The Austrian Imperial-Royal Army (Kaiserliche-Königliche Heer) 1805 – 1809:
The Infantry: Austrian Feldjäger Battalions
In 1792 four Freikorps units were on duty with the Austrian army, the Tyroler-Schärfschützen-Corps, D'Aspre-Feld-Jäger-Corps, Le Loup-Feld-Jäger-Corps and Wurmserische-Frei-Corps, each consisting of about 1,000 men organised into two battalions.
With the organisation of the Light Infantry battalions
in 1798, the D'Aspre-Feld-Jäger was absorbed into this new system
whilst the Le Loup and Wurmserische Corps continued to act independently.
The Tyroler-Jäger, however, was reorganised into two battalions
of six companies each and, although remaining a Freikorps unit, was
brought into line with the organization of the line regiments. With
the dissolution of the Light Infantry Battalions in 1801, a regular
jäger regiment was formed from the cadre of troops existing and
titled the “Tyroler-Jäger-Regiment”, and established
with three battalions each of six companies organised in the same manner
as the line infantry fusiliers. The majority of the soldiers already
had experience working as Jägers with the Tyroler- Schärfschützen-Korp
and Le Loup-Feld-Jäger and the balance of recruits were taken
from volunteers of regiment n. 46, whose recruitment area was in the
From the beginning the Jägers operated as independent battalions, assigned to the various brigades, as required, and soon proved their worth in the field.  In 1805 the Regiment was officially taken into the line, given the number 64 and exclusive recruitment in Tirol and in 1808 seven new battalion were formed around experienced officers and N.C.O.s promoted from the existing battalions from recruits found in the Tirol, and skilled marksmen taken from other infantry regiments and the various estates throughout the Bohemian, Galician and Moravian regions, virtually denuding the country of skilled gamekeepers and hunters, as one prominent landowner of the day complained. An eleventh battalion was raised in 1809.
However, in order to fill the companies to full strength, only nine battalions took the field that year and in 1810 the battalions were cut back to a single division each of two companies plus a depot company. In 1812 moves were again made to bring the Jäger battalions up to full strength and nine full battalions, each with six companies of full 120 jäger strength, were fielded for the 1813 campaign and by the end of 1814 three new battalions, bringing the Regiment up to twelve full battalions, had been raised.
The force in peacetime of one of the 9 Jäger-divisionen was ruled by the Hofkriegsrat Anordnung of August 15, 1808, with the Patrouilleführer introduction of November 16, 1808 and the Ärzte (Medical) organization of August 14, 1811.
The Jäger divisions had to form a battalion in war-time. In the case of a war they prewieved these upgrades:
On November 16, 1808, the Hofkriegsrat disposed: 
Therefore, we dispose that, each of the existing 6 Jäger divisions, from December 1st, must organize itself, under the command of their current field officers, into a battalion of 6 companies, and that they have to be considered and to be treated as Cadres for the raising of the whole battalion.
The complete peacetime strength of such battalion of 6 companies it will be of 860 men:
The provisional strength of the companies and their organisation was calculated only according to the actual effectiveness of every division, after which would had lacked approximately 50-60 men for every company. A Jäger battalion had to be commanded by a Major Oberstlieutenant or a Colonel, the company by a captain or by a Capitänlieutenant.  Companies’ platoons were led by an Oberleutnant (o an Unterleutnant and eventually by an Oberjäger).
Initially the six companies of the same battalion had different garrisons,  one for each company, but, early in 1809 also the Jäger battalions raised their Depots. Early in 1809 it had also the Stabstrompeter (Staff trumpet). In wartimes a subaltern officer was appointed as Proviantmeister of the battalion; he had the task to command the Train and the transports director (Wagenmeister), the servants, the Train watching etc. In wartimes came also one Unterjäger as transports director, one Profos and one ordered gunsmith (Büchsenmacher).
The recruitments of the officers took place between the pupils of the Neustadt Military Academy or good NCOs and Cadetten. The emperor appointed the Staff officers, the Hofkriegsrath appointed the High officers.
The complements came from the inscriptions to the levy lists (Assentierung) by the oldest pupils of the regiment’s education houses (Regimentserziehungshäuser), by voluntary enrollment and by the way of the regular conscription positions.
Jäger battalions had to accept either lawful Austrian citizens (Inlander), either foreigners, with the residents having to be free from duty or coming from the regiment dismissed veterans, whilst it was necessary to have some trustworthiness about foreigners.
If the Jäger battalions could not fully cover the stated numbers for peacetime by own recruitment, they yearly became complete by conscription (Konskription) of appropriate people. First these “second hand” recruits were tested by the Jägers for four weeks; then the unsuitable ones, to Jäger duty, were checked by an official commission of the general command and without its authorization they were sent back to their pertaining regiments, by which they had been served.
Every Jäger division, which in wartimes had to form a whole battalion, had to have a Reserve division (two companies of Cadres). The Reserves (Cadres) could enroll even common citizens skilled in hunting, young hunters and those who were able to act as fine shooters, snipers, proven hunters serving local Lords, as also Schützen, who already exhibited their attachment to the Army. In the case those kind of fellows would have already enrolled for infantry Reserve, they had to be transferred directly into the Jäger Reserve.
Active military service lasted 10 years, after which began the Reserve duty (Reservedienstpflicht) till the age of 40. At the end of his military Duty time the soldiers could enter a futher enrollment or „Capitulation" for other 6-10 years and renew once again also this. The renewing enlistment men or Capitulanten enjoyed different promotions. In example retired soldiers had a farewell award, while badly dismissed men had a “Laufpass” (a jilting card).
The minimal height for a Jäger was 163 cm, but when the men lacked, they accepted also 160 cm men.
The common recruitment fee for the regular recruits amounted to 3 fl.,  while the fee for the Konfinen recruits was 30-40 fl., for the Foreigners  it was 10 fl., for voluntary recruits, free from military Duty (Konskriptionsbefreite) was 15 fl.
Jäger gradually changed some items of the old uniforms, maintaining their original (Austrian) dark blue-grey (Hechtgrau) coats. The helmet was abandoned for the corsican hut, with a small green Plume and attached bands which closed, under the chin, with a small leather button; the hat plate, shaped as an hearth, had in the middle the battalion number. The prescribed gaiters, however still not available, had 18-14 buttons. Practically Jäger wore knee-long boots, as officers did, and obtained officially gaiters only in 1818. Also the little Plume was soon again abolished. The Capitulanten, also called Veterans, since July 11, 1807, at the moment of the new enlistment, received a small shield as award, with the word “Veteranis” overwritten, which was brought on the left chest side as a pin.
NCOs and the best Jäger (in the third rank) were armed with the short rifle (Jägerstutzen model 1795), for sniping fire, the first and second ranks had the Jägerkarabiner model 1807, which granted a less sharp fire volley. The short rifle had a barrel of 67 cm (same length of the bayonet) in malleable iron with a caliber of 13,7 mm. In campaign the NCOs had 30 ball-cartridges, Jäger with carbine 60 and Jäger with Stutzen 100; each had 3-5 flintstones.
Jäger battalions moved in “Mass” formation. The Mass was useful to move a battalion so rapidly as possible from a place, to pivot it in new directions and to serve as a marching formation during the battles.
Austrian Feld-Jäger Battalions in 1809
Feldjägerbataillon n. 1 – the “Lutz Jägers”
Feldjägerbataillon n. 2 – “Arno” Jägers
- after Wagram: with Div. Frimont.
Feldjägerbataillon n. 3 – “Baroni” Jägers
Commander: Major-Oberstleutnant Daniele Baroni-Cavalcabò 
Depot: had to be at Eferding (Upper Austria), near the Bavarian border, but actually it was raised at Theresienstadt (today Terezin) under Oberleutnant Plisnier (coomander of the Depot company). The Kader company had 2 officers, 1 Oberjäger, 6 Unterjägern, 1 Unterarzt, 1 Fourierschütz, 1 Trompeter, 1 Zimmermann, 60 men, 1 Privatdiener (total of 74 men). The battalion’s Train had 7 light wagons (Leiterwagen with 7 drivers – Knechte – and 14 train horses) and 12 pack horse with related drivers. It had also a Marketender or supplies seller.  - 1 Reserve company (Kader) with Brig. Novak in Jungbunzlau (today Mladá Boleslav in central Bohemia), Div Schönthal under Riesch and Loudon.
Feldjägerbataillon n. 4 – “Piombazzi” Jägers
Feldjägerbataillon n. 5 –“Suden“ Jägers
Feldjägerbataillon n. 6 – “Zaborsky” Jägers
Feldjägerbataillon n. 7 – “Steffanini” Jägers
- at Wagram: Left Wing avant-garde brigade Frelich (Fröhlich), Division Nordmann.
Feldjägerbataillon n. 8 – the “Achter” or “Deutsche” Jägers
Commander: Oberstleutnant Hieronymus Mumb
Recruitment: provinces of the German Austria then Inner Austria.
Depot: Wels. 1 Reserve company (Kader) under Brig. Sinzendorf in Linz, Div. Anton Mittrowsky under O’Reilly.
- before Aspern: was at Wels (Brig. GM Carl Dollmayer von Provenchères, Wels – Div. FML baron Josef von Stipsicz, Linz). Later Brig. Peter Vécsey, Div. Klenau, II Corps then Brigade comte Carl Crenneville, avant-garde Div. Klenau, II Corps Carl Kolowrat-Krakowsky; detached at Hemau, had a small clash near Ratisbon (April 23) returning later to the Brig. Vécsey, again autonomous, II Corps. After the Archduke Charles retreat it destroyed the Nittenau bridge to cover the withdrawal and finally marched to Bohemia with 3rd Column - FML prince Hohenzollern, avant-garde brigade Vécsey.
Feldjägerbataillon n. 9 – “Kärnten” or “Göldling” Jägers
Its Depot company was with the Brig. Hardegg (detached). On April 23 the commander, Oberstlieutenant Baron Göldlin, marched towards Zambano and attacked general Fontanelli at Bosco di Velo, together with the Tiroler Landsturm. The day after two companies fought near Murazzo. On April 28 the battalion was split, 3 companies were on the Austrian left wing in South Tirol, the other on the right wing near Innsbruck; the remaining two companies were in Reserve. Half company was also involved in the heroic defense of pass Strub, with its commander Göldlin against the Bavarians of Division Wrede.
Some Jäger companies, listed in the 1809 situations and army lists, were not part of the Feldjäger corps. Their real identity or origin is not known:
Some quoted Jägers were companies of volunteers as the Salzburger Jäger (see also Volunteers) :
As for other campaigning Jäger: Arader, Carneville, Archduke John (Salzburger), Lobkowitz, Niederösterreicher, Prager, Schlegenbergische (Wiener), Siebenbürgische, Thurnsche, Triester, Wattrich (1st Bn. Legion Archduke Charles), see under Landwehr and Volunteers units.
Jäger Organisation between 1808 and 1815
Note that IR 64 (Tiroler Jäger Rgt.) was disbanded in 1808 and nine new divisions (then batallions) were raised, followed by three more in 1813 (see table).
 The Jäger Batallions (as the Tiroler Jäger Regiment) were more than "simple light troops". Until the end of the monarchy the Jäger units were more notable or respectable than the normal infantry regiments. They all were trained to fight in closed as well as in open formation. Additionally they had no simple muskets but rifles and much more shooting exercise than the infantry. Because of all that the recruitment selection was much more severe than the recruitment of infantry men. Courtesy of Leopold Kudma (Napoleon Series).
 Sittig Heinrich (lieutenant.), Geschichte des k. w. k. Feldjäger-bataillons nr. 1. 1808-1908, gebrüder Stiepel, 1908.
 This military rank had the following origin: with the birth of the infantry Regiments, Owners and field officers were formerly also proprietors of a company; while the “Capitäns” were appointed for all other companies of the regiment, the “Capitänlieutenanten” got the command of the first Company, the Owner’s one; then there were not Lieutenants (and not yet “Ober” lieutenants) who could differentiate the higher officers. With the Captains they became the “chief people” or “Hauptleute”, and the word Capitänlieutenant became, in the course of the time, a real military rank, while originally belonging only to a genering meaning of subaltern officer.
 This was, for example, the peacetime quarters for the companies of the 1st Jäger battalion: Staff and 1st company Taus, 2nd comp. Klentsch, 3rd comp. Medaken, 4th comp. Ronsperg, 5th comp. Heiligenkreuz, 6th comp. Holtau.
 In Austria there were 4 monetary systems. The main one had the Gulden (Reichsgulden) or forint (Fl. or Florin in latin; German: or Hungarian: forint) as currency of the Austrian Empire since 1754 (till 1892 when it was replaced by the Krone as part of the introduction of the gold standard). In Austria, the Gulden was initially divided into 60 Kreuzer (a kreuzer, Kr., was 4 pfennig), and in Hungary, the forint was divided into 100 hungarian Pfennige (or 60 krajczár). In Galicia there was the Polnischen (polish) Gulden, 80 of which made the Cöllnische Mark in fine silver; in the italian territories Austria had the Lire (each of 20 Soldi, each Soldo = 12 Denari). The home Exchange rates of 1812 were: 1 Gulden = 5 Lire (1 Lira = 12 Kreuzer). Joseph C. Bisinger, General-Statistik des österreichischen Kaiserthumes: ein Versuch, Verlag Geistinger, 1807.
 The other way for a foreigner (Ausländer) to serve the Austrian army was to enter the army during his (maybe holiday) stay in one of the Austrian countries. These two ways existed for a foreigner to enter the Austrian army. So Ausländer-Werbung (recruitment of foreigners) consisted of the "Konfinen-Werbung" (Konfinen recruitment) and of the recruitment of Ausländer within the Austrian empire. Courtesy of Leopold Kudma (Napoleon Series)
 Light Divisions were units formed by Jäger, Volunteers and light cavalry, which had mainly vanguard or rearguard tasks.
 Company Hauptmann von Wechs, Brigade Am-Ende (then Radivojevich). May 25, clash at Peterwalde. In June Am-Ende was reached by the Brunswick volunteers (duke of Brunswick-Oels Corps) and fought a clash at Wilsdruff (June 12). The 5th company was attached to the Brunswick Corps under FML Kienmayer (combat of Gefrees on June 8).
 Freiherr Carl Schneider in 1799 was a Fähnrich of the Italian 4th Light infantry battalion Bach (Corps Klenau). When the “Viva Maria” insurrection outbroke in Tuscany (Arezzo and Cortona), the insurgents asked the Austrian Command to have an Officer, who could led the peasants in battle. Klenau proposed Schneider and FZM Kray gave his approval. On June 16 the young Officer reached Arezzo and began to organize his troops. He raised a “division” of 6000 trained rebels in a mass of 30000 armed peasants and was helped by the former florentine general InghiramI He occupied Florence, Siena and Livorno clearing all the French weak garrisons. In August he captured Perugia and then marched against the Roman territory. In November he was openly praised by general Fröhlich for his conduct (also Suvorov mentioned him as an example). The man who actually had led up to 45000 insurgents, 4000 of which completely equipped, 1200 trained cavalrymen and an artillery battalion, organized with captured guns, returned to his battalion at Sarzana. The Emperor awarded him with the promotion to Capitän-Leutnant and granted him the use of the “von Arno” suffix, in order to remember the main Tuscany’s river (officially this from 1819). Later he was also awarded with the Commander Cross of the Tuscany’s Order of St.Joseph.
 Promoted Lieutenant-Colonel on May 22, 1809.
 A light wagon or wooden handcart was a wooden, biaxial vehicle (4 wheeled) with train pole and with wooden poles cover sides. The standings provided for the 3rd battalion can be actually referred to all other Jäger battalions. Karl Kandelsdorfer, Geschichte des K.u.k. Feld-jäger-bataillons Nr. 3 dermal Feld-bataillon Nr. 13 der Tiroler Kaiser-jäger, E. Vergani & comp., 1899.
 Like a sutler or victualer, but not a civilian merchant, rather a military supplier who selled provisions to army in field, in camp or in quarters.
 Some sources quoted Marco (Markus) Ritter von Piombazzi from Arco (Trentino). Count from 1812.
 Oberstleutnant Scheibler of the Chevaulegers Vincent led a special corps of 600 men with order to harass the Bavarians along the Danube. In the 1809 campaign (like in 1813), in spite of the war shortness, they were created special Streifkörper or large columns (detachment) of fast moving units, for the guidance of the “small war” against the flanks and the rear line of communications of the enemies. The rapid striking Streifkorps, so, was formed almost completely by army detachment, not volunteers or territorial units.
 Baron Göldlin von Tiffenau led the stubborn defense of the pass Strub (May 11), with an half Jäger company, a company of the infantry n. 45 De Vaux and 4 companies of the Tiroler Landsturm, against 3000 (?) Bavarians supported by 4 guns of 12 pdrs. and howitzers. Göldlin received the MTO Knight Cross in 1810 for that episode.
Placed on the Napoleon Series: April 2010
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