Military Subjects: Organization, Strategy & Tactics

The Austrian Imperial-Royal Army (Kaiserliche-Königliche Heer) 1805 – 1809:

The Infantry: Austrian Feldjäger Battalions

By Enrico Acerbi

 

In 1792 four Freikorps units were on duty with the Austrian army, the Tyroler-Schärfschützen-Corps, D'Aspre-Feld-Jäger-Corps, Le Loup-Feld-Jäger-Corps and Wurmserische-Frei-Corps, each consisting of about 1,000 men organised into two battalions.

With the organisation of the Light Infantry battalions in 1798, the D'Aspre-Feld-Jäger was absorbed into this new system whilst the Le Loup and Wurmserische Corps continued to act independently. The Tyroler-Jäger, however, was reorganised into two battalions of six companies each and, although remaining a Freikorps unit, was brought into line with the organization of the line regiments. With the dissolution of the Light Infantry Battalions in 1801, a regular jäger regiment was formed from the cadre of troops existing and titled the “Tyroler-Jäger-Regiment”, and established with three battalions each of six companies organised in the same manner as the line infantry fusiliers. The majority of the soldiers already had experience working as Jägers with the Tyroler- Schärfschützen-Korp and Le Loup-Feld-Jäger and the balance of recruits were taken from volunteers of regiment n. 46, whose recruitment area was in the Tyrol.
Jager1

From the beginning the Jägers operated as independent battalions, assigned to the various brigades, as required, and soon proved their worth in the field. [1] In 1805 the Regiment was officially taken into the line, given the number 64 and exclusive recruitment in Tirol and in 1808 seven new battalion were formed around experienced officers and N.C.O.s promoted from the existing battalions from recruits found in the Tirol, and skilled marksmen taken from other infantry regiments and the various estates throughout the Bohemian, Galician and Moravian regions, virtually denuding the country of skilled gamekeepers and hunters, as one prominent landowner of the day complained. An eleventh battalion was raised in 1809.

However, in order to fill the companies to full strength, only nine battalions took the field that year and in 1810 the battalions were cut back to a single division each of two companies plus a depot company. In 1812 moves were again made to bring the Jäger battalions up to full strength and nine full battalions, each with six companies of full 120 jäger strength, were fielded for the 1813 campaign and by the end of 1814 three new battalions, bringing the Regiment up to twelve full battalions, had been raised.

The force in peacetime of one of the 9 Jäger-divisionen was ruled by the Hofkriegsrat Anordnung of August 15, 1808, with the Patrouilleführer introduction of November 16, 1808 and the Ärzte (Medical) organization of August 14, 1811.

Staff

Jäger division

   

1

Stabsoffizier as Commander

1

Ober-Arzt

2

Unter-Arzt

2

Fourieren

1

Fourierschützen

6

total


 

Jäger division (two companies)

   

2

Hauptmann

or 2

Capitan-Lieutenant

2

Oberlieutenant

4

Unterlieutenant

4

Oberjäger

16

Unterjäger

20

Patrouilleführern

2

Fourierschützen

4

Trompetern

2

Zimmerleuten

6

Privatdiener

240

Gemeinen Jäger

6

Gemeinen Jäger zu Privatdiensten

282

Total

 

260

of which, firearms

The Jäger divisions had to form a battalion in war-time. In the case of a war they prewieved these upgrades:

 

Jäger division companies (each)

   

4

Unterjäger

10

Patrouilleführer

1

Zimmermann

10

Jäger (ober and unter ?)

On November 16, 1808, the Hofkriegsrat disposed: [2]

“The current set up and dislocation of the Jäger divisions and the management of their Reserve, proves itself the need that, currently being these divisions already six and afoot, just more compagnien must divide themselves by serving detachments. So a fast recruitment of the original battalion will be possibly prepared and brilliantly facilitated, without causing an important expenditure ....”

Therefore, we dispose that, each of the existing 6 Jäger divisions, from December 1st, must organize itself, under the command of their current field officers, into a battalion of 6 companies, and that they have to be considered and to be treated as Cadres for the raising of the whole battalion.

The complete peacetime strength of such battalion of 6 companies it will be of 860 men:

Staff

Jäger battalion

   

1

Stabsoffizier as Commander

1

Ober-Arzt

1

Bataillons-Adjutanten

5

Unter-Ärzten

4

Fourieren

1

Fourierschützen

1

Privatdiener

14

total


 

Jäger battalion’s company

   

1

Hauptmann or Capitan-Lieutenant

   

1

Oberlieutenant

2

Unterlieutenant

2

Oberjäger

8

Unterjäger

10

Patrouilleführern

1

Fourierschützen

2

Trompetern

1

Zimmerleuten

3

Privatdiener

110

Gemeinen Jäger

   

141

Total in peacetime


 

Jäger battalion

6

companies

6

Hauptmann or Capitan-Lieutenant

   

6

Oberlieutenant

12

Unterlieutenant

12

Oberjäger

48

Unterjäger

60

Patrouilleführern

6

Fourierschützen

12

Trompetern

6

Zimmerleuten

18

Privatdiener

660

Gemeinen Jäger

860

Total with Staff

846

lesser Total

The provisional strength of the companies and their organisation was calculated only according to the actual effectiveness of every division, after which would had lacked approximately 50-60 men for every company. A Jäger battalion had to be commanded by a Major Oberstlieutenant or a Colonel, the company by a captain or by a Capitänlieutenant. [3] Companies’ platoons were led by an Oberleutnant (o an Unterleutnant and eventually by an Oberjäger).

Initially the six companies of the same battalion had different garrisons, [4] one for each company, but, early in 1809 also the Jäger battalions raised their Depots. Early in 1809 it had also the Stabstrompeter (Staff trumpet). In wartimes a subaltern officer was appointed as Proviantmeister of the battalion; he had the task to command the Train and the transports director (Wagenmeister), the servants, the Train watching etc. In wartimes came also one Unterjäger as transports director, one Profos and one ordered gunsmith (Büchsenmacher).

The recruitments of the officers took place between the pupils of the Neustadt Military Academy or good NCOs and Cadetten. The emperor appointed the Staff officers, the Hofkriegsrath appointed the High officers.

The complements came from the inscriptions to the levy lists (Assentierung) by the oldest pupils of the regiment’s education houses (Regimentserziehungshäuser), by voluntary enrollment and by the way of the regular conscription positions.

Jäger battalions had to accept either lawful Austrian citizens (Inlander), either foreigners, with the residents having to be free from duty or coming from the regiment dismissed veterans, whilst it was necessary to have some trustworthiness about foreigners.

If the Jäger battalions could not fully cover the stated numbers for peacetime by own recruitment, they yearly became complete by conscription (Konskription) of appropriate people. First these “second hand” recruits were tested by the Jägers for four weeks; then the unsuitable ones, to Jäger duty, were checked by an official commission of the general command and without its authorization they were sent back to their pertaining regiments, by which they had been served.

Every Jäger division, which in wartimes had to form a whole battalion, had to have a Reserve division (two companies of Cadres). The Reserves (Cadres) could enroll even common citizens skilled in hunting, young hunters and those who were able to act as fine shooters, snipers, proven hunters serving local Lords, as also Schützen, who already exhibited their attachment to the Army. In the case those kind of fellows would have already enrolled for infantry Reserve, they had to be transferred directly into the Jäger Reserve.

Active military service lasted 10 years, after which began the Reserve duty (Reservedienstpflicht) till the age of 40. At the end of his military Duty time the soldiers could enter a futher enrollment or „Capitulation" for other 6-10 years and renew once again also this. The renewing enlistment men or Capitulanten enjoyed different promotions. In example retired soldiers had a farewell award, while badly dismissed men had a “Laufpass” (a jilting card).

The minimal height for a Jäger was 163 cm, but when the men lacked, they accepted also 160 cm men.

The common recruitment fee for the regular recruits amounted to 3 fl., [5] while the fee for the Konfinen recruits was 30-40 fl., for the Foreigners [6] it was 10 fl., for voluntary recruits, free from military Duty (Konskriptionsbefreite) was 15 fl.

jagerJäger gradually changed some items of the old uniforms, maintaining their original (Austrian) dark blue-grey (Hechtgrau) coats. The helmet was abandoned for the corsican hut, with a small green Plume and attached bands which closed, under the chin, with a small leather button; the hat plate, shaped as an hearth, had in the middle the battalion number. The prescribed gaiters, however still not available, had 18-14 buttons. Practically Jäger wore knee-long boots, as officers did, and obtained officially gaiters only in 1818. Also the little Plume was soon again abolished. The Capitulanten, also called Veterans, since July 11, 1807, at the moment of the new enlistment, received a small shield as award, with the word “Veteranis” overwritten, which was brought on the left chest side as a pin.

NCOs and the best Jäger (in the third rank) were armed with the short rifle (Jägerstutzen model 1795), for sniping fire, the first and second ranks had the Jägerkarabiner model 1807, which granted a less sharp fire volley. The short rifle had a barrel of 67 cm (same length of the bayonet) in malleable iron with a caliber of 13,7 mm. In campaign the NCOs had 30 ball-cartridges, Jäger with carbine 60 and Jäger with Stutzen 100; each had 3-5 flintstones.

Jäger battalions moved in “Mass” formation. The Mass was useful to move a battalion so rapidly as possible from a place, to pivot it in new directions and to serve as a marching formation during the battles.

Austrian Feld-Jäger Battalions in 1809

Jager1809

Feldjägerbataillon n. 1 – the “Lutz Jägers”

Commander: Major-Oberstleutnant  Carl Lutz

Recruitment: Bohemia

depot: Brüx (town Most, in northern Bohemia) then at Josefstadt (Bohemia)– 1 Reserve company (Kader) with Brig. Rosenhayn in Horaschdowitz (Horažďovice, Bohemia), Div. Richter under Riesch and Loudon in Bohemia.

- before Aspern: in January Brig. Count Carl Crenneville (Klattau) – Div. FML Carl von Hennequin (Prague) – deployed at Tauš (today Domažlice) at the bohemian border watching the road to Regensburg (Ratisbon in Bavaria). Later Brig. Winzingerode, light Div. [7] Fresnel, I Corps when it had a strength of 1010 men; April 8, Brig. Ignaz Hardegg, Div. Fresnel, I Corps while the 5th company remained in northern Bohemia under Am-Ende (Theresienstadt) to watch the Saxony border.[8]

It began the “Freedom for Europe” Archduke Charles’ campaign. April 19 again with Brig. Winzingerode, light Div. Fresnel. During the retreat towards Bohemia was with rearguard brigade Nostitz; then the 3rd company covered the retreat fighting at Kehlheim (April 23). On April 28 the battalion was at Waldmünchen again under brigade Winzingerode. On May 12, it began the advance towards the Marchfeld (Aspern and Wagram) with the vanguard Div. of FML Klenau, reaching Lang-Enzersdorf. 

- at Aspern: Brig. Ignaz Hardegg, Div. Klenau, avant-garde IV Corps: vanguard clash against the French bridgehead in front of Aderklaa. At Aspern was in the vanguard of the 4th and 5th columns, led by Hardegg distinguishing in the Esslingen battle (lost 234 men). 

- between Aspern and Wagram: with the avant-garde Nordmann (left Wing), then under Vécsey and after under Frelich. Von Lutz promoted to Colonel. On June 1st, the battalion had 5 companies with 457 men and 8 officers.

- at Wagram: Brig. Frelich, Div. Nordmann, I Corps attacked by the French brigade Conroux.

- after Wagram: during the retreat Nordmann chose castle Sachsengang as strongpoint. The 2nd, 3rd and 4th companies were taken prisoners, while the 1st and the 6th continued to fight (captain Count von Inzaghi). These two companies with the remnants of the 7th Jäger battalions were now under Radetzky rearguard of the IV Corps. From July 11 till 15 the “combined” battalion withdrew through Groß-Niemschitz, Austerlitz, Prossnitz till Nesamislitz where was reached by a division of the 8th Jäger, officially forming the “kombiniert Jäger” battalion under command of the Oberstleutnant Mumb (8th Jäger). On December 1809 under brigade Frelich, Div. Ulm.

Feldjägerbataillon n. 2 – “Arno” Jägers

Commander: Major-Oberstleutnant Baron Carl Schneider von Arno [9]

Recruitment: Bohemia.

Depot: Freistadt in Muhlviertel (Upper Austria) near the Bavarian border - 1 Reserve company (Kader) with Brig. Rosenhayn in Horaschdowitz (Horažďovice, Bohemia), Div. Richter, (another) 1 Reserve company with Brig. Szénassy in Jaromirz under Riesch and Loudon.

- before Aspern: it was at Landskron (Lanškroun in the Pardubitz region, eastern Bohemia) under Brig. GM Wenzel Buresch von Greifenbach at Chrudim and under Prague Div. FML Thomas von Brady. Later brigade Hardegg, avant-garde Division Fresnel von Hennequin, I Corps Bellegarde, when fought at Ursensollen (April 14) and distinguished itself by seizing the citadel of Berching. Then was with Brig. Nostitz, Div. Fresnel, I Corps and later marched to Bohemia with avant-garde brigade baron Wintzingerode-Ohmfeld, 2nd Column FML Bellegarde.

- at Aspern: Brig. Winzingerode, Div. Fresnel, 2nd Column FML Bellegarde; involved in the frontal assault against the village of Aspern, when Wacquant brigade occupied the village, while Winzingerode seized the Auen houses, behind it. After the battle, Bellegarde did write an honorary mention for the commander Schneider, Hauptmann Brand and lieutenant Hartlieb. A golden medal for bravery was awarded by Oberjäger Finkenberger and Unterjäger Schasser, who drone themselves in middle of the French Guard units, attacking a captain of the enemy army. After then was with the Brig. Stutterheim, Div. Fresnel, I Corps and also avant-garde Hardegg.

- between Aspern and Wagram: service at the Higher Command (Hauptquartier).

- at Wagram: fought at Aderklaa under brigade Stutterheim, Division Fresnel, I Corps Bellegarde and was in the same unit till the battle of Znaim, where it was in the second line between Leschna and Kukrowitz.

jager1809- after Wagram: with Div. Frimont. 

Feldjägerbataillon n. 3 – “Baroni” Jägers

Commander: Major-Oberstleutnant Daniele Baroni-Cavalcabò [10]

Recruitment: Bohemia. 

Depot: had to be at Eferding (Upper Austria), near the Bavarian border, but actually it was raised at Theresienstadt (today Terezin) under Oberleutnant Plisnier (coomander of the Depot company). The Kader company had 2 officers, 1 Oberjäger, 6 Unterjägern, 1 Unterarzt, 1 Fourierschütz, 1 Trompeter, 1 Zimmermann, 60 men, 1 Privatdiener (total of 74 men). The battalion’s Train had 7 light wagons (Leiterwagen[11] with 7 drivers – Knechte – and 14 train horses) and 12 pack horse with related drivers. It had also a Marketender or supplies seller. [12] - 1 Reserve company (Kader) with Brig. Novak in Jungbunzlau (today Mladá Boleslav in central Bohemia), Div Schönthal under Riesch and Loudon.

- before Aspern: it was at Teschen (Bohemia) under Brig. GM baron Carl Am-Ende at Leitmeritz (Div. FML baron Josef von Ulm – Prague). Later Brig. Winzingerode, Div. Fresnel, I Corps – marched from Teschen on February 25 throug Aussig, Teplitz reaching the new quarters at Postelberg (current Postoloprty-Czech Rep.)on February 28. Later avant-garde Winzingerode, Div. Vogelsang, I Corps with which “invaded” Bavaria (April 10); April 14, five hours of fire combat at Ursensollen (Bavaria); lost 144 men. Then the Retreat to Bohemia, with the “now” Rearguard-division Fresnel (April 29 at Trasenau near Taus); actual strength 805 men (595 Jäger). On May 12 brigade Nostitz, Division Vogelsang of I Corps and then attached to brigade Weissenwolf (V Corps Reuss-Plauen) with the task to watch Danube banks at Stöckerau. Combats at Lang-Enzersdorf and Schwarzelaken-Au.

- at Aspern: was in the Brig. Weissenwolf, autonomous, V Corps. Fought at Aspern-Essling. On June 16 it had 796 men (672 Jäger).

- at Wagram: not fought the battle, was in the Brig. Klebelsberg, autonomous, V Corps then Rearguard Brig. Klebelsberg, Div. Weissenwolff, V Corps. July 10, combat at Schöngrabern then battle of Znaim where it was on the Pöltenberg under brigade Winzian, V Corps.

- after Wagram: Brig. Klebelsberg, autonomous, V Corps then in Hungary with Div. Schustekh. Later again with the brigade Bianchi and, at the year’s end, under division Merville at the Bavarian border where it was reduced to two divisions.

Feldjägerbataillon n. 4 – “Piombazzi” Jägers

Commander: Major-Oberstleutnant Jakob Anton (Giacomo Antonio) Piombazzi [13]

Recruitment: Bohemia.

Depot: Gmunden in the Traunviertel, south of Linz.

- before Aspern: it was at Prachatitz (Brig. GM Johann von Schöntal at Budweis – Div. FML baron Josef von Ulm – Prague). Later Brig. Nostitz, Div. Fresnel, I Corps then brigade Hardegg, avant-garde Division Fresnel von Hennequin, I Corps Bellegarde, then Brig. Radetztky, Avantgarde, I Corps.

- between Aspern and Wagram: attached to Oberstleutnant Baron Scheibler (Streifkorps) [14]. During the battle of Aspern the Oberleutnant Rueber was assigned to the watch the entrenchments on Tabor island, at the confluence of river Enns into Danube, near Mauthausen. In the night of July 5 he made three assaults against the French-Bavarian detachments. For this assault Rueber was awarded with MTO Cross in 1810.

- at Wagram: Brig. Klebelsberg, autonomous, V Corps then brigade Count Klebelsberg, Division Weissenwolf, V Corps Reuss-Plauen. The battalion had rearguard tasks during the retreat and on July 9 fought at Schöngrabern were Piombazzi maintained the link with the IV Corps, with continuous and stressing struggles against the French patrols, being finally able to gather with the rest of the army.

- after Wagram: I Corps.

Feldjägerbataillon n. 5 –“Suden“ Jägers

Commander: Major-Oberstleutnant  Baron Georg Suden

Recruitment: Moravia.

Depot: Tepl (current Teplá in western Bohemia, bavarian Border) - 1 Reserve company with Brig. Pietsch in Troppau, Div. St.Julien under Argenteau.

- before Aspern: was at Butschowitz (Brig. GM Timothäus von Kérékes at Brünn, Div. FML marquis Franz Lusignan, Brünn). Later Brig. Crenneville, Div. Klenau, II Corps then brigade Baron Peter Vécsey, 3rd column

– I Reserve Corps prince Liechtenstein, detached from IV Corps, at Teugen-Hausen (Thann); at Abensberg was in the Right Wing brigade Vécsey, I Reserve Corps prince Liechtenstein. Fought at Eckmühl in the extreme right wing under Peter Vécsey autonomous brigade. Later Brig. Radivojevich, autonomous, III Corps.

Later it was assigned to the 1st Column (Marquis Sommariva) of the Corps Kolowrath and it was present at the Urfahr-Linz battle (May 17) occupying the Pöstlingberg hills near Linz. Partially the battalion was also with the detachment oberst Ignaz von Leuthner (Div. Sommariva). It was still employed in patrol and watch operations (Streif-commandos).

- at Wagram: fought at the clash of Altendorf (July 5) then followed the Sommariva’s retreat in Bohemia.

Feldjägerbataillon n. 6 – “Zaborsky” Jägers

Major-Oberstleutnant  Emerich Zaborsky de Zabora

Recruitment: Moravia.

Depot: Mährisch-Neustadt (today Uničov in eastern Moravia at the Silesian border) -  1 Reserve company Brig. Pietsch in Troppau, Div. St Julien under Argenteau.

- before Aspern: was at Neustadt (Moravia) (Brig. GM Nikolaus von Kayser, Olmütz – Div. FML Count Franz St.Julien, Olmütz). Later Brig. Crenneville, Div. Klenau, II Corps. Brigade Baron Peter Vécsey, 3rd column – I Reserve Corps prince Liechtenstein, detached from IV Corps, at Teugen-Hausen (Thann); at Abensberg was in the Right Wing brigade Vécsey, I Reserve Corps prince Liechtenstein. Fought at Eckmühl in the extreme right wing under Peter Vécsey autonomous brigade. Then with Brig. Radetzky, detached, IV Corps then Brig. Crenneville, autonomous, III Corps and finally Brig. Radetzky, autonomous, V Corps.

- between Aspern and Wagram: assigned to the Kollowrath Corps in Bohemia on May 17 fought at Urfahr-Linz in the 2nd (main) Column of Vukassovich seizing the village of Katzbach and having comtas there, at Dornach and Gallneukirchen. Then he continued to perform its “small war” in the area between Neumarkt and Linz.

- at Wagram: part of the battalion reached the brigade Stutterheim, Division Fresnel, I Corps Bellegarde, during the battle, reinforcing the battered 2nd Jäger battalion.

Feldjägerbataillon n. 7 – “Steffanini” Jägers

Commander: Oberstleutnant Joseph (Giuseppe) Steffanini Count di Monte Airone

then Oberst Baron Ludwig Steinmetz

Recruitment: Upper and Lower Austria – Salzburg - Vienna.

Depot: Mistelbach then Lietzen. It had 2 Reserve companies under Brig. Ulbrecht in Krems, Div. Anton Mittrowsky under O’Reilly’s command.

- before Aspern: was at Herzogenburg (Brig. GM Josef von Mayer, St.Polten – Div. FML Fürst Franz Rosemberg-Orsini, Vienna). Later Brig. Peter Vécsey, Div. Klenau, II Corps then under Klenau direct command, avant-garde Div. Klenau, II Corps Carl Kolowrat-Krakowsky. In this period the battalion was the “link” between the I and II Corps and fought against a French detachment at Hirschau (April 11-12). With brigade Crenneville it was detached at Hemau near Ratisbon, avant-garde Div. Klenau, II Corps Carl Kolowrat-Krakowsky. Later was with Brig. P. Vécsey, autonomous, II Corps, and finally marched in Bohemia with 3rd Column - FML prince Hohenzollern, avant-garde brigade Vécsey.

- at Aspern: 3rd Column - FML prince Hohenzollern, avant-garde brigade Vécsey then  Brig. Mayer, avant-garde II Corps. Later Brig. Peter Vécsey, autonomous, II Corps.

- between Aspern and Wagram: Brig. Vécsey, avant-garde Nordmann.

Jager- at Wagram: Left Wing avant-garde brigade Frelich (Fröhlich), Division Nordmann.

Feldjägerbataillon n. 8 – the “Achter” or “Deutsche” Jägers

Commander: Oberstleutnant Hieronymus Mumb

Recruitment: provinces of the German Austria then Inner Austria.

Depot: Wels. 1 Reserve company (Kader) under Brig. Sinzendorf in Linz, Div. Anton Mittrowsky under O’Reilly.

- before Aspern: was at Wels (Brig. GM Carl Dollmayer von Provenchères, Wels – Div. FML baron Josef von Stipsicz, Linz). Later Brig. Peter Vécsey, Div. Klenau, II Corps then Brigade comte Carl Crenneville, avant-garde Div. Klenau, II Corps Carl Kolowrat-Krakowsky; detached at Hemau, had a small clash near Ratisbon (April 23) returning later to the Brig. Vécsey, again autonomous, II Corps. After the Archduke Charles retreat it destroyed the Nittenau bridge to cover the withdrawal and finally marched to Bohemia with 3rd Column - FML prince Hohenzollern, avant-garde brigade Vécsey.

- at Aspern: 3rd Column - FML prince Hohenzollern, avant-garde brigade Vécsey (right wing), lost 300 men in the battle. Then was with the Brig. Mayer, avant-garde, II Corps and also returned again to Brig. P. Vécsey, autonomous, II Corps.

- at Wagram: fought with Div. Siegenthal, brigade Hardegg, II Corps Hohenzollern.

- after Wagram: II Corps.

Feldjägerbataillon n. 9 – “Kärnten” or “Göldling” Jägers

Commander: Major-Oberstleutnant  Baron Carl Göldlin von Tieffenau [15]

Recruitment: (Carinthia, Styria) Inner Austria.

Depot: Villach (Upper Carinthia). 

- before Aspern: was at St.Veit (in Krain) (Brig. GM Anton von Gajoli, Klagenfurt – Div. FML marquis Friedrich von Bellegarde, Graz. Later Brig. Wetzl, Div. Albert Gyulai, then Frimont, VIII Corps later Brig. Wetzl, Div. Frimont, VIII Corps. Attached to the Corps Chasteler in the Brig. Fenner and in detail:

3 comp. Brig. Buol  - Chasteler
comp. Brig. Fenner - Chasteler 
3 comp. Brig. Marschal - Chasteler
later 1 comp. with Taxis

Its Depot company was with  the Brig. Hardegg (detached). On April 23 the commander, Oberstlieutenant Baron Göldlin, marched towards Zambano and attacked general Fontanelli at Bosco di Velo, together with the Tiroler Landsturm. The day after two companies fought near Murazzo. On April 28 the battalion was split, 3 companies were on the Austrian left wing in South Tirol, the other on the right wing near Innsbruck; the remaining two companies were in Reserve. Half company was also involved in the heroic defense of pass Strub, with its commander Göldlin against the Bavarians of Division Wrede.

- between Aspern and Wagram: 2nd, 3rd, 5th and part of the 6th comp. with the Brig. Buol in Tirol. Some detachments were also involved in the May battle of Bergisel (Innsbruck), and then in the clashes at Trient, Kufstein, Andorf and Küffersfeld. Later in May (29) they covered, under general Buol, the Chasteler retreat in the Upper Inn valley. The company of Trient also retreated up to Carinthia and joined the Archduke John Army. On June 17, near Papa, it gathered itself with the Inner Austria army. That company had also been attacked at Klagenfurt (June 6) and went, with its army, to Pressburg, and then to the Marchfeld. 1 Detachment was with Brig. Lutz, Div. Jellachich, Armée of Innerösterreich (army of Inner Austria) then to the Staff of the Armée of Innerösterreich. The Depot-company fought at Graz and Fürstenfeld and in the battle of Raab. At Raab the company was in the brigade Legisfeld, division Jellacich while one detachment was the Reserve brigade Ettingshausen, div. Davidovich.

- at Wagram: 2nd column brigade Eckhardt, Div. Frimont, army of Inner Austria – Archduke John.

- after Wagram: Brig. Buol (autonomous).

Notes:

Some Jäger companies, listed in the 1809 situations and army lists, were not part of the Feldjäger corps. Their real identity or origin is not known:

- between Aspern and Wagram: 2 Jäger companies with Div. Sommariva.

- at Aspern: the Jäger company of the 2nd column.

- after Wagram: 2 comp. from Linz.

Some quoted Jägers were companies of volunteers as the Salzburger Jäger (see also Volunteers) :

- before Aspern: Corps Chasteler - with brigades Buol – Fenner – Marschal - Leiningen and Seppenburg.

- between Aspern and Wagram: the 9th Bat. may be confused with the Salzburger Jäger operating in the same territory.

- at Wagram: the “Salzburger” were with Brig. Eckhart, Div. Frimont, Armée of. Innerösterreich.

- after Wagram: 1 comp. was left in Tirol.

As for other campaigning Jäger: Arader, Carneville, Archduke John (Salzburger), Lobkowitz, Niederösterreicher, Prager, Schlegenbergische (Wiener), Siebenbürgische, Thurnsche, Triester, Wattrich (1st Bn. Legion Archduke Charles), see under Landwehr and Volunteers units.

Jäger Organisation between 1808 and 1815

Note that IR 64 (Tiroler Jäger Rgt.) was disbanded in 1808 and nine new divisions (then batallions) were raised, followed by three more in 1813 (see table).

Jäger Battalions 1808/1815

Raised

Commanding officer

Recruiting district

Garrisons

1

1808

1808 Oberstleutnant. C . Lutz
1813 Major F. von Plisnier
1814 Major J. von Penz

Bohemia

1809 Brüx
1814 Jablunka
1815 Salzburg

2

1808

1808 Major Freiherr C. Schneider von Arno
1813 Major Freiherr J. Reicht

Bohemia

1809 Freistadt
1810 Kloster Schlegel
1811 Mauthausen
1812 Linz
1815 Freistadt

3

1808

1808 Major Barone Daniele Baroni-Cavalcabò

Bohemia

1808 Tetschen
1809 Efferding
1812 Wels
1814 Kirchberg a.d. Mosel
1815 Efferding

4

1808

1808 Oberstleutnant. Conte M. Piombazzi
1812 Oberstleutnant. Chevalier C. von Becke

Bohemia

1809 Gmunden
1811 Busk
1812 Neutitschein
1815 Plan

5

1808

1808 Major Freiherr G. von Suden
1812 Major Count F. Hartopp
1812 Major Count J. Sickingen-Hohenburg

Moravia

1808 Butschowitz
1809 Tepl
1810 Plan
1811Wieliczka
1815 Tetschen

6

1808

1808 Oberstleutnant E. Zaborsky de Zabora
1813 Major Freiherr L. von Mareschall

Moravia

1808 Mährisch-Neustadt
1810 Aussig
1811 Kalsching
1812 Gabel
1815 Nachod

7

1808

1808 Oberst Joseph von Steffanini
1809 Major Freiherr L. von Steinmetz
1810 Oberst J. von Steffanini
1812 Oberst Freiherr C. Veyder von Malberg
1814 Major W. Weikersreutter
1815 Major D. von Saintenoy

Salzburg, Upper and Lower Austria

1809 Mistelsbach
1809 Lietzen
1810 Leoben
1811 Krems
1814 Chiavenna
1815 Leoben

8

1808

1808 Oberstleutnant H. Mumb
1813 Major H. Fletté von Flettenfeld

Inner Austria

1808 Wels
1810 St Veit
1812 Leoben
1815 Masseveaux

9

1808

1808 Oberst Freiherr C. Göldlin von Tieffenau
1814 (interim)Hauptmann  E. de Gobiery
1815 Major Freiherr F. Werdt von Teuffen

Inner Austria

1808 St Veit
1809 Villach
1810 Cilli
1814 Treviso
1815 Gorizia

1813 Battalions

10

1813

1813 Major Cavaliere V. Casassa di Valmonte

Inner Austria

1814 Cremona
1815 Roanne

11

1813

1813 Major Freiherr F. von Ensch

Inner Austria, Salzburg, Upper and Lower Austria

1814 Lombardy
1815 Alsace (France)

12

1813

1813 Major Freiherr E. Beelen de Bertholff

Galicia Moravia

1815 Mährisch-Schönberg

Notes:

[1] The Jäger Batallions (as the Tiroler Jäger Regiment) were more than "simple light troops". Until the end of the monarchy the Jäger units were more notable or respectable than the normal infantry regiments. They all were trained to fight in closed as well as in open formation. Additionally they had no simple muskets but rifles and much more shooting exercise than the infantry. Because of all that the recruitment selection was much more severe than the recruitment of infantry men. Courtesy of Leopold Kudma (Napoleon Series).

[2] Sittig Heinrich (lieutenant.), Geschichte des k. w. k. Feldjäger-bataillons nr. 1. 1808-1908, gebrüder Stiepel, 1908.

[3] This military rank had the following origin: with the birth of the infantry Regiments, Owners and field officers were formerly also proprietors of a company; while the “Capitäns” were appointed for all other companies of the regiment, the “Capitänlieutenanten” got the command of the first Company, the Owner’s one; then there were not Lieutenants (and not yet “Ober” lieutenants) who could differentiate the higher officers. With the Captains they became the “chief people” or “Hauptleute”, and the word Capitänlieutenant became, in the course of the time, a real military rank, while originally belonging only to a genering meaning of subaltern officer.

[4] This was, for example, the peacetime quarters for the companies of the 1st Jäger battalion: Staff and 1st company Taus, 2nd comp. Klentsch, 3rd comp. Medaken,  4th comp. Ronsperg, 5th comp. Heiligenkreuz,  6th comp. Holtau.

[5] In Austria there were 4 monetary systems. The main one had the Gulden (Reichsgulden) or forint (Fl. or Florin in latin; German: or Hungarian: forint) as currency of the Austrian Empire since 1754 (till 1892 when it was replaced by the Krone as part of the introduction of the gold standard). In Austria, the Gulden was initially divided into 60 Kreuzer (a kreuzer, Kr., was 4 pfennig), and in Hungary, the forint was divided into 100 hungarian Pfennige (or 60 krajczár). In Galicia there was the Polnischen (polish) Gulden, 80 of which made the Cöllnische Mark in fine silver; in the italian territories Austria had the Lire (each of 20 Soldi, each Soldo = 12 Denari). The home Exchange rates of 1812 were: 1 Gulden = 5 Lire (1 Lira = 12 Kreuzer). Joseph C. Bisinger, General-Statistik des österreichischen Kaiserthumes: ein Versuch, Verlag   Geistinger, 1807.

[6] The other way for a foreigner (Ausländer) to serve the Austrian army was to enter the army during his (maybe holiday) stay in one of the Austrian countries. These two ways existed for a foreigner to enter the Austrian army. So Ausländer-Werbung (recruitment of foreigners) consisted of the "Konfinen-Werbung" (Konfinen recruitment) and of the recruitment of Ausländer within the Austrian empire. Courtesy of Leopold Kudma (Napoleon Series)

[7] Light Divisions were units formed by Jäger, Volunteers and light cavalry, which had mainly vanguard or rearguard tasks.

[8] Company Hauptmann von Wechs, Brigade Am-Ende (then Radivojevich). May 25, clash at Peterwalde. In June Am-Ende was reached by the Brunswick volunteers (duke of Brunswick-Oels Corps) and fought a clash at Wilsdruff  (June 12). The 5th company was attached to the Brunswick Corps under FML Kienmayer (combat of Gefrees on June 8).

[9] Freiherr Carl Schneider in 1799 was a Fähnrich of the Italian 4th Light infantry battalion Bach (Corps Klenau). When the “Viva Maria” insurrection outbroke in Tuscany (Arezzo and Cortona), the insurgents asked the Austrian Command to have an Officer, who could led the peasants in battle. Klenau proposed Schneider and FZM Kray gave his approval. On June 16 the young Officer reached Arezzo and began to organize his troops. He raised a “division” of 6000 trained rebels in a mass of 30000 armed peasants and was helped by the former florentine general InghiramI He occupied Florence, Siena and Livorno clearing all the French weak garrisons. In August he captured Perugia and then marched against the Roman territory. In November he was openly praised by general Fröhlich for his conduct (also Suvorov mentioned him as an example). The man who actually had led up to 45000 insurgents, 4000 of which completely equipped, 1200 trained cavalrymen and an artillery battalion, organized with captured guns, returned to his battalion at Sarzana. The Emperor awarded him with the promotion to Capitän-Leutnant and granted him the use of the “von Arno” suffix, in order to remember the main Tuscany’s river (officially this from 1819). Later he was also awarded with the Commander Cross of the Tuscany’s Order of  St.Joseph.

[10] Promoted Lieutenant-Colonel on May 22, 1809.

[11] A light wagon or wooden handcart was a wooden, biaxial vehicle (4 wheeled) with train pole and with wooden poles cover sides. The standings provided for the 3rd battalion can be actually referred to all other Jäger battalions. Karl Kandelsdorfer, Geschichte des K.u.k. Feld-jäger-bataillons Nr. 3 dermal Feld-bataillon Nr. 13 der Tiroler Kaiser-jäger, E. Vergani & comp., 1899.

[12] Like a sutler or victualer, but not a civilian merchant, rather a military supplier who selled provisions to army in field, in camp or in quarters.

[13] Some sources quoted Marco (Markus) Ritter von Piombazzi from Arco (Trentino). Count from 1812.

[14] Oberstleutnant Scheibler of the Chevaulegers Vincent led a special corps of 600 men with order to harass the Bavarians along the Danube. In the 1809 campaign (like in 1813), in spite of the war shortness, they were created special Streifkörper or large columns (detachment) of fast moving units, for the guidance of the “small war” against the flanks and the rear line of communications of the enemies. The rapid striking Streifkorps, so, was formed almost completely by army detachment, not volunteers or territorial units.

[15] Baron Göldlin von Tiffenau led the stubborn defense of the pass Strub (May 11), with an half Jäger company, a company of the infantry n. 45 De Vaux and 4 companies of the Tiroler Landsturm, against 3000 (?) Bavarians supported by 4 guns of 12 pdrs. and howitzers. Göldlin received the MTO Knight Cross in 1810 for that episode.

 

Placed on the Napoleon Series: April 2010

 

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