The Austrian Imperial-Royal Army (Kaiserliche-Königliche Heer) 1805 – 1809:
THE HUNGARIAN ROYAL ARMY
1805 – 1809
HUNGARIAN INFANTRY REGIMENTS
In the Austrian Empire some lands (Tirol, Northern Italy, Netherlands) relied on free recruiting, while Hungary, as for the Insurrectio troops, filled the ranks by local officials according to quotas imposed by the Hungarian Diet and on volunteers. Hungary was ruled by its own “Diet” (parliament), which enjoyed a degree of independence.
Against 5.600.000 Germans, 3.770.000 Poles and Ukrainians and 4.730.000 Czechs and Moravians, Hungary opposed 4.500.000 Hungarians, 1.300.000 Slovaks, 1.700.000 Romanians, 600.000 Croats and Serbs . 4.750.000 of others (Italians, Tyroleans and other nationalities) had abandoned the Austrian recruitment. The Hungarians enjoyed great reputation as horsemen and fighters. The Romanians were imagined as short, robust, rancorous and brutal, while the Serbs and Croats were considered as blunt men, "indomitable fighters" and serious drinkers.
Before 1805 the term of service was reduced to 10 years in the infantry, 12 in the cavalry and 14 years in the artillery and engineers. The hussar regiments had no problems with keeping their strength, as there were many volunteers in Hungary, who happily joined their favorite and traditional branch. The 'Hungarian' regiments were the largest of all.
Austrian infantry was divided into two groups; 'German' and 'Hungarian' regiments.
The 'Hungarian' regiments were renowned for their fierce fighting spirit, and their grenadiers were best of them. " ... The Hungarian infantrymen were at their best when they were in the immediate presence of the enemy, which encouraged Armfeldt to describe them as among the best of Maria Theresa's foot soldiers. The difficulty was not to get them to fight, but to enlist in the first place... they were convinced that they were unsuitable for dismounted service." (Duffy - "Instrument of War" Vol I, p 237)
After 1800 and the first army reorganization the K.K. Österreichisches Heer improved its organization with a new recruiting system and the widening of the duty services, created new units and enlarged the Hungarian troops (probably either for having lost a large amount of crown lands, either under the direct French threats). The great test for this new army was completely failed in 1809, but this, really, could have been considered as the first trial to organize the future “vielen Völkern K.u.K. Armée”.
The “Stand” of the Royal Hungarian regular army was, initially, of 12 infantry regiments and 10 light cavalry regiments (Hussars); we must assume the Siebenbürgen or Transylvanian Hussars as part of another territory, the military Border.
From 1802 the peacetime strength of the Hungarian infantry regiment was of 3857 men (without officers and the 63 Musikanten) and comprised 2 grenadiers companies, 18 fusiliers companies, a total of 46.284 “Magyars” in the 12 regiments. The Hussar regiments had 1698 hussars (without officers); therefore in 10 regiments the Hungarian cavalry had 16.980 hussars in field.
Rapid reforms were made from 1805, too fastly for the Austrian pace. So when the army began a new campaign, the new rules caused only confusion (Archduke Charles had realised the danger in the field, and apparently never applied the new regulations for his own forces).
The main change would have been each infantry regiment to be arranged in one grenadier and four fusilier battalions, each battalion being of four companies of a nominal 160 men each. The 1807 regulations, supervised by the Archduke Charles, returned to the previous organisation (three battalions and two grenadier companies per regiment, field battalions of six companies and garrison battalions of four), wartime establishments now being the same as peacetime save for the increase of the third battalion to six companies and the detachment of the grenadiers to composite battalions.
Infantry regiment had three field and one depot battalion. Austrian battalion was probably the biggest battalion in Europe. It consisted of approximatively 1.200 men, while the French battalion was only 840 men strong.
All Austrian regular troops were well supplied and equipped. Every soldier carried a fur-covered leather back-pack called Tornister. There was 1 tent for every 5 men, 1 wagon for each company, 4-6 carts and wagons and 30 pack-horses with ammunition (on average 36 rounds for every soldier) for every battalion of 6 companies. Officers were also allowed individual packhorses.
The senior officers and generals however brought excessive baggage, numerous carts and horses. It slowed down movements of the army. In 1809 regiment of infantry had 26 packhorses, while Grenzer regiment only 7. The supplies for infantry regiment were carried on 13 wagons (4 horses each) and 26 pack animals.
In March 1809 Austria had 46 'German' and 15 'Hungarian' infantry regiments. The grenadiers were detached and formed in 21 grenadier battalions. The Hungarian regiment had their Staffs and Depot (Kader) in Hungary (many Hussars regiments had their depots in nearby Galicia). Austria also had one infantry regiment (of 10 independent coys) for the guard and escort of staffs. These troops were called Staff Infantry. The 5th and 6th Regiment were disbanded in 1807 and served as garrisons in numbered battalions.
In 1809 (Europäischen Annalen 1810, St.5, pages 183-184) one Hungarian regiment in companies had 3584 men, or 2 battalions of 6 companies and one (the third) of 4 companies, plus two grenadier comp. and 1 or 2 depot companies. Every company was about 180 men strong. The Hungarian Hussars regiments had 8 squadrons and 1168 horses.
In December 1809 when the army took its quarters, in Hungary came back 19 brigades or 33 regiments counting also the Grenzers.
After the 1809 defeats the 3rd battalions were disbanded, all companies were reduced to 60 privates in 'German' and 100 in 'Hungarian' infantry. Austria also had lost many former recruiting areas and 6 Wallons regiments, recruited in Belgium till the end of the century, were definitively moved to Bohemia. When in 1814 Austria recovered some of its former territories (parts of Northern Italy) they formed new regiments (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Provisional Infantry Regiment and four battalions of light infantry). The provisional regiments became regular units and were numbered: 13th, 23rd, 38th and 43rd. The four battalions of light infantry formed a new 45th Infantry Regiment.
The 1810 Reforme (imperial Handbillet 9 August 1810 sent to FM Bellegarde) stated the infantry companies had to pass from 120 to 100 men (Gemeine) and the Hungarian company had to be reduced from 180 to 120 men. The Hussars squadrons were of 130 men, but they had increments of 20 Ersatz men per year, so, i.e. in 1814, the Hussars squadron had 210 horses.
(Until 1809 the Depot Btn. had only 2 companies. In wartime the battalion increased to 6 companies and often served in the field as 3rd Field Battalion.)
The Hungarian and the Siebenbürgisches Line Infantry regiments of the Austrian army had: 2 Grenadiers coys and 16 Fusiliers coys. Hungarian companies could have around 180 men.
The austrian new recruitment system was ruled by the Kaiserliche Conscriptions-und-Werbbezirke System of October 25, 1804. It was not allowed to the Hungarian regiments and military districts to enroll a german or hereditary land citizen (Allerhöchsten Befehl 28 June 1808). As per art. 1, in 1807 Hungary had 12000 recruits and, from 1808 they began to enroll also Jews (Juden). I.e. in a contingent ripartition of 392 men, city of Pest counted 38 christian recruits and 4 jews.
Therefore the Hungarians could, for the first time, raise their artillery, engineers and train units. Hungarian nobles, students or other men, who were free from duty, could enroll also in german units as volunteers (in the same way a Hungarian citizen, who had been resident in the hereditary lands for an uninterrupted period of 10 years, was considered as being a german recruit).
Military Ranks Comparison Table
Vladimir Brnardić – Enrico Acerbi
1809 REGULAR INFANTRY
K.K. (Kaiserliche königliche) Ungarischen Infanterie Regimenter
Pressburg and the Slovak Regiments
or Preßburg, Hungarian: Pozsony, former Slovak name, Prešporok, was named as Bratislava, only on March 6, 1919. Pressburg flourished during the 18th century reign of Queen Maria Theresa, becoming the largest and most important town in Hungary. The population tripled; many new palaces, monasteries, mansions, and streets were built, and the city was the centre of social and cultural life of the region. However, the city started to lose its importance under the reign of Maria Theresa's son Joseph II, especially when the crown jewels were taken to Vienna in 1783 in an attempt to strengthen the union between Austria and Hungary. Many central offices subsequently moved to Buda, followed by a large segment of the nobility. The first newspapers in Hungarian and Slovak were published here, “Magyar hírmondó” in 1780, and “Presspurske Nowiny” in 1783. In the course of the 18th century, the city became a centre for the Slovak national movement. 19th century history was closely tied to the major events in Europe. The Peace of Pressburg between Austria and France was signed here in 1805. Theben Castle was ruined by Napoleon's French troops in 1809.
Pressburg fortress was destroyed by the French at the end of the 1809 campaign, because of its strong symbology. The fortress or Devín Castle (Slovak: Devínsky hrad, Hungarian: dévényi vár, German: Burg Theben) was a castle in Devín, which was a suburb of Pressburg. Owing to its strategic position, the cliff (altitude of 212 meters) at the confluence of the Danube and Morava rivers was an ideal place for a fort. The Hungarians regarded it as the western gateway of the Kingdom of Hungary. The last owners of the Devin Castle were the Counts of the Pálffy family. In 1809, after the Siege of Pressburg, was the castle (still considered a threat) destroyed by the forces of Napoleon
K.K. IR 2 – FML-FZM baron Johann Hiller – 3 battalions 
Recruitment: 2 Depot Companies Brig. Kerekes in Pressburg under Alvinczy. It began the campaign at Vienna in January in the brig. Ignaz Buol von Berenburg with 2 Battalion (6 comp.) and the third Battalion (4 comp.). An Hungarian brigade under german command.
before Aspern: in the V Corps archduke Louis, Div. Lindenau, Brig. von Buol, later Brig. prince Hessen Homburg (the colonel). On April 10 they invaded Bavaria.  During the first combat at Landshut the regiment crossed the bridges, supporting the avant-garde along the Altdorf road. The division then entered the ranks of the 1st Reserve Corps; so at Teugen it was with the 3rd Column Liechtenstein, and it continbued with the 1st Reserve Corps at Abensberg and Eggmühl. On April 20 they were at Ratisbon when the city surrendered, marching behind the Vécsey vanguard group.
After the retreat in Bohemia it was attached to the IV Corps, Div. Hohenlohe Bartenstein, Brig. Reinhardt.
at Aspern: in the 4th-5th Column (Rosenberg) under command of the FML baron Martin von Dedovich, again Brig. Hessen Homburg. The regiment was attached to the 5th Column on the left bank of the Russbach between Deutsch-Wagram and Baumersdorf. It had the task to attack Essling and did it for the two battledays. At Aspern it lost 68 men dead, 385 wounded and 19 missing, with no prisoners fallen in French hands.
at Wagram: in the 4th Corps (Rosenberg) with the division Hohenlohe Bartenstein, Brig. Hessen Homburg. At 4 AM of July 6, after a day of defensive combats, the 4th Corps formed three columns. Two had orders to attack and seize the area between Grosshofen and Glinzendorf, the third (cavalry) to support the left flank and to link with archduke John’s Corps. The first column under prince Hohenlohe was practcally the prince Hessen-Homburg brigade. They had to seize Grosshofen and they did it. The French cavalry counterattack sent the regiment backwards. Having a new line along the Russbach, partially defended in skirmish order, the regiment was attacked by the French division Morand (the 3rd battalion in square, was attacked by the French Guard cavalry). The regiment lost 44 men dead, 277 wounded, 216 missing.
The Rosemberg’s troops were not at the battle of Znaim, crossing the Thaya river at Laa.
Upper Hungary was an historical area of current Slovakia. Historically there were different meanings:
1. The older Hungarian term Felső-Magyarország (literally: "Upper Hungary"; Slovak: Horné Uhorsko; German: Oberungarn) formally referred to what is today Slovakia in the 16th-18th centuries and informally to all the northern parts of the Kingdom of Hungary in the 19th century.
2. The Hungarian Felvidék (literally: "Upper Country", "Upland", "Highland"; Slovak: Horná zem; German: Oberland) has had several informal meanings:
In the 19th century and part of the 18th, it was usually used:
After Transylvania, Upper Hungary (the territory of present day Slovakia), was the most advanced part of the Kingdom of Hungary for centuries (the most urbanized part, intense mining of gold and silver), but in the 19th century, when Buda/Pest became the new capital of the kingdom, the importance of the territory, as well as other parts within the Kingdom fell, and many Slovaks were impoverished.
K.K. IR 34 – FML-FZM baron Paul Davidovich - 3 battalions 
Recruitment: 2 Depot Companies at Kaschau with Brig. Elsnitz under Alvinczy. Staff at Sandomir (Galicia) and Cracow. It began the war in the Brig. GM Graf Karl Civalart (Div. Hohenzollern) then in campaign with Brig. Trautenberg, Div. Mondet, VII Corps, archduke Ferdinand.
before Aspern: on April 4, the regiment left the works in Sandomierz to reach the Brig. Pflacher at Opatow. The brigade (3 Battalion Davidovich, 3 Battalion Weidenfeld IR 37 plus one six pdr. battery) marched to Odrzywól to reach the division Mondet. At Raszyn the regiment took position on the road to Jaworów, in front of the height of Wygoda Karczina, part of the GM Mohr vanguard (together with 2 walachian battalions and six sqns.) The regiment attacked the village of Falenty and advanced till Raszyn. It had very few losses: 1 man wounded and 4 prisoners. On April 23 they entered Warsaw. In May the 2nd Battalion was with colonel Mercy on garrison duties.
at Aspern: on May 22, the Corps left Poland in order to defend Galicia gainst the russian advance. Div. Schauroth with 5 Battalion and 13 sqns. marched to Opatow (with the 1st battalion under obertslieutenant Geiger).
between Aspern and Wagram: on June 3, the Corps vanguard Brig. Geringer (with 2nd and 3rd Battalion) were at Opatow with orders to reach Sandomierz. Two companies attacked in that place, but with poor luck: they lost 9 men dead, 12 wounded and 160 prisoners. On June 6 the archduke ordered a probe attack against Sandomierz. The 2nd battalion was in first line and lost 2 dead, 41 wounded and 12 prisoners.
During the night on June 16 the Austrian attacked again Sandomierz. GM Geringer divided the attacker in four columns:
1st Column Oberstlieutenant Geiger: 1st Battalion IR 34; IR 24 Strauch 3 comp; 1 Sqn. towards Andruszkowice;
2nd Column under Major Peremanns: 2nd Battalion IR 34; IR 24 Strauch 2 comp at Koberniki;
3rd Column under colonel Schmelzern: 3rd Battalion IR 34; IR 24 Strauch 2 comp; 2 Sqns. at the Marien-Kapelle on the Opatow road.
4th Column under major Szinkovics: one Battalion IR 37 Weidenfeld; IR 24 Strauch 3 comp; at Kruków.
20 guns prepared the attack shooting from 11 PM till 1 AM in the night. However the town resisted and the Austrian went back losing (the 34th regiment) 24 officers and 700 men (107 dead, 331 wounded, 163 prisoners, 123 missing, 32 of whom later rejoined the unit). Polish general Sokolnicki surrendered on June 18, making that sacrifice totally unuseful.
In the meanwhile FML Schauroth division (Brig. Geringer, Pflacher and Speth) concentrade its troops near Opatow waiting for the joint Russo-Polish push. The regiment (now with only 2287 men) took position at Ostrowiec (3rd Battalion), Iwaniska (2nd Battalion) and Radom (1st Battalion).
at Wagram: the VII Corps retreated till Wadowice district, having lost Cracow (Russians) and there had the new of the Znaim armistice.
Spiš (Slovak; Latin: Scepusium, German: Zips, Hungarian: Szepesség, Polish: Spisz) is a region in the current north-eastern Slovakia, with a very small area in south-eastern Poland and a former county of Hungary (Szepes). The subsidiary of the Hungarian Chamber (the supreme Habsburg financial and economy institution in the Kingdom of Hungary) responsible for eastern Slovakia and adjacent territories (i.e. not only for Szepes) was called the Szepes Chamber (Zipser Kammer in German), and it existed from 1563 to 1848. Its seat was the town of Kassa, today Košice, sometimes Eperjes, (today's Prešov).
During the medieval time the Zips town had many privileges. After the Polish conquest the privileged status became to fade away (they however maintained some autonomy, in respect of the Polish kings, who did not change the privileges) and it was created the "Province/Union of 13 Szepesi towns" in 1412. The remaining 11 towns of the former 24 towns, which created the "Province/Union of 11 Szepesi towns", were not able to maintain their privileges and as early as in 1465 they were fully incorporated into the Szepes county, i. e. they became subjects of the lords of the Spiš Castle. Most of them gradually turned into simple villages and largely lost their German character.
Maria Theresa of Austria decided to recover them by force: she took advantage of the Polish noble insurrections in the second half of the 18th century and occupied the towns in 1769 (with the apparent consent of the then Polish king Stanislaus II of Poland) without debt repayment. This act was confirmed by the First Partition of Poland in 1772. In 1773 when the pawn was cancelled. In 1778 the 13 towns regained their privileges of 1271, the privileges were extended to the other 3 previously pawned towns, and this newly formed entity was named "Province of 16 Szepes towns". The capital of the province was Spišská Nová Ves. However, the privileges were gradually reduced and some 100 years later only religious and cultural rights remained. Finally, the province was dissolved altogether and incorporated into Szepes county in 1876.
The German people widely dwelling the area during the napoleonic wars, progressively decreased. According to censuses carried out in the Kingdom of Hungary in 1869 the population of Spiš county comprised the following nationalities: Slovaks 50.4%, Germans 35%, Ruthenians (Rusyns) 13.8% and 0.7% Magyars (Hungarians). Hardly any Hungarians lived in the territory during the existence of the Kingdom of Hungary.
K.K. IR 60 – FZM Graf Ignaz Gyulai von Máros-Nemeth und Nadaska - 3 battalions 
Recruitment: 2 Depot Companies at Eperjes Brig. Elsnitz under Alvinczy. Staff at Tarnow (Galicia) moved to Retz (Austria) under brig. GM Federico Bianchi, V Corps.
before Aspern: entered Bavaria with the V Corps archduke Louis, Division FML prince Henry XV Reuss-Plauen, Brig. GM baron Federico Bianchi. At Abensberg the brigade was sent ahead to support the battered brig. Thierry, without success. During the retreat, on April 21, the 3rd battalion was sent to Seelingthal and Landshut, in the center of the incoming battle, in order to support the rearguard of GM Radetzky. Led by the Oberstleutnant baron Joseph von der Trenck, the battalion was part of the Detachment colonel baron Emerich de Bakonyi, former regiment’s oberstlieutenant and actually colonel commander of IR 39 Duka. Defending Seelingthal town and the half destroyed bridges the regiment lost 15 men dead, many wounded and around 136 prisoners (with 9 supply wagons, the blacksmith workshop and 22 train horses). On April 22 it came under the united Corps of FML Hiller. It fought at Neumarkt (110 dead, 116 wounded), Efferding (lost 235 prisoners) and Ebelsberg (Brig. Bianchi; it lost 4 dead, many wounded and 96 prisoners) being now definitively part of the VI Corps baron Hiller, Div. FML Friedrich von Kottulinsky, from May 17. The 3rd Battalion was disbanded in order to replace the 1st and 2nd Battalion Then 994 men arrived from Eperjes as replacements.
at Aspern: it was in the 1st Column (VI Corps Hiller) with two battalions, 1717 men in the Brig. Bianchi (Div. von Kottulinsky under command of GM Hohenfeld), supporting also the Avant-garde Brig. Nordmann and being part of it during the attack against Aspern (extreme right wing of the 1st column, area of Au). It lost at Aspern 55 men dead, 81 prisoners and 367 wounded. On May 25, FML Klenau took command of the VI Corps.
between Aspern and Wagram: on May 28 the Brig. Bianchi was detached to the Pressburg defence. On June 23 archduke John took command at Pressburg and Bianchi returned to the VI Corps. On July 2 the regiment received the 3rd battalion (major Fligely).
at Wagram: was with the VI Corps, Div. Hohenfeld, Brig. Bianchi and retreated after two days of battle.
after Wagram: the 3rd battalion retreated with FML Wallmoden Corps till Korneuburg where it fought with Masséna. FML Klenau with the main group was, on July 9, at Ober Hollabrunn (combat of Schöngraben), with the regiment under its former commander GM Máriássy. At Wagram and during the retreat the regiment lost: 29 men dead, 186 wounded, 89 prisoners and 92 missing (a total of 396). It did not fight at Znaim.
The Siege of Pressburg
Austrian imperial units built a fortified bridgehead on the right bank of the Danube on the site of today's Sad Janko Kral near Petrzalke (Engerau). The defenders were 5672 men with 22 guns, commanded by general Bianchi, with two battalions of the K.K. IR 60, Slovak soldiers from northern Hungary. The French failed to capture the bridgehead cattle even after some bloody attacks and an heavy bombing of the city, both unable to break resistance. Fortress Pressburg resisted opening its gates only on July 14, on the basis of the ceasefire after the lost battles, for the Austrians, at Wagram and Znaim. Being Pressburg hard to hit, however the town suffered several fires, which put in ashes 143 houses and killed hundreds of people. French artillery attacks are today witnessed by the cannonballs in the walls of few houses.
The troops in Pressburg were:
Brigade GM Josef Hoffmeister von Hoffenegg (2 sqns. O’Reilly Chevaulegers then 7 sqns. 870 c., IR 58 Johann Peter baron von Beaulieu-Marconnay – 2 Battalion 1420 men.
16 6pdr guns, 4 12 pdr guns and 2 7 inch. howitzers.
Brig. GM Federico Bianchi; IR 60 FZM Graf Ignaz Gyulai – 2 Battalion (1265); IR 39 Duka 2 Battalion (914 men).
May 28 – Landwehr Brigade GM count Rudolf von Sinzendorff - Niederösterreichische Landwehr battalions Schönborn (640 m.) – Gilais (538) – Praschma (460) and Beisselt (435).
K.K. IR 33 – former FZM Graf Anton Sztáray - 3 battalions – 1809 first vacant then
K.K. IR 33 – FZM-FML Graf Hyeronimus Colloredo-Mansfeld
Recruitment: 2 Depot Companies Brig. Kerekes in Pressburg under Alvinczy. Staff at Vienna. It began the campaign with V Corps archduke Louis, Div. Lindenau, Brig. Buol. Later in Brig. prince Hessen Homburg.
before Aspern: At Teugen with the 3rd Column Liechtenstein, the 1st Reserve Corps at Abensberg and Eggmühl. After the retreat in Bohemia it was attached to the IV Corps, Div. Hohenlohe Bartenstein, Brig. Reinhardt. It was always in the same brigade of the 2nd K.K. regiment (see above).
at Aspern: in the 4th Column (Rosenberg) under command of the FML baron Martin von Dedovich, again Brig. Hessen Homburg. The 2nd battalion under major Porubzky firmly stood under a French cavalry charge gaining many awards.
at Wagram: in the 4th Corps (Rosenberg) with the division Hohenlohe Bartenstein, Brig. Hessen Homburg. The Rosemberg’s troops were not at the battle of Znaim.
after Wagram: Garnison in Vienna.
 Number of slav civilians (Militär-Grenze people not included).
 According to Dienst Reglement (fur die kaiserliche königliche Infanterie, Wien 1807) there were 12 corporals (6 in peacetime) per fusilier and Grenzer company, 13 (6) per grenadier company, 12 (8) unter-jagers per jager company.
 Kirchthaler, Ludwig: Geschichte des k.u.k. Infanterie-Regiments Nr. 2 für immerwährende Zeiten Alexander I. Kaiser von Rußland. Wien: 1895.
 At Lambach von Buol was called back to Klagenfurt and the brigade command was taken by prince Hessen. The oberstlieutenant von Torri took the regiment’s command.
 After the famous archduke Charles speech “Der Schutz des Vaterlandes ruft uns zu neuen Thaten .. and so on” the troops received, along with the order to advance, an extra supply of ¼ mug of cooked-wine (vin brulé) and 1 more pound of meat.
 Kreipner, Julius: Geschichte des k. und k. Infanterie-Regimentes Nr. 34 für immer-währende Zeiten Wilhelm I. Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen: 1733 - 1900. Kaschau: 1900.
 Dead at Sandomierz on June 16.
 Rupprecht von Virtsolog, Coloman: Geschichte des k. k. 60. Linien-Infanterie-Regimentes gegenwärtig Gustav Prinz von Wasa. Wien: 1871.
 Transferred after Wagram to IR 60 as colonel commander.
Placed on the Napoleon Series: December 2010
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