmatia.

Military Border Regiment n. 3 Ogulin
Ogulinska graničarska pukovnija br. 3 - Grenzregiment n. 3 Ogulin
Organized in 1746

Depot Kader HQ

Ogulin

Commander oberst

Ignaz Csivich von Rohr (Čivić)

Oberstleutnant

Ignaz Csivich (promoted)

Majors

Cirill Rodich

Carl Pauer von Traut

1810 Staff

None. Under French rule

History: like the n° 1. It was the third Border regiment formed.

Facts: the regiment was divided into 12 Companies: Krivi put n. 1, Brinje n. 2, Jezerane n. 3, Modruš n. 4, Oštarije n. 5, Ogulin n. 6, Drežnik n. 7, Plaški n. 8, Rakovica n. 9, Primišlje n. 10, Tounj n. 11, Dubrave n. 12.

Recruit. Dist.: Northwestern area of the Carlstädter Generalat and a small part of the Coast. Kapitanate Tersich, Thuin, Ogulin .

1809 (2 regular battalion, one Reserve or third battalion) Inner Austria army.

It began the war with the Brig. Kalnássy, Div. Görupp, IX Corps. At the battle of Fontanafredda it was with brig. Marziani, IX Corps and attacked the French on the banks of Livenza stream. The reserve battalion with Brig. Stoichevich, Div. Knesevich in Dalmatia.

During the night (April 26-27) they entered Dalmatia. They marched in two columns (the first led by Oguliner major Slivarich-Slivarić, the second under the Otochaner major Novich - Nović) across the Velebit against the left flank of the Marmont’s troops. The first attack was not successful, then the battalion followed the fate of the Corps Stojcevich (see rgt. n.1).

They advanced with the Frimont vanguard under their colonel Čivić, fording the streams Guà and Chiampo, after Vicenza. During the retreat they formed the army rearguard fighting at Olmo (May 2). On May 8 (Piave battle) they were in the brig. Gavassini and three days after they fought at San Michele. The two Ogulin comp. Modruš and Jezerane, with the regiment’s artillery, defended the fortress of Malborghetto under the Staff officers Cesar and Vučetić (and the Engineer fortess commander Hensel). Then retreated fighting at Tarvis.

- between Aspern and Wagram: the two line battalions marched with the FML Franz von Jellačić division, Brigade GM Gajoli, VIII Corps being at Raab without fights.

– they ended the war in the Brig. De Vaux, Div. Colloredo, VIII Corps.

Military Border Regiment n. 4 Szluin
Slunjska graničarska pukovnija br. 4 - Grenzregiment n. 4 Szluin
Organized in 1746 – disbanded in 1873

Depot Kader HQ

Szluin or Slunj (croatian)

Commander oberst

baron Josef Ställ von Holstein

Ferdinand von Fellner

Oberstleutnant

Gregor Miljanić (Myllianich)

Majors

Michail von Sivković

count Georg Branković

1810 Staff

None. Under French rule

History: like the n° 1. It was the fourth Border regiment raised.

Facts: the regiment was divided into 12 Companies: Slunj n. 1, Vališ selo n. 2, Krstinja br.3, Vojnić n. 4, Veljun n. 5, Krnjak n. 6, Perjasica n. 7, Barilović n. 8, Vukmanić n. 9, Švarča n. 10, Kostanjevac n. 11, .Kalje n. 12.

Recruit. Distr.: northeastern area of the Carlstädter Generalat, Kapitanate Barilovich, Stain, Sichelburg .

1809: (2 regular battalion, one Reserve or third battalion) Inner Austria army.

- before Aspern: it began with the Brig. Kalnássy, Div. Görupp, IX Corps. At Sacile they were in the vanguard Div. Frimont, Brig. Kleinmayer, IX Corps. After the retreat they fought at the Piave with heavy losses having two comp. detached in the Belluno valley. On May 9 a detachment under major Dumontet, with the two battalions, covered the brig. Kálnassy retreat. The Pojer comp. defended the Predil fortress under Engineer commander Hermann. Of this comp. it survived only a Feldwebel. Other 4 comp. were sent in Croatia to support the insurrection.

- between Aspern and Wagram: 1 Batt. was at Raab with the Brig. oberst Siegenfeld, Div. FZM Davidovich. Another battalion was with Brig. Gavassini at Graz and after that battle under the brig. Kalnássy, IX Corps at the combat of St.Leonhard. Laibach (Ljubliana) and Leoben were defended by detachments of Szluiner Landwehr (major Dumontet at Laibach). In summer and till the end of the war the two line battalions gathered under the Brig. Bianchi, detached in Preßburg (Bratislava).

Warasdiner (reg. of Varaždin counties - Croatia)

The Generalat (Generalship) of Varaždin was the first territory to experiment the reform of Prince Joseph Friedrich of Saxony-Hildburghausen. There was organized the first structural regiment and there the first uniforms were assigned to the “Grenzers”.

The first regular formations of Varaždin participated in the War of Austrian Succession (1740 -1748). They distinguished further in the battle of Chotusitz, 1742, and Kesselsdorf, 1745, and in other smaller clashes. In 1757 they also tried to imprison Friedrich II (Frederick the Great) without succeeding.

The Grenzers penetrated in his room and they looted it also bringing some flags (this fact, many years later was blamed by Adolf Hitler to Ante Pavelic, leader Ustascia, referring it as a deceitful and reprehensible action).  Historically the regiments of Varaždin were two:

Varaždinsko križevačke krajiške pješačke pukovnije br. 5

or regiment Kreuzer of Warasdin (Kreuzer or Kürüz in Hungarian it was the territory of recruitment and it made reference to the crusaders flags anti Islam).

Varaždinsko-đurđevačke krajiške pješačke pukovnije br. 5

or regiment of Gjurgevatz or St. George (Warasdiner Sankt Georger Regiment).

Such organization was actually maintained till 1809, with the exception of the period of the French Revolutionary Wars (1793 -1798). The courage and abnegation of the departments of Varaždin are evident in the awards of the regiment: gold medal in 1790 and in 1809 as well as 41 silver medals to the single formations.

Military Border Regiment n. 5 Kreuzer
Varaždinsko-križevačka graničarska pukovnija br. 5 - Grenzregiment n. 5 Varazdin (Kreuzer) [8]
Organized in 1746 – disbanded in 1871

Depot Kader HQ

Bjelovar

Commander oberst

Franz Anthony (is a surname!!) von Siegenfeld

Theodor von Russo

Oberstleutnant

count Josef Preising - Theodor von Ruszo

Majors

Theodor von Russo

Andrej Čorić (Andreas Chorich)

1810 Staff

Theodor von Russo – baron Alois Bernjaković

Oberstleutnant

Andreas Benezek

History: After the native reforms of the generalship of Varaždin in 1745 the general Hildburgshausen divided the territory in two areas of recruitment (1749) copying the structure of the old police units of Varaždin. In 1756 it took the name by its owner or Inhaber, the colonel Leylersberg, then returning to be the regiment of Varaždin. From 1769 the unit had the number 64 of the Austrian infantry order of battle and with the 1798 reform it received the official denomination of: National Border regiment n.5.

Facts: the regiment was divided into 12 Companies: 1. (satnija) Vukovje, 2. Garešnica, 3. Hercegovec, 4. Berek, 5. Ivanska, 6. Čazma, 7. Farkaševac, 8. Gudovec, 9. Križ, 10. Kloštar, 11. Mali Ivanič or Sveti Ivan, 12. Vojakovec.

Recruit. Distr.: western part of the Warasdiner Generalat, Kapitanate Kopreinitz and Creuz (Kürüz).

1809 (2 regular battalion, one Reserve or third battalion). The reserve battalion was with the Brig. Szörenyi in Pest, Div. Lippa under Alvinczy. The Landesbattalion (Landwehr) gave companies to the combined units in Dalmatia and was with Brig. Khevenhüller, Reserve Corps Zach.

- before Aspern: two line battalions were under the VI Corps FML baron Johann von Hiller early with  Brig. Provenchères, Div. Jellacich, seizing the Bavaria capital city, Munich.

From May 1 till 20, the two line battalions (Brig. Legisfeld, Div. Jellachich) defended pass Lueg near Salzburg.

- before Wagram: the gathered three battalions were in reserve with Division FML Jellacich, Brigade GM Lutz at the time of the Raab battle..


Military Border Regiment n. 6 St. Georger [9]
Varaždinsko-đurđevačka graničarska pukovnija br. 6 - Grenzregiment n.6 Varazdin (Sankt Georger)
Organized in 1749 – disbanded in 1871

Depot Kader HQ

Bjelovar

Commander oberst

Andreas von Roditzky

Oberstleutnant

Mihail von Mihaljevic (Mihalievitz)

Majors

Niclas Czaar

Mihail Mihajlović von Schlachtfeld (Michailovich)

1810 Staff

Andreas von Roditzky

Oberstleutnant

Niclas Czaar – Cirill Rodich (Oguliner)

History: after the 1745 Generalat’s reform the delegate general Hildburghausen organized, in 1749, the Varaždinsko-đurđevačka krajiška pješačka pukovnija or St. George regiment. Its first commander and Inhaber, from 1749, was the “pukovnik”, then general (General-Feld-Wachtmeister) Nicolaus Freiherr von Kengyel. In the year 1754 its owner was the general (GFWM) Sigmund Benvenuto count Petazzi, and after a couple of years, in 1756, the general Joseph Philipp count Guicciardi. With the 1769 Reform the regiment assumed the number 65 of the Austrian army. In 1798 it had the name of National Border regiment n. 6 recruiting in the areas of the Varazdin generalship, and especially in the territories of Đurđevac and Ivanić. The HQ was actually in Đurđevac till 1758 and then it was transferred to Bjelovar.

Facts: the regiment was divided into 12 Companies: Grubišno Polje n. 1, Kovačica n. 2, Severin n. 3, Rača br, 4, Đurđevac - Sv.Juraj n. 5, Pitomača n. 6, Trojstvo n. 7, Virje n. 8, Novigrad n. 9, Peteranec n. 10, Sokolovec n. 11, Kapela n. 12.

Recruit. Distr.: eastern area of the Warasdiner Generalats, Kapitanate Ivanich and St. George.

1809 (2 regular battalion, one Reserve or third battalion) the reserve battalion originally with the Brig. Szörenyi in Pest, Div. Lippa under Alvinczy.

- before Aspern: the two line battalions were with the Avantgarde Nordmann (II Wing) advancing from Ach till the river Salza. Div. Vincent, VI Corps. On April 21, at Moosburg, one battalion tried to stop the advance of Masséna. During the battle of Abensberg two companies were in the detachment of major von Scheibler, VI Corps, and the remaining units with Nordmann. During the folowing retreat (battle of Landshut) with Nordmann rearguard (left wing) remained only 4 companies, the others detached or missing. At Neumarkt they were the avant-garde (Nordmann) of the 3rd column (left wing). The same unit (again in the left wing) was also at Ebelsberg. Before Aspern the avant-garde Nordmann was part of the Div. Kottulinsky, VI Corps.

- at Aspern: they passed in the right army wing with the 1st Column FML Hiller, Brig. Nordmann, Div. Kottulinsky, VI Corps, but also acting as an independent brigade. The two battalions had no more than 544 men in total.

- at Wagram: the VI Corps was under count FZM Klenau (interim commander for FML baron Hiller) and the two line battalions in the Div. Vincent, Brig. August Vécsey.

- after Wagram: a remaining battalion was in the Brigade GM count Wallmoden-Gimborn, Div. Vincent, VI Corps at Wolframitzkirchen – not participating at the Znaim battle.

The Serežani (Seressaner)

Serežani wore folk costumes, or a kind of folk uniforms because the clothes had not officially been prescribed. However, basically there was a sort of uniformity of appearance in suits called “serežanskih way”, which differed only in details. The suits were made within home cooperatives. Material for making clothes consisted of wool, flax and hemp, mastered by women in order to obtain cloth and linen. To create “serežani” suits the Generalat gave an annual cash fund. The suits consisted of: robe or cloak, hats, shirts, vests, short jackets, belts to carry weapons, pants, socks and shoes or “nazuvaka”.[10]

Serežani wore clothes in shades of red, green, blue, white, brown and black. The mantle, or cloak was usually brown or dark red, made of homespun, and sometimes decorated with a stylized application of felt and trimmings. It consisted of a jacket with a collar and a hood, and the “zakopčavala”, laces under the throat. According to the cloak, from which the Military Border guards had been known up to that time anywhere in war, it caused them some nicknames, such as “Crvenohaljetci” or “Crveni kapucini”, red caps, which were pronounced with fear. Bag shaped hat, with an extended lateral part, was also made of red cloth or baize. Hats were sometimes wrapped in striped scarf or towel. In winter, was worn a fur with a red bag Kalpaka.

Slavonians

Slavonia (Croatian: Slavonija, Hungarian: Szlavónia, Latin: Sclavonia) is a geographical and historical region in eastern Croatia. It is a fertile agricultural and forested lowland bounded, in part, by the Drava  river in the north, the Sava river in the south, and the Danube river in the east.

The Slavonian Military Frontier or Slavonian Krajina was part of the Habsburg Military Frontier. It was formed out of territories the Habsburgs conquered from the Ottoman Empire and included southern parts of Slavonia  and Syrmia; today the area it covered is mostly in eastern Croatia, with its easternmost parts in Vojvodina, Serbia.

During history borders of Slavonian Krajina has been changed few times. Shortly after creation in the 1500s Slavonian Krajina bordered the Ottoman Empire to the east, the Kingdom of Croatia (part of the Habsburg Empire) and Croatian Krajina to the west, and the Kingdom of Hungary, also part of the Habsburg Empire, to the north. After the Treaty of Karlowitz, the expanded Slavonian Krajina bordered the Kingdom of Croatia, Croatian Military Frontier to the west, the Kingdom of Hungary to the north, the Banat Military Frontier to the east and the Ottoman province of Bosnia to the south.

Slavonski military district was one of the last areas of the Military Border, where the reorganization was implemented in regular regiments. In 1747 it was abolished the old structure of the Sava, Danube and Srijemski border and the whole area converted into three large districts with seats in Gradiska, Brod and Petrovaradin. This was the beginning of the establishing of regular regiments, which Vice Marshal von Engelshofen began in 1750. He wanted to form three regiments with two battalions of five Companies. Each regiment was supposed to count 5600 soldiers, and the entire military district was to raise 16,800 infantry men. The Slavonian Krajina was divided between three districts, named after cities in the area: Gradiška, Brod, and Petrovaradin; however, the regimental seat of the Brod regiment was in Vinkovci.

However, after the original organization it followed an utter reorganization by FML count Serbelloni, who, in 1752-1753, gave the final shape of the regiments. Each regiment had four battalions with four companies of 240 troops and two battalions of 120 elite soldiers - grenadiers. Later, in 1769, the grenadiers were replaced with the “oštrostrijelcima” (Sharpshooters).

In 1776, the rural population of the Slavonian military frontier was 177,212. The number of Roman Catholic men was 43,635 and 33,970 were Orthodox. The number of inhabitants of cities was 11,353, and that giving a total of 188,565 inhabitants.

In Brod and Gradiška regiments Catholics outnumbered the Orthodox, and in Petrovaradin regiment the Orthodox were more numerous. The 1790 population census recorded 388,000 Serbs and 325,000 Croats, while the religious structure was 52.1% Catholic and 46.8% Orthodox.

The courage and sacrifice of Slavonian Frontiersmen are witnessed by the 5 gold and 94 silver medals for bravery gained, from 1790 till 1809, by members of some units of Slavonski Generalat.

the Brooder  - Military Border regiment n. 7 Brod
Brodska krajiška pješačka pukovnija br. 7 - Grenzregiment n. 7 - Brod an der Sava

The city of Slavonski Brod, Croatia, which was an important strategic and traffic center controlling the border crossing towards Turkey and connecting main commercial trails at the time, in the period between 1715-1780 Austria built the large imperial and royal border Fortress of Brod on the Sava River, which along with the fortified baroque towns of Slavonia, namely Osijek and Stara Gradiška, belongs to the great defense system on the border towards the Turkish Empire, designed by the prince Eugene of Savoy in the first half of the 18 century.

It was constructed by peasants of the Military Border under forced labor more specifically 634 a day, who also gave 53 horse-drawn carts daily for the transport of material. The regular star-like form of the fortress was determined by the flat-country. It was built of rammed earth, bricks, wood and partially stone, and designed for the accommodation of 4.000 soldiers, mostly infantry and 150 cannons. From 1747 the new regulations of Slavonian Krajina had its eighth of the eleven Border Regiment in Croatian and Slavonia territories. Till 1764 the regiment was divided into 4 battalions, each battalion had 4 companies. That year changed the internal structure of the regiment (reduced the number of soldiers). The regiment had then three battalions, 2 had 6, and the third (depot) 4 companies. This organization was common to all Slavonian units.

Organized in 1747 – disbanded in 1873

Depot Kader HQ

Vinkovci

Commander oberst

count Hugo Eltz

Gabriel von Milletich (Miletić)

Oberstleutnant

Gabriel von Milletich (Miletić)

Majors

Jakob von Filipović (Philippovich)

Jepht. von Rasković

1810 Staff

Gabriel von Milletich (Miletić)

Oberstleutnant

Jakub von Pavlić (Paulich)

History: The first owner (Inhaber) of the regiment in 1750 was artillery General Friedrich Sigmund Gaisruck, while, from 1754 to 1765, he was replaced with artillery general Anton Ignaz-Mercy Argenteau.

Facts. The regiment was divided into 12 Companies: 1. Podvin, 2. Trnjane, 3. Garčin, 4. Andrijevci, 5. Sikirevci, 6. Babina Greda, 7. Ivankovo, 8. Cerna, 9. Vinkovci, 10. Nijemci, 11. Županja and 12. Drenovci. Each Company had its villages, for example the Vinkovačka Company n. 9 had under its command the villages of Laze, Mirkovci, old and new Jankovci Orolik, Zadar, Vinkovci and Slakovci.

Recruiting District: Kapitanate Brčka, Illok.

1809: (2 regular battalion, one Reserve or third battalion).

- in Bavaria, before Aspern: it began the campaign with the “reconnaissance” Brigade GM baron Josef Mesko de Felsö-Kubinyi (Mesko Brig.), Division FML Emmanuel von Schustekh, V Corps archduke Louis. During the Abensberg battle the two line battalions advanced with the Division FML prince Henri XV Reuss-Plauen Column, 8 companies detached under FML von Schustekh, 4 comp. with Mesko. The Schustekh Detachment had an hard battle at Kloster Rohr. At Neumarkt they (Brig. Mesko) were the 2nd avant-garde column. After the bloody battle of Ebelsberg (May 8 a third of Batt. in the Avant-garde Nordmann, VI Corps) with FML von Schustekh remained two weak comp. (142 men). They were sent with the Détachement GM von Scheibler (watching the main road Schärding – Linz)

- at Aspern: with the Avant-garde Brigade GM Armand von  Nordmann, VI Corps . At the Raab battle was present a Combined Landwehr battalions of Brod and Gradiska (detachment GM Ettingshausen).

- at Wagram: they went with the St.Georger in the Div. Vincent (VI Corps), Brig. August Vécsey.

- after Wagram: the two comp. with Brig. Wallmoden, Div. Vincent, VI Corps.

The Gradiskaner – Military Border regiment n. 8 Nova Gradiska

Gradiška krajiška pješačka pukovnija br. 8. - Grenzregiment n. 8 Nova Gradiska [11]
Organized in 1750 – disbanded in 1873

Depot Kader HQ

Gradiška

Commander oberst

Carl von Greth

Theodor Milutinovich von Milovsky (Milutinović)

Oberstleutnant

Matias Rebrović (Rebrovich)

Majors

Theodor von Pavić

Ivan Mihić (Johann Mihich)

1810 Staff

Theodor Milutinovich von Milovsky

Oberstleutnant

Josef Taza

History: the city of Nova Gradiška was founded in 1748. It had been founded because of Vojna krajina (Soldatensiedlung der Grenzgarnison Nr. 8) and was first named as Friedrichsdorf. With the army in the newly established village Friedrichsdorf did come the civilian population, especially craftsmen and merchants. Their arrival precipitated the declaration of Nova Gradiska as "free army Municipality”. Since then, its residents were not subject to more Border commitment, and had population rapidly growing . In the village there are more traders and craftsmen, and they appear and the first craft associations. First tradesmen come in Nova Gradiska were: one Meisch, immigrant from Austria, maybe the first civilian resident, with him came the baker and blacksmith named Frank Gansnek. The traders came from neighboring Cernik, who was part of the county Požega. According to some information about Nova Gradiska in 1762 the military had 39 military, 70 civil town houses and 11 "bolti" - big stores. On 1776 was performed the first census in the city: of 366 residents, 70 were craftsmen.

Reforming the defences along the Sava River FML Engleshofen formed in 1747 the Slavonia and Krajina Gradiska regiment. In 1753 the regiment was reorganized and named Gradiska Krajina Infantry Regiment, and in 1769 had the serial number 67. From an utter reform it received the serial number 8. The regiment was raised with part of the border territory along the Sava river, which belonged to the former “Kapitanat” Kobas. Regiment command initially was in Bogoševcima and later in the town of Gradiška.

Facts. The regiment was divided into 12 Companies: 1. Lipovljani, 2. Novska, 3. Rajič, 4. Čaglić, 5. Okučani, 6. Mašić, 7. Rešetari, 8. Petrovo Selo, 9. Nova Kapela, 10. Oriovac, 11. Stupnik and 12. Sibinj.

Recruit. Dist.: central area of the Sava river (Kapitanat Kobas).

1809: (2 regular battalion, one Reserve or third battalion).

- before Aspern: the two line battalion began the campaign in the Avant-garde Brigade GM count Josef Radetzky, Div. Schustekh, V Corps archduke Louis. On April 16 the Scharfschützen (sharpshooters) of the Rgt. took position among the Landshut houses. By 2 PM GM Radetzky launched his attack against the bridges, defended by the Bavarians, with a column of two Gradiskaner comp., 30 sharpshooters, 30 pioneers and a wing of hussars led by 1st Lieutenant Tkalčević. Staff captain baron Simbschen led other 4 comp. of the regiment, widening the occupation of the town of Seligenthal. Finally colonel von Greth led his 10 companies against the flank of the bavarian general Deroi and won the battle.

After the unlucky battle of Abensberg the two battalion remained with Radetzky in rearguard tasks. During the second Landshut battle they were in the 1st Rearguard Brig. Radetzky (left wing), fighting also at Neumarkt and in the retreat beyond the river Isar. At Ebelsberg they were in the rearguard under Division GM baron Carl Vincent, Brig. Radetzky, distinguishing themselves in that bloody day at Kleinmünchen and Blindenmarkt. The sharpshooter comp. of Čvetić stopped the advance of the Po and Corsican Tirailleurs at the bridge.

Before Aspern they were deployed: one battalion with Radetzky rearguard at Gaspoltshofen, Div. Schustekh; the other with Brigade GM chevalier Adrian Joseph Reinwaldt  von Waldegg at Schwanenstadt. (on May 10 at Krems bridge). They went not to Aspern and Wagram.

- after Wagram: they were reached by the third reserve battalion in the V Corps FML prince Reuss-Plauen, Div. Weissenwolff, Brig. GM count Klebelsberg, deploying behind the town of Znaim.


Serbo-Slavonians of Syrmia

The majority of the Serbian population in Croatia and Slavonia were included into the organization of the Military Border.  After the Lower Slavonia had been liberated from the Ottomans, the new parts of the Border were formed in 1701 and 1702: on the Sava, the Danube, and the Theiss-Maros military districts. [12]

The whole area between the Kupa and the Una was also re-conquered in this war. The Banal Border was enlarged and dominated by the ruler, while a great part of it was subordinated to the Bishop of Zagreb and the Kaptol. The Emperor gave land to the population to use it only for acquiring soldiers in return, with the Croatian Ban as a commander. The Croatian Council (the Sabor) took part in re-conquering the areas between the Kupa and the Una. At that time, Croatian help was needed by Vienna for the uprising in Hungary (the insurrection of Rakoczy 1703-1711), so that the Ban was appointed a commander by the Court. Since 1703 the Banal Border has been subjugated to the Hofkriegsrat (War Council) in Vienna. All the hinterland was assigned to the Hofkammer and županije (counties).

The Serbs were not assigned privileges as a political community, but as a religious one,and so their position depended on the position of the church in general. The on-coming era of enlightened absolutism meant decline of the influence of the church in favour of the state. Therefore, the legal position of the Serbs based on privileges was getting weaker. [13]

Later the "Wallachian privileges" disappeared, the frontiersmen were exposed to severe regulations, while those in the Provintial [14] were reduced to the peasant status. Within the Border the Serbs could reach higher military positions, while in the Provintial they could not participate in the “županija” political bodies.

During the First Serbian Uprising (1804-1813) the Serbs from both sides of the Border were bound together in the joint attempt to overthrow the Ottoman rule over Serbia, so that for the first time in the history of the Serbs in Habsburg Monarchy the question of their loyalty to the Emperor was set. Then (1809) came the French rule in the Balkans.

The Peterwardeiner – Military Border regiment n. 9 Petrovaradin (Peterwardein)
Petrovaradinska  krajiška pješačka pukovnija br. 9 - Grenzregiment n.9 Peterwardein [15]
Organized in 1748 – disbanded in 1873

Depot Kader HQ

Mitrovica (Petrovaradin)

Commander oberst

Ignaz von Leuthner

Oberstleutnant

baron Josef Ställ von Holstein

Majors

Maximilian Radovanović

Bernard Gollubičić (Gollubicsich)

1810 Staff

Ignaz von Leuthner - Ignaz Čivić von Rohr (Csivich)

Oberstleutnant

Vinzenz Landt

History: Petrovaradin Fortress (Hungarian: Péterváradi vár, German: Peterwardein) is a fortress near Novi Sad, Serbia. It is located in the province of Vojvodina, on the right bank of the Danube river. The cornerstone of the present-day southern part of the fortress was laid on October 18, 1692, by Charles Eugène de Croÿ. Petrovaradin Fortress has many underground tunnels as well (16 km of underground countermine system). The first larger fortifications were created with the arrival of the Romans who built the fortress (Cusum) which was a part of the fortified borders (Limes) along the Danube. The turning point in the history of the area came in 1235 when King Bela IV of Hungary brought a group of the Order of Cistercians from France. This order of monks built the monastery Belakut upon the remains of the Roman fortress of Cusum. The walls of this monastery were built between 1247 and 1252 and represent the fortifications at this site during the Middle Ages.

Syrmia - Sremska Mitrovica. After the final expulsion of Turks from Srem, Mitrovica came, under the provisions of the Peace Treaty of Pozarevac in 1718. under the Austrian rule. Until the year 1745, it formed a part of estates of the counts Colloredo and Pejačevic and afterwards it belonged to the Military Border of Srem as the seat of the headquarters of the regiment of Petrovaradin and of the Srem brigade for some time also as a free commune of the Military Border. Its Serbian population was formed for the most part of immigrants from Serbia an Bosnia  and the Catholic population consisted of Croats from the surroundings of Dubica and of Germans coming from various parts of the German Empire, firstly from the province of Hesse. When it had been proclaimed a Border community, in 1765, it opened still wider the doors to immigrants, particularly artisans and tradespeople (Aromuns); therefore its population was constantly increasing and its economy, chiefly the trade, in permanent progress.

Facts: it recruited the Satnje at: 1. Morović, 2. Adaševci, 3. Lačarak, 4. Mitrovica, 5. Hrtkovci, 6. Kupinovo, 7. Surčin, 8. Simanovci, 9. Golubinci. 10. Stara Pazova, 11. Stari Banovci and 12. Beška.

Recruit. Distr.: Lower basin of the Sava, Danube and serbian Border.

1809 (2 regular battalion, one Reserve or third battalion).

- before Aspern: they began the campaign in the III Corps Hohenzollern, Avant-garde Div. baron Philipp Vukassovich, Brigade GM prince Moritz Liechtenstein. At the battle of Teugen-Hausen only the first battalion remained with Liechtenstein at Bachel, while the 2nd battalion was with Brig. Pfanzelter under the colonel Leuthner and engaged the enemy inside the Teugen forest. The regiment gathered on the Waldspitz, while 3 comp. under major Golubovich covered the flank. At Abensberg the two line battalion still in different brigades received the central ram of the French attack and withdrew northwards. At Eggmühl they were 1 battalion and half again with Div. Vukassovich, III Corps, Brig. Moritz Liechtenstein.

After the retreat in Bohemia they were assigned to the Div. marquis Hannibal Sommariva, III Corps Kollowrath (defence of Bohemia), the 1st battalion with the detachment colonel von Leuthner, the 2nd with the detachment major Emerich Zaborsky de Zabora and fought the battle of Urfahr-Linz.  The two battalions were successively attached to the Division marquis Hannibal Sommariva, Brigade GM comte Carl Crenneville. They did not participate at Aspern and Wagram.

Territories of the Ban [16] (Croatian Supreme commander), Banal Croatia (Banal Generalät)

After the wars against the Turks there was also the necessity to organize the border (or Cordon) with the Ottoman empire and particularly the border between the Kupa and the Sava rivers, the so-called Banal Grenz (Banska). On the military model of the Slavonia, then the Croatian Ban Count Karol Batthiányi raised, in 1750, two infantry regiments drawn by the areas of  Petrinja and the Banal Border, along with a regiment of Grenzer cavalry.

The first regiment Banal was recruited west in the area of Glina, the second regiment came from the east or the areas of Petrinja and Dubička. The structure of every regiment was on four battalions with four companies (satnije) of 240 soldiers, with two more companies of 120 selected soldiers or grenadiers. After the 1769 reform, the grenadiers were replaced by the sharpshooters (Scharfschützen), every regiment counted 4080 among soldiers, noncommissioned officers and officers. The two regiments began to have the name of their owner, the Ban of Croatia, serving in their ranks, above all, officers drawn by the local nobility. They were directly placed side by side the other Croatian regiments and submitted to the command of the Croatian Council of war.  The courage of the Banal Grenzers is manifest by the award gained from 1790 till 1809: 3 gold and 12  silver medals.

The title of ban persisted in Croatia after 1527 when the country became part of the Habsburg Monarchy, and continued all the way until 1918. Between the most distinguished bans in Croatian history were the two Erdödys: Toma Erdödy, great warrior and statesman in one person, and Ivan Erdödy, whom Croatia owes much for protecting her rights against the Hungarian nobility, his mostly known words in Latin are “Regnum regno non praescribit leges”, “a kingdom may not impose laws to a(nother) kingdom”.

The Croatian Ban of the napoleonic Era were Franjo Balassa de Gyarmat            1785–1790, count Ivan Erdödy 1790 - March 30, 1806, FML Ignaz Gyulai von Máros-Nemethy und Nádaska 1806–1831, commander of the IX Corps in 1809.

The Banal Border was always very vulnerable. Areas of Glina and Petrinja were ruled mainly by the Catholic Church and the military skills were poor. Who decided to do the soldier (defenders against Turks) had some privileges, but the social texture was various. For example a misunderstandings about the status of Petrinja lasted until 1753. The “Petrinjski” soldiers since 1689 enjoyed of the bishop's possessions along Mošćenice stream, and of the estates received from the Bishop of Zagreb, who gave them as own and for which  they were not obliged to pay any tax. Furthermore, the paid German army was dissolved in Petrinja and remained only lightly armed and poorly trained unpaid soldiers, the Border (Krajina) Guards, which would have not been able to successfully remove a stronger enemy like Turks.

In 1753 Petrinja was committed for the “Banska Krajina” when they began to build the Petrinja fortress and forming the settlements of Petrinja and Glina. Starting from the first house built outside the fort, soon Petrinja has five hundred Catholic houses. In 1765 Petrinja was proclaimed a military district and its magistrates left the place to the military officers.

Banal Military Border Regiment n. 10 or First Banal of Glina [17]
Prva banska krajiška pješačka pukovnija br. 10 – Banal Grenzregiment n. 1 (Banalisten) - Owner: Banus FML Ignaz Gyulai von Maros Németh.

Organized in 1745 – disbanded in 1873

Depot Kader HQ

Glina

Commander oberst

Markus von Boxich (Božić)

baron Alois von Bernjaković

Oberstleutnant

baron Alois von Bernjaković

Majors

Franz Einkhemer

Mihail von Ljubibratić (Liubibratich)

1810 Staff

None. Under French rule

History: 1st regiment born in 1749, but it was officially recognized only in the 1750. The Croatian Ban, of the time, count Karol Batthiányi, organized it in the territories of Banal border. In the reforms of the Austrian army of 1769 the regiment had the number 69, and in the 1798 following reform it got the new denomination of "Regiment of infantry of the National Military Border" with the new number 10. After 1809, when Austria surrendered at Schönbrunn, the 1st regiment Banal Grenz was given by the Austrians to the service of France.

Facts: it recruited the Satnje at: 1. Čemernica , 2. Vranovina , 3. Glina, 4. Maja , 5. Klasnić, 6. Maligradec , 7. Kraljevčane , 8. Gora, 9. Stankovac , 10. Bović , 11. Lasinja e 12. Vrginmost.

Recruit.Dist.: Banal territory (southern part) (Kapitanat Glina)

1809 (2 regular battalion, one Reserve or third battalion). Reservedivision : with Stojčević, in Dalmatia, detached from the Inner Austria army, with the Landwehr (combined Carlstädter-Varasdiner-Banal Landesbataillon). The III reserve battalion was at the battle of Gospić.

The two line battalions entered the campaign with VIII Corps (marquis Chasteler) then Albert Gyulai, with the 2nd Division FML Frimont, Brig. GM von Wetzel. The II battalion under the colonel von Božić fought at Pordenone - Rorai Grande. At Sacile 10 comp. of the avant-garde von Wetzel were the vanguard of the VIII corps, while 2 comp. were sent along the Tolmezzo road. After the retreat they were at the Piave battle with Brig. GM Gajoli, Div. and VIII Corps Albert Gyulai.

- between Aspern and Wagram: the 1st battalion was at Raab with Div. FML Franz Jellačić, Brigade GM Sebottendorf.

- at Wagram: in reserve with the Division FML Jellacich, Brigade GM Lutz, was major Benjaković with a combined (remnants) Banal battalion (Glina) and the 2nd Banal (Petrinja) led by major Vasquez.

Banal Military Border Regiment n. 11 or Second Banal of Petrinja
Druga banska krajiška pješačka pukovnija br. 11 – Banal Grenzregiment n. 2 (Banalisten) [18]
Owner: Banus FML Ignaz Gyulai von Maros Németh.
Organized in 1745 – disbanded in 1873

Depot Kader HQ

Petrinja

Commander oberst

marquis Vincenz (Vicente) Vasquez

Oberstleutnant

Jakub von Pavlić – Tomas Rukavina

Majors

Maximilian von Wnorowsky

Josef Gramatica

1810 Staff

None. Under French rule.

History: as previous one

Facts: its companies were recruited at: 1. Rujevac, 2. Dvor, 3. Divuš - Zrin, 4. Umetić - Mecenčanim, 5. Jabukovac, 6. Petrinja - Siska, 7. Graduš, 8. Drljače - Sunj, 9. Staz - Hrastovac, 10. Majura - Kostajnica, 11. Dubica e 12. Jasenovac.

Recruit.Dist.: Banal territory (nothern and western part) (Kapitanat Petrinja)

1809 (2 regular battalion, one Reserve or third battalion). Reservedivision : with Stojčević, in Dalmatia, detached from the Inner Austria army, with the Landwehr (combined Carlstädter-Varasdiner-Banal Landesbataillon). The III reserve battalion was at the battle of Gospić.

The two line battalions entered the campaign with VIII Corps (marquis Chasteler) then Albert Gyulai, with the 2nd Division FML Frimont, Brig. GM. Freiherr von Schmiedt. On April 11 one battalion fought at Venzone. At Pordenone they were in the right wing of the VIII Corps in the Brig. GM Gajoli (but in effects they were still part of the first column GM Schmiedt, while the third column GM von Wetzel had 4 comp. of Banalisten. Gajoli took the command of one battalion only during the Porzia’s attack, battle of Sacile). At Sacile one battalion was in the detachment of Oberstlieutenant Volkmann (cover and support of the right army flank). The 1st battalion fought at Ronche. At the end of the battleday Gajoli and Volkmann reunited the regiment marching to Sacile.

After the retreat the two battalions (Brig. Schmiedt) covered the left flank. On May 4 near Bassano they were attacked and repulsed, being later sent to the Tirol’s units. 1 battalion was with the Brigade GM baron Franz Philipp Fenner von Fenneberg, 4 comp. with Brigade GM baron Peter Ignaz Marschal von Perclat.

- between Aspern and Wagram: also with the Brig. Buol, detached from Corps Chasteler. after ending the campaign with Brig. Bianchi, Div. Frimont . At the Graz clash the main Corps (left Mur bank) FML Gyulai - FML Knezevich comprised the Brigade Munkácsy with the III battalion reserve Banal and the Landwehr battalion provincial Banal.

- at Wagram: in reserve with the Division FML Jellacich, Brigade GM Lutz, the 2nd Banal (Petrinja) led by major Vasquez. Some sources refer the two battalions, which had been at Graz, with the Brig. De Best, Div. Jellachich, Inner Austria army (rearguard). Later were with theBrig. Pásztory, Inner Austria army.

Banat (one German - one Romanian)

The term "banat" or "banate" designated a frontier province led by a military governor or ban. In the 17th century, parts of the Banat were incorporated into the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria. In 1716, Prince Eugene of Savoy took the last parts of the Banat from the Ottomans. It received the title of the Banat of Temeswar after the Treaty of Passarowitz (1718), and remained a separate province in the Habsburg Monarchy under military administration until 1751, when Empress Maria Theresa of Austria introduced a civil administration. The Banat of Temeswar province was abolished in 1778. The southern part of the Banat region remained within the Military Frontier (Banat Krajina) until the Frontier was abolished in 1871.

Maria Theresa also took a great interest in the Banat; she colonized the region with large numbers of German peasants, encouraged the exploitation of the mineral wealth of the country, and generally developed the measures introduced by Mercy d’Argenteau. German settlers arrived from Swabia, Alsace and Bavaria, as well as people from Austria. Many settlements in the eastern Banat thus were mostly German-inhabited. The ethnic Germans in the Banat region became known as the Danube Swabians, or Donauschwaben. Some of them, coming from French-speaking or linguistically mixed communes in Lorraine, maintained the French language for several generations, and developed a specific ethnic identity, later labelled as Banat French, Français du Banat. Hungarians were not allowed to settle in the Banat during this colonization period.

In 1779, the Banat region was incorporated back into Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary, and the three counties Torontál, Temes and Krassó were created.

According to 1774 data, the population of the Banat of Temeswar numbered 375,740 people and was composed of:

    * 220,000 (58.55%) Romanians

    * 100,000 (26.61%) Serbs and Greeks

    * 53,000 (14.11%) Germans

    * 2,400 (0.64%) Hungarians and Bulgarians

    * 340 (0.09%) Jews

The Military Border region or the Banat Krajina was divided into Serbian (Illyrian), German  (Volksdeutscher) and Romanian (Vlach) sections. This part of the Military Frontier bordered the Principality of Serbia to the south, Voivodship of Serbia and Tamiš Banat to the north, Transylvania  and Wallachia  to the east, and the Slavonian Military Frontier to the west. The Banat Krajina also included the south-eastern part of Bačka region, known as Šajkaška.

Banat Military Border Regiment n. 12 or German Banater
Grenzregiment n. 12 Deutsch-Banater of Pancsova
Organized in 1742 – disbanded in 1881

Depot Kader HQ

Pancsova (Pančevo in Serbian)

Commander oberst

Georg von Ringelshaim

Bonaventura Mihanović - Franz von Hordinsnky

Oberstleutnant

Franz von Hordinsnky

Majors

Johann Kljunović von Kampfberg

Anton Kengyel - Ludwig Schwind

1810 Staff

Franz von Hordinsnky

Oberstleutnant

Anton Kengyel - Ludwig Schwind

History: the Military Border territory was organized in 1718, but only with the Maria Theresia Reform of 1750, Austria did a unambiguous division between the civil Temescher Banat and the militarized area.

In 1751, the northern parts of the province were placed under civil administration, while the southern parts (including Pančevo) were included into Military Frontier (Banat Krajina). During this time the Habsburg administration encouraged massive immigration of German settlers to develop the land. Soon the town of Pančevo was divided into two municipalities: one Serb, one "German". According to the 1767 data, the population of the Serb municipality numbered 424 families, while the population of the German municipality numbered 132 families. According to the 1787 data, the population of the city was composed of 3,506 Orthodox Christians and 2,005 Roman Catholics. The city was briefly restored to Ottoman administration from 1787 to 1788. In 1794, Serb and German municipality were joined into one.

Facts: The 12th Grenz District (Kapitanat) had 12 compagnies with barracks (Standorten) at:

1. Company Alibunar  Alibunar, Karlsdorf (Banatski Karlovac), Ilandja, Lokve (Sv. Mihajlo), Seleusch

2. Company Glogon (Glogonj)  Glogonj, Bortscha, Debeljatscha, Apfeldorf (Jabuka), Franzfeld (Kacarevo),  Kovatschica, Sefkerin

3. Company Grebenaz  Grebenaz, Dubowatz, Zagajica, Kajtasovo, Oresac, Parta

4. Company Isbischte  Isbischte, Nikolinci, Ulma

5. Company Jarkowatz  Jarkowatz, Margitica (Banatska Dubica), Dobritza, Ludwigsdorf (Padina),

    Samosch, Usdin

6. Company Kubin (Kovin)  Kubin (Kovin), Gaj, Deliblato, Ostrowa, Ploschitz (Plocica)

7. Company Neudorf (Banatsko Novo Selo) Neudorf (Banatsko Novo Selo), Petersdorf Vladimirovac), Zrepaja (Crepaja)

8. Company Homolitz (Omoljica) Homolitz (Omoljica), Bawanischte, Brestowatz

9. Company Oppowa (Opovo) Oppowa (Opovo), Baranda, Sakula

10. Company Perles  Perles, Idwor, Farkasdin, Tschenta

11. Company Startschowa (Starcevo) Startschowa (Starcevo), Dolowo

12. Company Tomaschewatz Tomaschewatz, Botosch, Orlowat

Recruitment District: Leopoldova, Teissaufwärts till Keresztár (below Szegedin)

1st battalion: oberst Bonaventura Mihanovich

2nd battalion: major Nestor.

1809 (2 regular battalion, one Reserve or third battalion)

before Aspern: it began the campaign with IV Corps Rosemberg, Div. Sommariva, avant-garde Brig. Stutterheim, with which was in the 2nd Column at Teugen and in the centre at Abensberg, then left wing at Eggmühl.  After the retreat in Bohemia it was attached to the autonomous Brigade GM Paul von Radivojevich, formally part of the III Corps (Kollowrath), sent to the Bohemian Border from Eisenstein till Eger. The remnants of the two line battalion were with the detachment of oberst count Wenzel Sporck (commander of the 1st Časlau Landwehr battalion). They remained in Bohemia till the armistice.

Banat Military Border Regiment n. 13 or Valachian Banater
Regimentul de graniţă romano-bănăţean nr. 13 - Grenzregiment n. 13 Wallachisch-Illyrisches (Karansebes) [19]
Organized in 1767 – disbanded in 1881

Depot Kader HQ

Caransebes

Commander oberst

Johann von Peretić

Mihail von Mihaljević (Mihaljevich) (Warasdiner)

Oberstleutnant

Gottlieb Betzmann

Majors

Johann Gollnbovich

baron Franz Cerrini – Franz Weinzierl

1810 Staff

Mihail von Mihaljević

Oberstleutnant

Mathias Betzmann - Franz Weinzierl

History: Was founded in 1767. Since its establishment, the regiment had several names: - in 1769: N. 72 Border Regiment. - in 1775: Border Regiment Romanian-Illyrian - in 1798: Wallachian-Illyrian Border Regiment n. 13 - in 1838: Wallachian-Banat Border Regiment n. 13 - in 1849: Rumenian-Banat Border Regiment n. 13. The area had undergone many stages of organization, and ultimately include: Bistra Valley, from village Marga till Caransebes, the Timis-Cerna corridor (with adjacent valleys) from Orsova to the village Sviniţa; the Banatean Krajina till the Almaj valley, from village Prigor to village Lăpuşnicul Mare.

In peacetime the regiment was organized on 12 companies having a variable number of common frontier-guards. The training of the border guards were made as follows:

- recruits for three years in Caransebes

- reservists with training sessions on Sundays and holidays.

Border Watch Service - each military border company (grănicereasca) received a variable number of guard outposts on the border – the soldiers stood eight days in the watching-stations, according to a schedule made by the company commander. Postal service was at Caransebes, Marga, Bistra Valley and the Timis-Cerna corridor (Slatina Teregova, Cornea, and Orsova) - military post was held by couriers on horseback. Health Service - at the regimental military hospital of Caransebes - the regiment had a regimental chief doctor, two main doctors, four secondary doctors and surgeons, 8 physicians - at each company there was a doctor and a nurse.

In the 104 years of the regiment’s life, it gave 25 generals, over 200 senior officers, a large number of junior officers and NCOs. Over 40 men were awarded for acts of bravery. The flag of the regiment did have the following medals: 10 gold, 31 silver Class 1 and 36 2nd class silver.

Facts: its companies were recruited at:

Company 1 of Dalboşeţ: 1-Dalboşeţ, 2-Sopotul Vechi, 3-Moceriş, 4-Lăpuşnic, 5-Şopotul Nou, 6-Ravensca

Company 2 of Bozovici: 1-Bozovici, 2-Prilipeţ, 3-Bania, 4-Gârbovăt

Company 3 of Prigor: 1-Prigor, 2-Putna, 3-Rudăria (Eftimie Murgu), 4-Pătaş, 5-Borlovenii Vechi, 6-Borlovenii Noi (Breazova)

Company 4 of Petnic: 1-Petnic, 2-Iablaniţa, 3-Lapuşnicel, 4-Globucraiovei, 5-Mehadica, 6-Pîrvova, 7-Şumiţa

Company 5 of Mehadia: 1-Mehadia, 2-Băile Herculane, 3-Valea Bolvaşniţa, 4-Plugova, 5-Globu rău, 6-Pecinisca, 7-Birza

Company 6 of Orşova: 1-Orşova, 2-Eşalniţa, 3-Ogradena nouă, 4-Ogradena Veche, 5-Dubova, 6-Plaşeviţa, 7-Eibenthal, 8-Tisovita, 9-Jupalnicul Vechi, 10-Jupalnicul Nou, 11-Tufari, 12-Coramnic, 13-Toplet

Company 7 of Cornereva: 1-Cornereva, 2-Bogîltin

Company 8 of Cornea: 1-Cornea, 2-Cruşovat, 3-Cuptoare, 4-Cănicea, 5-Domaşnea

Company 9 of Teregova: 1-Teregova, 2-Verendin, 3-Luncaviţa, 4-Rusca, 5-Feneş

Company 10 of Slatina: 1-Slatina Tmiş, 2-Sadova Veche, 3-Sadova Nouă, 4-Ilova, 5-Vârciorova, 6-Vălişoara, 7-Petroşniţa, 8-Bucoşniţa, 9-Goleţ, 10-Armeniş, 11-Weidenthal (Brebu Nou), 12-Wolfsberg (Gărâna)

Company 11 of Caransebeş: 1-Caransebeş, 2-Caransebeşul Nou, 3-Cicleni, 4-Dalci, 5-Turnu Ruieni, 6-Borlova, 7-Bolvaşniţa, 8-Cârpa (Valea Timişului), 9-Poiana, 10-Buchin, 11-Lindenfeld, 12-Zlagna, 13-Zerveşti

Company 12 of Ohaba Bistra: 1-Ohaba Bistra (Oţelu Roşu), 2-Obreja, 3-Ciuta, 4-Glimboca, 5-Ciresa, 6-Crâşma (Măgura), 7-Mal, 8-Măru, 9-Marga, 10-Valea Mare (Valea Bistrei), 11-Var, 12-Zăvoi, 13-Voislova, 14-Iaz

Recruit. Distr.: eastern Banat. the Karansebes regiment was partially recruited in the german Banat and had some “grenz” fortresses in its area: Mehadia, Orsova and Bosovich. It recruited from the kapitanate: Weisskirchen (Fejértemplom) siege of a battalion, Schupanek, Teregova, Töplic, Vár, Mezerich or Möserich.

1809 (2 regular battalion, one Reserve or third battalion)

before Aspern: The two line battalion began the campaign with the troops detached to the blockade of Passau (Oberhaus fortress) Division FML baron Franz von Dedovich, Brigade GM Paul von Radivojevich, IV Corps Rosenberg. After the retreat the division was ordered to watch the Danube left bank (northern) and the two battalions were in the detached Brig. oberst Grätze, at the Ebelsberg battle and finally sent alog the road Linz - Schärding.

- at Aspern : the Brigade oberst Grätze was in the avant-garde Division FML prince Victor de Rohan (IV Corps or 5th Column Rosenberg). The two battalion had around 1300 men.

- between Aspern and Wagram: 2 Batt. w. Avantgarde Nordmann, II Flügel Hauptarmée

- at Wagram: colonel Grätze led the Banaters in the avant-garde of the left wing, Division Nordmann, Brigade GM baron Peter von Vécsey. After the battle they retreated with the II Corps Hohenzollern, reached Znaim and deployed behind the cavalry reserve (Division FML baron Ulm, Brigade GM Hardegg).

Transylvanian Border (Siebenbürgen)

The Székely military Border

The Széklers or Székels (Hun. Székely, Lat. Siculi), were a Transylvanian people of Ugro-Finnic origins, similar to the Magyars, about 450.000 fellows who colonized the area between Kronstadt (south) and Maros-Vasarhely - Gyergö St Miklos (north). A legend told they were sent there by St. Ladislaus in order to watch the Border against Muslims. The name Szèkel would come from szék (chair – siege or the equivalent of the German word Stuhl of the Transylvanian Saxons). The hungarian Székely, therefore, would only mean “Border sentinel”.

The Székely were considered the finest warriors of medieval Transylvania. They were part of the Unio Trium Nationum ("Union of Three Nations") [20], a coalition of the three Transylvanian Estates, the other two nations being the (also predominantly Hungarian) nobility and the “Saxon” (that is, ethnic German) burghers. These three nations ruled Transylvania, usually in harmony though sometimes in conflict with one another.

Their origin has been much debated; it is, however, now generally accepted that they are true Hungarians (or at least the descendants of a Magyarized Turkic peoples), transplanted there to guard the frontier, their name meaning simply “frontier guards”. Their organization was of the Turkic type, and they are probably of Turkic stock. There is historical evidence that the Székely were part of the Avar   confederation during the so-called Dark Ages, but this does not mean that they are ethnically Avar. By the 11th century they had adopted the Hungarian language.

The Sun and Moon are the symbols of the Székely, and are used in the coat of arms of Transylvania and on the Romanian national coat of arms. The Sun and Moon symbols represented proto-Hungarian gods. After the Hungarians became Christians in the 11th century, the importance of these icons became purely visual and symbolic. Their original religious significance was lost.

In 1762, Empress Maria Theresa decided to set up border troops on the frontier of Transylvania, based on the Military Frontier system already in place on the Ottoman border area. Mostly Romanians were recruited in the Southern Carpathians (Fogaras area) and Székelys in the Eastern Carpathians. The drafting was organised partly on voluntary, partly on compulsory basis, and resulted in conflicts in many places, especially in Székely Land. The Székelys requested that instead of the imperial officers, they have their own leaders according to the traditions, and that they are not ordered to go in action abroad.

As the negotiations failed with the army, Székelys openly protested and some of the Seats contacted each other to start co-ordinated actions. As the drafting was only partly successful, the chief officer responsible for the recruitment gave up his plans and ordered that the so far distributed weapons are returned by the Székelys. They, however, gave back only part of the equipment and kept the rifles as a compensation for the weapons confiscated after the Rákóczi Uprising.

The next, already violent attempt by the imperial officers to recruit Székely border soldiers culminated in a tragic event, the Mádéfalva Massacre, commemorated until today. In December 1763, the men sought refuge from drafting in the mountains, at Mádéfalva (Romanian: Siculeni), some of them equipped with weapons. On 7 January, 1764, an army unit of 1300 soldiers, with two cannons, attacked the peaceful crowd and massacred hundreds of them. The drafting in Székely Land was quickly and easily completed after these events. Border troops were set up in every Seat except for Udvarhely and Maros Seat.

After the Mádéfalva Massacre, many Székelys crossed the Carpathians and escaped to Moldova. Those who stayed in the Moldavian Voivodate, became one of the subgroups of Csángó people. Others moved to the Bukovina Region and founded their final settlements with the help of General András Hadik. This group retained their traditions and are regarded to as the Székelys of Bukovina.

The Military Frontier Organisation put an end to the autonomy of the Székely Nation in some respects. The self governance of the settlements was seriously hurt by the border guard commanders. They interfered with the election of judges, the local agriculture and schooling, also with the every-day life of the Székely guards. Property transactions or weddings could be done only with the permission of the officers. In local communities, however, many of the traditions were kept, the Székely pride and their strong desire for freedom remained. They organised their own life, set rules for the building of roads and bridges, also for the election of their leaders and jury members. (Most of these issues were decided by landlords in the noble counties.) The ancient system of redistributing common lands was still a practice by the end of the 18th century, but ceased to exist in a couple of decades.

Szekely Military Border Regiment n. 14 [21]
Grenzregiment n. 14 Szekler n. 1 Csikszereda
Organized in 1762 – disbanded in 1851

Depot Kader HQ

Csíkszereda

Commander oberst

baron Michael Markant von Blankenschwert

Bonaventura von Roscher

Oberstleutnant

Bonaventura von Roscher

Majors

Stephan Arady de Kajal

Mathias Betzmann – Johann Földvary

1810 Staff

Bonaventura von Roscher

Oberstleutnant

Stephan Arady de Kajal

History: Miercurea-Ciuc (Hungarian: Csíkszereda, German: Szeklerburg) is the county seat of Harghita County, Romania. It lies in the Székely Land, an ethno-cultural region in eastern Transylvania. The town is situated on the banks of the river Olt, at the foot of the Nagysomlyó Mountain (1033m).

Facts: the companies recruited at:

1. Fel Csik (Plăiesii de Sus); 2. Kozmás (Cozmeni); 3. Csik-Szent-Imre (Sântimbru); 4. Csik-Szent-György (Ciucsângeorgiu); 5. Várdótfalva (Sumuleu Ciuc); 6. Szépviz (Frumoasa); 7. Rákos (Racu); 8. Csik-Szent-Tamás (Tomesti); 9. Újfalu (Suseni); 10. Szent-Miklós (Gheorghieni); 11. Al-Falu (Joseni); 12. Ditró (Ditrău).

1809 (only one combined battalion) Recruit. Distr.: areas of Csik, Gyergyö, Part of the counties Maros and Aranyos. [22]

- it began the campaign with the Brig. Branovatzky, Div. Schauroth, VII Corps archduke Ferdinand remaining with the twin Combined Szekler battalion n.2 along the whole campaign in Poland.

Szekely Military Border Regiment n. 15
Grenzregiment n. 15 Siebenbürgisches-Romänen (Transylvania) or 2nd Szekler Kézdivásárhely
Organized in 1762 – disbanded in 1851

Depot Kader HQ

Kézdivásárhely

Commander oberst

Johann von Grammont

Anton von Divecky

Oberstleutnant

Anton von Divecky

Majors

chevalier Josef Widemann

Theodor von Riebel – Angel Kapschermet

1810 Staff

Anton von Divecky

Oberstleutnant

chevalier Josef Widemann

History: Târgu Secuiesc (Hungarian: Kézdivásárhely; German: Szekler Neumarkt; Latin: Neoforum Siculorum) is a city in Covasna county, Transylvania, Romania. The town was first mentioned in 1407 as Torjawasara, meaning in Hungarian “Torja Market”. Originally, the Hungarian name Kézdivásárhely was also used in Romanian in the form Chezdi-Osorheiu, but this was altered to Tîrgu Secuiesc (now spelled Târgu Secuiesc).

Facts: it recruited this companies: 1. Bölön (Belin); 2. Barót (Baraolt); 3. Telegdi-Batzon (BăŃani); 4. Sepsi-Szent-György (Sfântu Gheorghe); 5. Uzon (Ozun); 6. Zágon (Zagon); 7. Dálnok (Dalnic); 8. Zabola (Zăbala); 9. Felsö-Tsernaton (Cernatu de Sus); 10. Kézdi-Vásárhely (Târgu Secuiesc); 11. Beretzk (Brezcu); 12. Polyán (Poian).

1809.  (only one combined battalion) Recruit. Distr.: areas of counties Háromszék and Údvarhély (Barocz) [23]

- it began the campaign with the Brig. Branovatzky, Div. Schauroth, VII Corps archduke Ferdinand remaining with the twin Combined Szekler battalion n.1 along the whole campaign in Poland.

The Wallachians (Romanians) [24]

The name Wallachia, generally not used by Romanians themselves (but present in some contexts as Valahia or Vlahia), is derived from the ethnonym Valach, a word used originally by Germanic peoples to designate their Romance-speaking neighbours, or foreigners in general, and subsequently taken over by Slavic-speakers to refer to Romanians, with variants such as Vlach, Blach, Bloc, Bloh, Boloh.

In effect the Military Wallachian Border was that of the Transylvania area in which there were no Szekelys. The Transylvania (Romanian: Ardeal; Hungarian: Erdély; German: Siebenbürgen) is a historical region in the central part of Romania, at the time on the Ottoman Border.

The Habsburgs acquired the territory shortly after the Battle of Vienna in 1683. The Habsburgs, however, probably recognized the Hungarian sovereignty over Transylvania (it is not certain), while the Transylvanians recognized the sovereignty of the Habsburg emperor Leopold I (1687), and the region was officially attached to the Habsburg Empire, separated in all but name from Habsburg controlled Hungary and subjected to the direct rule of the emperor's governors.  The Kuruc Rebellion (1703-1711) separated Transylvania from the Austrian lands; However, Habsburg sovereignty was again recognized by Transylvania's diet in the Peace of Szatmar (1711), in which the country's privileges were confirmed.

While Royal and Ottoman Hungary were reunited to form the (Habsburg) Kingdom of Hungary, Transylvania was not included, but remained a separate entity. The principality's representative body was the diet; it did not meet between 1761 and 1790. The Austrian authorities, with some success, interfered in the appointment of officials, with the result of Catholics often given preferential treatment.

Transylvania had a capital of it's own - Kolozsvar (Cluj, Klausenburg), a diet of it's own dominated by the Hungarian nobility and the often German representatives of the cities. Although Transylvania granted freedom of religion, a clear distinction was made between Accepted Confessions - Lutheranism, Calvinism, Catholicism - and Tolerated Confessions/Religions (Orthodox Christianity : the Vlachs, and Judaism). The Vlachs (Romanians), which probably formed the population majority, were not represented on Transylvania's diet.

The border regions of Transylvania were placed under military administration (Militärgrenze). Alba Iulia was fortified 1715-1738.

The mission of the establishment of new regiments was given on 5 July 1761 to the austrian cavalry general, Adolf Nicholas Buccow. According to the draft prepared by Buccow, October 13,1761, the Aulic Council decided to disband the frontier guards and their organization, for a good effectiveness and minimum military expenditure along the border of Transylvania, Banat and Bukovina.

General Buccow proposed in this occasion, the establishment of a "border militia" composed of two infantry Romanian regiments, each comprising 3000 troops, two regiments of Szekler infantry, a regiment of Romanian "dragons" (cavalry) and one of Székely “Hussar”, each with 1000 riders. Transylvanian border-guard numbers (by these units) was estimated to reach 17000 troops. Border militarization started in 1761 reaching a self-going organization by the year 1766, when Empress Maria Theresa sanctioned a military Status of the border regiments, composed of 84 articles.

Apart from guarding the border and to fight under the banner of Habsburg, Romanian border soldiers also had the responsibility of making health cordons (quarantine), to stop entry of cholera patients in the provinces of the Empire, and emigration over the Carpathians mountains of discontented subjects.

Of an entire Regiment (3708 soldiers) worked as summer guards a total of 908 border soldiers, while winter guards were reduced to 695. Each company was entrusted to guard a well delimited area of the border. Guarding the border was done in fixed postations, pickets or cordons, but also with patrols in different periods, depending on the importance of the watched route.

Transylvanian Military Border Regiment n. 16 or 1st Wallachian
Grenzregiment n. 16 Siebenbürgisches- 1st Walachen.
Organized in 1762 – disbanded in 1851

Depot Kader HQ

Orlath

Commander oberst

Franz Auftieffern von Eulenburg

Carl Leibinger

Oberstleutnant

Carl Leibinger

Majors

Michael Sotterius von Landsberg

Lorenz Pettenek

1810 Staff

Carl Leibinger

Oberstleutnant

??

History: In 1766 the Romanian border regiment based in Orlat was formed under direct supervision of General Ziskovic. The slogan worn by the regimental battle flag from Orlat is almost forgotten, it was "Viribus Unitis" (united powers).

Facts: the 12 companies of the Orlath regiment were:

1. Rakosd (Răcăstia); 2. Hátszeg (Hateg); 3. Zajkány (Zeicani); 4. Kudzsir (Cugir); 5. Sima (Jina); 6. Orláth (Orlat) - Véstény (Veştem) - Felsö-Porumbak (Porumbacu de Sus); 7. Rákovitza (Racovita); 8. Alsó-Vist (Vistea); 9. Vajda-Rétse (Recea); 10. Mardsina (Mărgineni); 11. Ohaba; 12. Dumbravita (Tantari).

Recr.Dist.: near the north part of the Carpathian mts. (districts of the Hunyadi county, expecially in the Hátszeg valley, in the Fogaras district of the free Wallachia (Romanen), borderlands Boern and Puskas from Rotenthurm till the Bodzaer Paß [25]

1809: (only one combined battalion of six comp.)

- before Aspern: - it began with 1 Combined battalion with Brig. Branovatzky, Div. Schauroth, VII Corps archduke Ferdinand. After April 1st the two Wallachian battalion (1st Rgt. and 2nd Rgt. Combined battalions under colonel Auftieffern) were in the autonomous avant-garde brigade GM Mohr with order to advance till Radom. They were at the Raszyn battle and then in Warsaw. The first battalion (major Kreitter) was detached to Radzymin; the 2nd battalion marched with its commander. The two battalions fought at Grochow and then, April 29, crossed the Vistula at Gora defending the bridgehead. After the withdrawal, colonel Auftieffern and the 1st battalion were detached to defend Sandomir and Zamosc. On May 15 the Mohr Brig. with the 2nd battalion attcked the bridgehead of Thorn. On May 18 they abandoned Sandomir.

On May 20 the Poles attacked Zamosc, where stood 3 comp. of the rgt. The regiment there lost 571 men, made prisoners, and the battalion commandr major von Pettenek. Now the 3 remaining comp. of the 1st Batt. were at the Gorcyze clash. On June 15 the 3 comp. returned on the Vistula left bank under Brig. GM Trautenberg and then withdrew till the armistice.

Transylvanian Military Border Regiment n. 17 or 2nd Wallachian
Grenzregiment n. 17 Siebenbürgisches- 2nd Walachen.
Organized in 1762 – disbanded in 1851

Depot Kader HQ

Nasaud (Naszod)

Commander oberst

Franz Grätze

Ignaz Lenk von Trauenfeld

Oberstleutnant

Franz Grätze - Ignaz Lenk von Trauenfeld

Majors

Peter Mehesi de Kis-Bun

Johann Kreitter

1810 Staff

Ignaz Lenk von Trauenfeld

Oberstleutnant

Johann Kreitter

Command HQ: till 1786 Orasul Bistrita became the county civil seat of area Bistriţa-Năsăud.

History: Austro-Hungarian Empress, Maria Tereza, assigner to this Border regiment the areas of the Rodna valley, Şieului valley and Someşului valley. The battle flag of the 2nd Regiment of the Nasaud Romanian border wear the slogan "rediviva Romanian Virtus (resurrected Romanian Virtue).

Facts: it recruited these companies: 1. Monor (Monor); 2. Nagy-Falu (Măriselu); 3. Borgó-Prund (Prundu-Bîrgăului); 4. Borgó-Zsoszány (Josenii Bârgăului); 5. Rodna (Rodna); 6. Szint-Zsorzu (Sângeorz Băi); 7. Folre (Feldru); 8. Rebrisora (Rebrisoara); 9. Naszeud (Năsăud); 10. Tyelts (Telciu); 11. Zagra (Zagra); 12. Makód (Mocod).

1809. (one combined battalion of six companies) Recr.Dist.: Kolos and Doboka counties, Bistritz and Borgoer Districts in the northeastern Transylvania. [26]

The Battalion Czajkist (Tschajkist later Titler) boatmen of Danube

- before Aspern: After April 1st the two combined Wallachian battalion were in the autonomous avant-garde brigade GM Mohr with order to advance till Radom. See above.

Czajkists or Tschaikisten, also called Nassadisten (serbian Šajkaši), were river sailors of the Danube, which had the task to defend (originally) the port of Belgrad and to watch the Border with the Ottoman Turkish Empire.

Originally they served under the Kingdom of Hungary and later under the Habsburg, when they obtained the “Grenzer” status (Militärgrenze). During the battle of Peterwardein (1526, close to the battle of Mohács) the Tschaikisten fought the Ottoman Danube Flotilla under the serbian Commander Radič Božić.

 

The Turkish conquest of Belgrad moved the Danube “Marines” in the area of Petrovaradin, where they rebuilt their flotilla. Many moved also to Slovakia. When Austria consolidated its rule over Hungary and the current serbian region of Vojvodina, it was also created a Tschaikist province, the “Šajkaška” inside the Batschka (Baczka).

The so called “Czajkisten Battalion”, as part of the Military Border, was raised in 1763. In the beginning, the population of the region was composed entirely of Serbs, which were brave and skilful warriors. [27]

Their military command in 1809 was in Titel, 2217 inhabitants in 1820, 498 of whom were german, placed in the corner between the Danube and the Tisza (Theiss) rivers. In the Militärgrenze time, there they recruited the personnel for the so-called “Tschaikisten” Battalion, the Tschaikisten Distrikt being formed by villages of: Lock - Vilova - Moschorin - Gardonovacz - Unter-Kovill - Ober-Kovill - Unter Sz. Ivany - Josephs-Dorf - Gozpodincze - Kaats - Georgievo - Csurug – Nadaly.

Their name came from their characteristic boats: the “Tschaika” or Nassen (Shajka), a long and narrow rowing boat similar to a small galley, with a single sail, and with one gun ( the Şayka-Geschütz, or with the generic Ottoman name of Topçu). During the “Napoleonic” times the battalion was organized as a Pontoons unit. The battalion was under the Oberst-Schiff-Amt (Supreme Naval Bureau) at Wien (GM Josef Schwäger von Hohenbruck). Its “sailors” had to watch the “Schiffämter” (Naval Commands) at : Linz, Scharnstein, Prague, Cracow, Pressburg, Komorn, Pest, Szegedin, Esseg, Peterwardein, Semlin, Temesvar, Pancsova and Sissek.

Staff at Vienna and Klosterneuburg, then Titel.

1809 commander: major-oberstlieutenant Aaron von Stanissavljevich. They were part with the Army of Germany (145 pontoons) and part with the Inner Austria Army.

The Danubian navy and pontoons battalion (Czajkisten bataillon) or Titler battalion had the following force:

Line

Econ.

Czajkisten Bataillon Staff

Line

Econ.

 
 

Section

6 Companies

 

Section

 

1

--

Stabs-Offizier (commander)

1

--

Major

--

1

Oekonomie-Hauptmann

--

1

Auditor

--

1

Rechnungsführer

--

1

Grundbuchsführer

1

--

Corps-Feldarzt

3

3

Unter-Ärzte

1

--

Bataillons Adjutant

3

--

K.k. ordinare Cadetten

--

3

Stabsschreiber

3

3

Fouriere

1

--

Bataillons Tambour

4

--

Hautboisten

3

--

Führern

1

--

Profoß

2

--

Fourierschützen

2

--

Halb-invaliden Privatdienern

   

Schiffpersonale (Ship personnel)

     
 

1

Hauptmann-Schiffbaumeister

 

1

Schiffszimmer-Polier

 

12

Civil-Handswerksleute

 

1

Privatdiener

Line

Econ.

Czajkisten Compagnie

Line

Econ.

 
 

Section

 

Section

 

4

--

Hauptleute

2

--

Capitain-Lieutenante

6

--

Oberlieutenante

6

--

Unterlieutenante

--

3

Oekonomie Oberlieutenante

--

3

Oekonomie Unterlieutenante

6

--

Oberbrückenmeistern

6

6

Tschaikisten Feldwebeln

1

--

Artilleriste Feldwebel

36

12

Tschaikisten Corporalen

4

--

Artilleriste Corporalen

--

6

Compagnie Schreiber

6

--

Fourierschützen

12

--

Tambouren

72

24

Tschaikisten Gefreyten

12

--

Artilleriste Gefreyten

48

--

Zimmerleute

18

--

Halb-invaliden Privatdienern

     

--

6

Ganz-invaliden Privatdienern

Notes about the Evolution of the Military Border Troops after 1809

1810 – the “French” Croatians

The Decree of 1 January 1810 began the reorganization of six Grenz regiments along French guidelines. Initially, all the senior officers were replaced with French officers, but this eventually changed. However, the commanding officers were to remain French throughout their short history in the French army.

As there was already an established seniority amongst these regiments, the French decided to retain that seniority and the croatian regiments were renamed as follows:

Old Name

new N.

Liccaner

1

Otochaner

2

Oguliner

3

Szluiner

4

1st Banal

5

2nd Banal

6

Initially each regiment was organized on two battalions, but during 1812, the regiments raised a 3rd and 4th battalion. The strength of a two battalion regiment was 60 officers and 2,680. These men were organized into the standard six company organization of a French light battalion. They had a  carabinier, a voltigeur and four chasseurs companies each. The regimental staff consisted of:

1

Colonel

1

Regimental adjudant

 

1

Colonel-major

1

Regimental surgeon major

 

2

Chefs de bataillon

2

Battalion surgeon majors

 

1

Adjudant-major capitaine

1

Teneur des livres (Bookkeeper)

 

1

Capitaine d’economie

6

Cadets

 

1

Sous-lieutenant d’economie

3

Fourriers

 

3

Auditors (Regimental judges)

6

Fourriers d’economie

 

2

Maitres de comptes Chief accountants)

1

Drum major

 

6

Porte drapeaux (Flag bearers)

1

Chef de musique

 

1

Provost

7

Musicians

 

Each battalion had:

6

Capitaine

36

Sergeants

6

Lieutenant

12

Sergeants d’economie

3

Lieutenants d’economie

48

Corporals

6

Sous-lieutenants

48

Corporals d’economie

6

Sous-lieutenants d’economie

6

Carpenters

6

Ensigns

12

Drummers

6

Sergeant majors

24

Domestics or Servants

6

Sergeant,majors d’economie

1,080

Carabiniers, Voltigeurs and Chasseurs

   

1308

Total

The artillery company remained probably retaining a strength of 50 men. In addition, the old formation of the Grenz regiments had a very large staff of non-military personnel, such as priests, schoolmasters, carpenters, masons and foresters. The staff of "extra" personnel for the first four regiments remained high with  97 men, but in the 5th and 6th Regiments this staff consisted of only 19 men.

In order to train these units in the French tactical system was established a military school in Carlstadt, where each regiment had to send six officers and two non-commissioned officers.

As full line units, these regiments never took the field for the French flags. Instead were formed "Provisional" regiments by breaking off single battalions from each regiment and then merging them with other battalions. The 1st Provisional Croatian Regiment was organized on October 26, 1811, by grouping the first battalions of the 1st and 2nd Croatian Regiments.

The 2nd Provisional Regiment was formed on February 25, 1813 with the 1st battalions of the 3rd and 4th Regiments. The 3rd Provisional Regiment was organized on September 21, 1811 with the first battalions of the 5th and 6th Regiments.

“Rassjia” !

The 1st and 3rd Provisional Regiments joined the Grande Armee in its catastrophic invasion of Russia and fought very bravely. The 3rd Provisional Regiment proved itself to be an extremely brave and hard fighting regiment when, at the second battle of Polotsk, it attempted rather unwisely to outperform the 4th Swiss Infantry Regiment.

It appears that a serious rivalry had arisen between these two regiments and that only the battlefield could provide the appropriate arena for showing who was the braver. The only result of this display of bravado was a serious beating for both, when they attempted to engage the entire 1st Russian Corps of Count Wittgenstein by themselves.

As the 3rd Provisional Regiment began to withdraw towards France, it was engaged at Berezina. Here it lost two officers killed and 18 wounded. It appears it was an hard fighting unit, with so many officers “hors de combat”.

Though details of their actions are scarce, the 1st Provisional Regiment was awarded with 6 Crosses of the Legion d’honneur (on 18 October by Napoleon). It fought at Malo-Jaroslavetz and lost a chef de bataillon and one captain killed outright, and 3 captains and 8 lieutenants mortally wounded. It was obviously in the bulky of the fighting.

When the 1st Provisional Regiment returned from Russia it had only 22 officers and 31 non-commissioned officers. The campaign was slightly kinder for the 3rd Provisional Regiment and it returned with 16 officers and 141 non-commissioned officers and men. These men were absorbed into their original parent units and the provisional regiments were never raised again.

The 2nd Provisional Regiment, raised in 1813, was sent to Germany where it became part of the garrison of Glogau. When the city was besieged they were shut in and remained there until the city capitulated. The regiment was returned to the Austrians who promptly disbanded it.

It seems also they have been raised a 4th Provisional Regiment in August 1813. It appeared to have fought with Eugene, but its fate is currently unknown. When the Croatian provinces were returned to Austria, it was disbanded what remained of the former Croatian regiments.

The “other Grenzers” after 1809 [28]

After the reduction in consequence of the lost war of 1809, 11 Border Regiments remained with the K.K. army:

- Warasdin-Kreuzer Nr. 5 - Warasdin-St. Georger Nr. 6

- Brooder Nr. 7 - Gradiskaner Nr. 8 - Peterwardeiner Nr. 9

- Deutsch-Banater Nr. 12 - Wallachisch-Illyrische Nr. 13

- 1. Siebenbürgisches Szekler Nr. 14 - 2. Siebenbürgisches Szekler Nr. 15

- 1 Wallachische Nr. 16 - 2 Wallachisceh Nr. 17

The peacetime force of one austrian regiment of the 2 Croatian and 3 Slavonian Grenzinfanterie was fixed (by the Hofkriegsrat on August 10, 1811), in 12 companies and one administrative section (Ökonomie-Abteilung).

Line

Econ.

Croatian-Slavonian Grenzinfanterie

Line

Econ.

 
 

Section

Regiment’s STAFF

 

Section

 

1

--

Colonel regiment’s commander

1

--

Oberstlieutenant

2

--

Majore

--

1

Oekonomie Hauptmann

1

--

Auditore

--

1

Oekonomie Unterlieutenant

1

--

Regiments Feldarzt

--

1

1ter Rechnungsführer

--

1

Grundbuchsführer

1

--

2ter Rechnungsführer

1

--

Regiments Adjutant

1

--

Ober-Ärzt

6

--

K.k. ordinare Cadetten

6

6

Unter-Arzten

3

6

Fourieren

--

5

Stabsschreiber

1

--

Regiments Tambour

8

--

Hautboisten (Hoboisten)

3

--

Führer

1

--

Profoß

4

--

Fourierschützen

3

--

Halb Invaliden Privatdiener

--

6

Ganz (totally) Invaliden Privatdiener

     
   

TOTALS

43

27

 

Line

Econ.

Croatian-Slavonian Grenzinfanterie

Line

Econ.

 
 

Section

12 Companies

 

Section

 

8

--

Hauptleute

4

--

Capitain-lieutenants

12

--

Oberlieutenants

12

--

Unterlieutenants

12

--

Fähnriche

--

6

Oekonomie Oberlieutenant

12

12

Feldwebel

--

6

Oekonomie Unterlieutenant

12

24

Corporalen

--

12

Compagnieschreiber

12

--

Fourierschützen

24

--

Tambours

96

96

Gefreyte

12

--

Zimmerleute

     

?

 

Gemeine Fusilier, Scharfschützen, Artilleristen as stated

--

6

Ganz (totally) Invaliden Privatdiener

3

--

Halb Invaliden Privatdiener

The Wallachisch-Illirische Regiment was formed by 16 companies.

Line

Econ.

Valachian-Illyrian Grenzinfanterie

Line

Econ.

 
 

Section

Regiment’s STAFF

 

Section

 

1

--

Majore

1

--

Fourierschütz

Line

Econ.

Valachian-Illyrian Grenzinfanterie

Line

Econ.

 
 

Section

16 Companies

 

Section

 

4

--

Hauptleute

4

--

Capitain-lieutenants

4

--

Oberlieutenants

4

--

Unterlieutenants

4

--

Fähnriche

4

--

Fourierschützen

10

--

Privatdiener

     
   

TOTALS

34

   

--

2

Oekonomie Oberlieutenant

--

4

Compagnieschreiber

--

2

Oekonomie Unterlieutenant

--

16

Gefreyte

--

4

Feldwebel

--

8

Corporalen

--

4

Privatdiener

     
   

TOTALS

40

   

The four Border regiments of Transylvania (Siebenbürgischen Grenz-infanterie-regimente) had 12 companies in peacetime.

Line

Econ.

Transylvanian Grenzinfanterie

Line

Econ.

 
 

Section

Regiment’s STAFF

 

Section

 

1

--

Oberst Commander

2

--

Majoren

1

--

Regiments Caplan

1

--

Regiments Rechnungsführer

1

--

Auditor

1

--

Regiments Adjutant

1

--

Regiments Feld-Arzt

1

--

Regiments Tambour

2

--

Ober-Ärzte

6

--

Unter-Ärzte

6

--

K.k. Cadetten

6

--

Führern

6

--

Fourieren

4

--

Fourierschützen

8

--

Hautboisten

1

--

Profoß

5

--

Privatdienern

     
   

Total Staff

54

   

Line

Econ.

Transylvania Grenzinfanterie

Line

Econ.

 
 

Section

12 Companies

 

Section

 

8

--

Hauptleute

4

--

Capitain-lieutenants

12

--

Oberlieutenants

12

--

Unterlieutenants

12

--

Feldwebeln

72

--

Corporalen

96

--

Gefreyten

12

--

Fourierschützen

24

--

Tambouren

12

--

Zimmerleute

24

--

Privatdienern

     

The Grenz Regiments recruited in their territories, each company or squadron in ist own province (Canton).

In autumn 1813 some of the old (disbanded) Grenzerbataillone were reorganized

Notes

[1] From Ranka Gašic, “History of the Serbs in Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century”, Ph.Diss., univ.of Belgrade.

[2] To enhance economy in the Border, the so-called “military communities” were formed: the cities within the Border, in which crafts and trade were developed. The first military communities, formed in 1748, were

[3] Sources: Direktion des k. und k. Kriegsarchives. Befreiungskrieg 1813 und 1814. Einzeldarstellung der entscheidenden Kriegsereignisse. II. Band Österreichs entscheidendes Machtaufgebot 1813. (pp. 1, 132f)

Schwicker J.H., Geschichte der Österreichischen Militärgrenze, Prochaska, Teschen, Wien 1833.

[4] As for Schwicker (see sources) each regiment had a staff of 48 officers/NCOs (plus 30 administrative officers/NCOs), 2570 “gemeine” and 198 administrative soldiers. The Tschajkisten had 26 off/NCOs (17

[5] The croatian particular habit to wear a black tie originated the italian term “cravatta” (French : cravate; from “croata, croate”)

[6] Generalate were military regions with the rank of territorial divisions (brigades). They were split into Kapitanate, smaller regions equivalent to a territorial battalion (regiment) recruitment area.

[7] Source: http://www.vojska.net.

[8] Varaždinsko križevačke krajiške pješačke pukovnije br. 5 or Kreuzer regiment of Warasdin (Varaždin ) where Kreuzer or Kürüz in hungarian was the name of the recruitment district (Crusaders) remembering the St. Stephan’s Crosses on the anti-islamic flags. The regiment recruited in its own zone of the Generalat or in the Kapitanate of Koprivnice and Križevac. While the first siege of the staff was probably Križevac, it was transferred to Bjelovar since1758.

[9] Varaždinsko-đurđevačke krajiške pješačke pukovnije br. 6 or Gjurgevatz regiment, also St. George’s regiment (Warasdiner Sankt Georger).Till 1758 its staff was at Đurđevac, then was transferred to Bjelovar. The recruitment companies (Satnije) were:

1. Grubišno Polje, 2. Kovačica, 3. Severin, 4. Rača, 5. Đurđevac, 6. Pitomača, 7. Trojstvo, 8. Virje, 9. Novigrad, 10. Peteranec, 11. Sokolovec,  12. Kapela

[10] Nazuvaka were Turkish knitted slippers.

[11] Gradiška krajiška pješačka pukovnija br. 8. The regimental staff has its barracks at Bogoševcima, and then at Gradiška (current Nowa Gradiska).

[12] The Danube, Theiss and Maros borders did not belong to the territories of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia, but to Hungary. However, within the defence system they were all the part of the border on the Sava. The borders of Theiss and Maros were demilitarized in 1749-1750, which brought about the migration of the Serbs from that territory to Russia.

See: A Fori_kovic, Seobe Srba u Rusiju tokom 18.veka, Istorija srpskog naroda IV-1, Beograd 1986 (Immigration of the Serbs to Russia during the eighteenth century; The History of the Serbs IV-19.

[13] The Serbs fought to preserve their border privileges, according to which they were free soldiers who recognized the autority of the Emperor and his Generals only. In no way would they agree to be serfs of the lords whose abandoned lands they inhabitated. They wanted to be the free owners of the soil they tilled and to preserve their Orthodox faith. During the seventeenth century the Croatian and Slavonian estates fought a constant battle against the commanders of the Borders for the status of the "Wallachians". They wanted to turn them into serfs they needed to work on their estates, and the Bishop of Zagreb demanded that they pay taxes for the Catholic church. The frontiersman appealed to Generals, usually with success, because they were irreplaceable in the defence.

[14] Provintial (provincial) were the territories not in the Military Border, ruled by lords of feudal like estates. The “županije” were the counties of the Croatian-Slavonian lands.

[15] Peterwardein a royal free town and fortress of Hungary in the county of Syrmia, Croatia-Slavonia; situated on a promontory formed by a loop of the Danube. It was connected with Neusatz (today Novi Sad) on the opposite bank by a boat-bridge and a ferry. The fortifications consisted of the upper fortress, on a lofty serpentine rock rising abruptly from the plain on three sides, and of the lower fortress at the northern base of the rock. The two fortresses could have accommodated a garrison of 10,000 men. The Petrovaradinska krajiška pješačka pukovnija br. 9 had not its siege at Peterwardein, while at Mitrovica (today Sremska Mitrovica and ancient Syrmium).

[16] The word ban means "lord, master; ruler". The Slavic word is probably borrowed from late Thracian *ban meaning "master (of a house)" (cf. Albanian bánë, banésë - "house", Romanian ban  - nobility rank, Bănie, Banat - "region under the rule of bans"). Another assumption for the origin of the ban was a borrowing from a Turkic language, from the Avar word bajan meaning "ruler of the horde", South Slavic ban is a result of the contraction from the earlier form bojan. The long form is directly attested in 10th-century Constantine Porphyrogenitus' book De Administrando Imperio as βο(ε)άνος, in a chapter dedicated to Croats and the organisation of their state, describing how their ban "has under his rule Krbava, Lika and Gacka".

[17] Prva banska krajiška pješačka pukovnija br. 10. Was one of the austrian regiments which went under the French rule, in 1809, after the Treaty of Schönbrunn. It recruited in the south-western area of the Banal territory, in the Kapitanat of Glina, where was the staff. The commands of its Satnija were at:

1. Čemernica , 2. Vranovina , 3. Glina, 4. Maja , 5. Klasnić, 6. Maligradec , 7. Kraljevčane , 8. Gora, 9. Stankovac , 10. Bović , 11. Lasinja e 12. Vrginmost.

[18] Druga banska krajiška pješačka pukovnija br. 11. In 1809 it followed the destiny of its „brother” n° 10. The regiment recruited in the northern and western areas of the Petrinja Kapitanat.

[19] the Karansebes regiment was partially recruited in the german Banat and had some “grenz” fortresses in its area: Mehadia, Orsova and Bosovich. It recruited from the kapitanate: Weisskirchen (Fejértemplom) siege of a battalion, Schupanek, Teregova, Töplic, Vár, Mezerich or Möserich.

[20] The Hungarian area (later County) Háromszék means "three seats". The Háromszék region was a combination of three settlements (seats) of the Székely: Kézdiszék, Orbaiszék and Sepsiszék. Háromszék county was formed in 1876, when the administrative structure of Transylvania was changed.

[21] For the 8 squadrons of the Szekler Hussars or 11th Hussars Regiment under oberst baron Martin von Rakowsky, see after under the hungarian Hussars part.

[22] Csik (Csik-Szereda, Csik-Somlyo, Szépvisz, Bánkfalva) - Gyergyö (Gyergyö-Szt.Miklos, Nagy-Kászon) - Maros (Marosvásarhély, Illyefalva, Jobágyfalva, Abod, Sellye, Szovata) - Aranyos (Felvincz, Kövend)

[23] Údvarhély (Székely- Údvarhély, Bözöd, Fartzád, Bardocz, Bögöz, Homorod-Almás, Szitás-Keresztur, Oláhfalva, Pakatfalva)

Háromszék (Kézdivásarhély, Alsö-Csernaton, Szt.Lelék, Zabola, Zágon, Zálány, Étfalva, Fekete-ügy, Sepsi-Szt.Ivány)

[24] « Ces Wallaques aiment le vin et l'eau-de-vie avec passion. Ces deux vices ne dérangent pas moins leur fortune que leur santé. Du reste, la dance est pour les filles Wallaques ce que 1’amour de la boisson est pour les hommes, et les un.et les autres s'adonnent avec excès aux plaisirs qu'ils  aiment. »

[25] Fogaras (Alsó-Árpás, Fogaras, Törcsvár-Zernest, Sárkány) – Hunyad (Petrozsényi, Szászváros, Hátszeg, Puj) – Szeben (Orlath-Keresztény, Nagyszeben, Szászeben, Szerdahely). Siege of staff at Orlath.

[26] Bestercze (Naszod, Uj-Radna, Bestercze (Bistritz), Borgó Bestercze, N.Sajé) -Szolnok-Doboka (Szamosújvár, Dés, Bethlen, Csákigorbó, Kápolnokmonostor, Kékes, Magyarlápos, Nagyilonda) - Kolosz (Tekes, Mocs, Mezőörményes)  - Maros (Szászregen, Toplicza). The regimental siege was at Naszod.

[27] The Tschaikist battalion was in effect a medieval naval force, protecting the riverine borders in the Slavonian and Syrmian frontier areas against smuggling and the spread of the bubonic plague. The unit remained on the military establishment of the Military Border after 1747, and redeployed to Titel in the area between the Danube and Theiss rivers in 1763. In 1764, the battalion establishment was increased from two to four companies. The Tschaikist battalion operated light rowed and sailed gunboats, imperial Freikriegsschiffe, armed with one heavy and several smaller guns. Tschaika gunboats (slavic for "lapwing"), were similar in construction to the Nassadist flatbottomed gunboats built in Hungary. They proved much more suitable for riverine warfare on the Danube and its navigable tributaries, than the large 40- to 64-gun ships of the Danube Flotilla which were lost by grounding without exception. Komorn Fortress in Hungary became the key strongpoint, naval shipyard and repair facility of the Tschaikist battalion.

[28] Data until beginning of 1813.

 

Placed on the Napoleon Series: February 2011

 

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