The Austrian Imperial-Royal Army (Kaiserliche-Königliche Heer) 1805 – 1809:
THE AUSTRIAN IMPERIAL-ROYAL ARMY
Kaiserliche-Königliche Heer 1805 – 1809
THE REGULAR INFANTRY
Ordered by Recruitment District
Lower Austria : (German: Niederösterreich) is currently one of the nine states or Bundesländer in Austria. The capital of Lower Austria was Vienna, but the main town was St. Polten. It was divided into four Cantons or Vierteln. The “Viertel unter dem Wienerwald” – today called Industrieviertel in Niederösterreich – The “Viertel ober dem Wienerwald” (today Mostviertel in Niederösterreich) - The Untermannhartsberg - today Weinviertel in Niederösterreich and the Obermanhartsberg (today Waldwiertel in Niederösterreich.
Upper Austria (German: Oberösterreich) had its capital at Linz. Upper Austria was (and is) traditionally divided into four cantons: Hausrückviertel - the central part of Oberösterreich, Innviertel - (or Innkreis), is the northwestern Viertel, Mühlviertel - the northern Viertel at the borders of Bohemia and Niederösterreich., Traunviertel - the southeastern Viertel of the four regions.
Salzburg. The Archbishopric of Salzburg was secularized in 1803 as the Electorate of Salzburg, but the short-lived principality was annexed by the Austrian Empire in 1805. After the Napoleonic Wars, the Salzburg territory was administered from Linz as the department of Salzach within the Archduchy of Upper Austria.
This was strictly the “Austria” territory, the only province populated entirely by Germans; who, therefore, populated also other areas of the Empire and mainly in the Länder which bordered Austria such as Styria, Carinthia and Bohemia, wher a Circle was completely dwelt by Germans: Elbogen.
Vienna. It was the capital city of the Austrian Empire. At the time Vienna was really two cities in one: the city inside the walls and the suburbs. The city had narrow streets and high building giving the impression that people dwelt a very narrow space. The prominence of its monuments contrasted with the simplicity and the conviviality of its inhabitants, which, however, mostly lived at home, populating the streets only during the good seasons. Opposing to this impression was the suburbs area with large streets, gardens and estates of the noblemen. Vienna was split in four cantons: Stuben, Carinthian, Wiedden and the Scotch. Streets and houses were numbered with the Canton name. In 1812 Vienna had around 7600 houses and 224.092 inhabitants (106269 males, 117823 females). Only 46437 souls lived inside the walls (garrisons apart) and the rest in the suburbs.Another source referred 6935 houses and 222000 inhabitants, among which were 12000 soldiers. The most important suburbs were Leopoldstadt, Mariahilfe, Rossau and Wieden. 
The Danube right bank Districts
The under the Vienna Forest Circle (unter der Wiener Wald)
Wiener Neustadt. The main town after Vienna had 5000 – 6000 souls. Neustadt was founded in 1192, and was a favourite residence of numerous Austrian sovereigns, acquiring the title of the “ever-faithful town” (die allzeit getreue Stadt) from its unfailing loyalty.
Other important towns of the Circle were Baden, Hainburg, Bruck an der Leitha and Klosterneuburg.
The over the Vienna Forest Circle (ober der Wiener Wald)
St. Polten. The name Sankt Pölten is derived from Hippolytus of Rome. The city was renamed to Sankt Hippolyt, then Sankt Polyt and finally Sankt Pölten. The town had 4500 inhabitants in 1814. Other important towns of the Circle were Tülln, Ips (Ybbs), Waidhofen (a.d Ips river), Mautern, Mölk (Melk), Scheibbs, Amstätten.
The Danube left bank Districts
The over the mount Mannhart (St.Medard) Circle (ober der Mannhartsberg)
Mannhartsberg is a low, flat-lying mountain ridge in Lower Austria. It rises to a maximum height of 537 m northeast of Krems.
Krems. During the 11th and 12th centuries, Chremis, as it was then called, was almost as large as Vienna. Krems is located at the confluence of the Krems and Danube Rivers at the eastern end of Wachau valley.It had around 6000 souls. Other important towns of the Circle were Zwettl, Böhmisch-Waidhofen, Horn, Gmund.
The under the mount Mannhart (St.Medard) Circle (unter der Mannhartsberg)
Korneuburg. Korneuburg was originally a bank settlement associated with Klosterneuburg under the name Nivenburg. It was first mentioned in 1136, and in 1298 received the right to formal separation from Klosterneuburg. In 1814 it had 3000 inhabitants. Other important towns of the Circle were Laa (or Laha), Marchegg, Enzersdorf, Hollabrunn.
The Upper Austria
Canton Hausrück (Hausrück Viertel)
At the Bavarian border north of the Danube.
Linz. Is the chief town of the Canton with 1243 houses and 16476 inhabitants. It had two Major suburbs: Margarethen and Kalvarienwand. The suburb of Urfahr was at the opposite side of the Danube bridge, but technically it was in the Mühlviertel. The city was founded by the Romans, who called it Lentia. The name Linz was first recorded in 799 AD, after Bavarians expanded south and Linz became a center of trade. Other important towns of the Circle were Wels, Efferding, Lambach on river Traun.
Canton Traun (Traun Viertel)
Steyr. Around 980, at the confluence of the rivers Enns and Steyr, it was erected by the Otakars, margraves and later Dukes of Styria, as the Styraburg, today Lamberg Castle. It had two suburbs Steyersdorf and Ennsdorf (the two rivers). In 1814 it had 800 houses and 10000 souls. Other important towns of the Circle were Enns (4400 souls), Gmund, Ebersberg (58 houses and a castle).
Canton Mühl (Mühl Viertel)
The area between the Danube and the Bavaria (north).
Freystadt. The dukes of Babenberg recognized the economic and strategic importance of this place and founded in 1220, a free commercial city named Freistadt (Frienstatt = free city). By putting no taxes along its roads the merchants did prefer that way towards Bavaria. Other important towns of the Circle were Grein and Steyereck.
Canton Inn (Inn Viertel)
It was lost in 1809 after the treaty and given to Bavaria.
Braunau. On river Inn the town was first mentioned around 810 and received the city statute in 1260, which made it one of the oldest cities in Austria. It became a fortress city and important trading route junction, dealing with the salt trade and with ship traffic on the River Inn. Throughout its history it changed hands four times. It was Bavarian until 1779 and became an Austrian town under the terms of the treaty of Teschen, which settled the War of the Bavarian Succession. Under the terms of the treaty of Pressburg, Braunau became Bavarian again in 1809. In 1816, during reorganisation of Europe after the Napoleonic Wars, Bavaria ceded the town to Austria and was compensated by the gain of Aschaffenburg. Other important towns of the Circle were Ried and Schärding.
Circle of Salzburg
Salzburg (Grand Duchy) In 1803 the Archdiocese of Salzburg, along with Eichstätt, Berchtesgaden and part of Passau, were secularized and granted to the Duke Ferdinand of Austria, Grand Duke of Tuscany as a reward for the loss of Tuscany, then French. After the Treaty of Pressburg of 1805 it went to Austria and Ferdinand was rewarded with the Grand Duchy of Würzburg, while Eichstätt and Passau passed to Bavaria. With the Treaty of Vienna of 1809 it went to France and from 1810 to Bavaria. Fianally after the Peace of Paris of 1814 , the city and the area of the former archbishopric returned to Austria, except Rupertwinkel , who remained in Bavaria.
Austrian Order of Battle in Austria and Salzburg
Field Commander: Gdk Prince Johann Liechtenstein
1st Vienna Division FML Prince Franz Rosenberg-Orsini
2nd Vienna Division FML Baron Carl von Vincent
3rd Vienna Cavalry Division FML Earl Andreas O’Reilly
Platz Vienna Division FML Archduke Maximilian d’Este
Niederösterreichische Division FML Baron Friedrich Kottulinsky
Linz Division FML Baron Jozsef von Stipsicz
Austrian Resident Units in Austria - Salzburg
Salzburg Brigade GM Baron von Legisfeld
Schärding Brigade Oberst von Nesslinger
Linz Brigade GM Count Sinzendorf (at Neufelden)
Linz platz Commander: GM Rüffer
Linz – 1st Landwehr Battalion Ober Mannhartsberg
1st Vienna territorial Brigade GM Count Paar
2nd Vienna territorial Brigade GM Ambschel
3rd Vienna territorial Brigade GM Ambschel
General Organization of Border Cordon troops = Militärgrenzkordonstruppen
GARNISONSBATAILLONE (Garrison or Fortress Battalions)
1st Battalion Czernowitz (Duchy of Bukowina) - Commander: Oberstleutnant Count Carl Vignolles. Depot at Czernowitz. Raised from one Battalion of the former 1st Garrison Regiment.
2nd Battalion Peterwardein - Commander: Oberstleutnant Franz Weber von Treuenfels . Depot at Peterwardein. Raised from one Battalion of the former 1st Garrison Regiment.
3rd Battalion Komorn - Commander: Oberstleutnant Baron Dominik Cazzan.
Raised from part of the former 2nd Garrison Regiment. Depot at fortress Komorn.
4th Battalion Leopoldstadt - Commander: Major Franz Bibicz de Deva .
Raised from one Battalion of the former 2nd Garrison Regiment. Depot at fortress Leopoldstadt.
Their employment in campaign:
Numbers in bold - mean a temporary area of recruitment in order to help the main District to reach the stated strength.
K.K. IR 3 – Generalissimus Archduke Carl Ludwig – 3 Battalions
Recruitment: unter dem Manhartsberg, probably part in Galicia. 2 Depot company Brigade Ulbrecht in Krems, Division Mittrowsky under O’Reilly and the Recruitments’ transport of the regiment followed the Division Jellachich before Aspern.
Before Aspern: enclosed in the Brigade GM Josef von Mayer, Division FML Baron Carl von Lindenau, V Corps Archduke Ludwig. On April 16 it supported the Radetzky attack at the Landshut bridges. On April 18 Division Lindenau was attached to the 1st Reserve Corps and reached Rohr. It marched with the left column towards Schierling and was involved in a counterattack during the days of Teugen and Abensberg (Ober Santing and Leuchling) . On April 22 (Eggmühl) the regiment defended the road to Ratisbon at Lukepoint. The day after the regiment was employed to defend Ratisbon and its bridge; it had severe losses and many prisoners, while few reached the opposite Danube bank with Mayer. A whole Battalion which defended Burg-Weinting was destroyed. During the retreat in Bohemia the brigade Mayer, separated from the V Corps, was enclosed in the III Corps, Brigade Mayer, Division Vukassovich.
Later the regiment was attached to the avant-garde Division FML Count Johann Klenau, Brigade Oberst Count Johann Ignaz Franz von Hardegg auf Glatz und im Marchlande (or simply Hardegg) and was, consequently, with the I Corps.
At Aspern: before the battle the avant-garde Klenau became an avant-garde Division for the IV and V columns (Mainly the IV Corps Rosenberg) and the regiment, detached from 3rd column, was in the brigade Oberst Baron Franz von Frehlich (or Fröhlich, who will be generalMajor after May 24) with a strength of 1130 in 3 weak Battalions.  During the first battleday the regiment was not engaged (only skirmish fire), but o the second day IR 3 was sent to assault Essling. The losses were: 57 dead, 578 wounded, 2 prisoners for a total of 637 men. Colonel Fölseis and Oberstleutnant Watzel were both wounded.
Between Aspern and Wagram: on June 5 the regiment (with IR 50 Stain and Landwehr Battalions Obergfell and Fuchs) was detached in the Brigade Weiss sent between Pressburg and Theben. At the June’s end the Archduke Carl regiment was with the Brigade Weiss, Division Radetzky, IV Corps Rosenberg.
At Wagram: with Brigade Weiss, Division Radetzky, IV Corps. The two Battalions and the 3rd Stain occupied important positions at Markgraft-Neusiedl. In the second battle day the regiment was enclosed in the new avant-garde of the 1st Rosenberg column, Brigade Provenchères with the Wattrich Jäger Battalion, two Landwehr Battalions of the Ober Mannshartberg and 4 Hussars Sqns. They reached and engaged the French af Grosshofens, but soon came the retreat’s order. The losses at Wagram were: 53 dead, 497 wounded, 107 prisoners, 316 missing for a total of 973 men. The regiment followed as rear guard the VI Corps Klenau.
After Wagram: the regiment, with the IV Corps, was, under provisional command of Major Veyder, at Unter Wisternitz and did not take part to the Znaim battle. During the bridge defense at Unter-Wisternitz (July 10) the regiment supported by the Wattrich Jäger Battalion and by the 4th Landwehr Ober Mannhartsberg repulsed a violent French attack with many losses: 10 dead, 43 wounded, 58 prisoners (a total of 112 men). Then came the armistice.
K.K. IR 4 - Hoch and Deutschmeister and Generalissimus Archduke Carl - 3 Battalions
Recruitment: in 1808 the Staff and the companies 1-2-3-4 were at Wiener-Neustadt, the companies 5-15-16 were at Mödling, the 6th at Brunn, the 7th at Leobersdorf, 8 and 12 at Neustadt, the 9th at Vöslau, 10th at Gainfarn, 11th at Weigelsdorf, 13 and 14 at Laxenburg. Many officers and NCO had been assigned to organize the Landwehr and 300 men were at Ofen (Budapest) to help the building of the fortress. In August 1808 colonel Philipp von Faber became the commander of the Neustadt Military Academy and the command went to Baron Engelhardt.
Recruitment in Unter Wiener Wald - initially: 1 Depot company Brigade Keller in Vienna, Division Mittrowsky under O’Reilly . Raised a DepotDivision and also companies 17 and 18.
Before Aspern: was with Hiller’s VI Corps, Division GM Baron Carl Vincent, Brigade GM comte Nikolaus Weissenwolf (with IR 49 Wilhelm Baron von Kerpen) with an initial force of 4405 men (118 at Depot).
At Abensberg the brigade was under the “Hauptkolonne” Division FML comte Friedrich Baron von Kottulinsky. The first clash came on April 20 when FML Hiller sent colonel Csollich, from his staff, with orders for Weissenwolf to attack the French in the Mostanerhofe forest near Rottenburg. On April 20 at Rottenburg losses: 36 dead, 247 wounded.
During the Hiller’s southern retreat the Division Vincent was ordered to stop the French between Ergolding and Altdorf, close to the two important Landshut bridges. The regiment suffered the pursuit effects of the Nansouty Cuirassiers Charge against Vincent cavalry, their breakthrough till the bridge. Many were able to reach the river Isar, but not all. On 21 April at Landshut losses: 38 dead, 126 wounded, 1147 prisoners. Without resting, the regiment fought in the avant-garde at Neumarkt and lost utter: 5 dead, 37 wounded, 12 missing. Then came the Ebelsberg day. Weissenwolf deployed his brigade behind some hills, close (800 m) to the road to Enns. At the battle’s end the brigade was ordered to grant the withdrawal of the Austrians and to watch the roads. Here came a violent struggle by rifles fire. The colonel commander was severely wounded and gave the command to the Oberstleutnant Joseph von Klopstein. On May 3 at Ebelsberg the losses were: 33 dead, 140 wounded, 186 prisoners and 52 missing. During the further retreat 300 Deutschmeister (the 3rd Battalion) were detached in order to defend the river Enns banks at Ennsdorf, other 29 were wounded there.
On may 13, with the capitulation of Vienna part (one third) of the Depot Division (around 2050 recruits trained for 3 to 9 days) was taken prisoner by the French (that’s 11 officers and 640 men). During the same day the rest of the regiment had a skirmish fire at Schwarze Laken losing 2 dead and 5 wounded.
Before the Aspern battle the Brigade Weissenwolf had been attached to the III Corps Division Schustekh or to the Danube watch corps. The brigade was reinforced by the 5th Battalion Salis-Gigers, Vienna volunteers and by the 3rd Jäger Battalion Baroni.
At Aspern: it did not participate at the battle remaining on Danube watch duties. On May 29 von Klopstein became the new regiment’s commander. Weissenwolf got the Division command and the regiment went in the Brigade Mayer, V Corps Reuss-Plauen.
At Wagram: the Avant-garde of the left Wing or Division Nordmann was formed with troop of the former V and VI Corps. The regiment, with the twin Kerpen was in the Brigade Mayer of the Nordmann Division (which will be again attached to the IV Corps Rosenberg by July 6). The regiment was deployed and attacked along the Russbach. During the second day of the battle the regiment (and its brigade) formed a weak flank near Neusiedl, but was overwhelmed. The rests of the regiment (with the IR 44, 46, 49, 58, one Jäger Battalion, 1st Battalion Znaim, three Hussars regiments) were gathered under FML Radetzky Division and ordered to cover the retreat. After the battle they lost 45 dead, 689 wounded but no more prisoners.
After Wagram: the regiment followed the retreat of the IV Corps.
K.K. IR 14 – FZM Baron Wilhelm Klebek – 3 Battalions (the “Schwarze Regiment”, the Black Regiment, the Blacks)
Recruitment: Mühl- and Innviertel. - initially: 2 Depot company Brigade Sinzendorf in Linz, Division Mittrowsky under O’ Reilly. DepotDivision Brigade Rüffer, Garrison Linz. The regiment would have had from 1807 a Galician Circle for recruiting, but that Circle was instead assigne to regiment 50 Stain.
Before Aspern: it began in the Division FML Friedrich Baron von Kottulinsky, Brigade GM Count Otto Hohenfeld, VI Corps FML Baron Hiller. On April 19 the 2nd Battalion (Major Scheibler) fought at Pfaffenhofen. On April 21 it was at the battle of Landshut with heavy losses (237 dead, 723 wounded and many prisoners/missing). On April 24 it fought at Neumarkt attacking the village. On May 1 it had a clash at Riedau, by May 2 between Riedau and Neumarkt and on May 3 at Ebelsberg in the rear guard of the Division FML Emmanuel Schustekh, where the large part of the 2nd Battalion was taken prisoner. In May it lost around 400 men and was reduced to two Battalions.
K.K. IR 45 – GM-FML Baron Thierry De Vaux – 3 Battalions
Recruitment: Lower Austria - Styria then Salzburg, Styria (Judenburg District) - initially: 1 Depot company Brigade Legisfeld in Salzburg, Division Mittrowsky unter O’ Reilly, 2 companies with Division Lippa in Graz under Kerpen.
Before Aspern: Reserve Depot Companies (2) with the ReserveCorps Lippa. One reserve company raised at Salzburg. Two utter Reserve company will be raised in Graz. Between Aspern and Wagram till Wagram: Depot and Reserve Companies transferred to Graz.
Before Aspern: in the Division FML Franz Jellachich de Buzim in the Brigade GM Constantin von Ettingshausen (at Munich), VI Corps. In May sent to protect the Lueg Pass, and on May 19 the Division received from Archduke Johann to march towards Styria. During the march 4 companies led by Oberstleutnant Reissenfels were detached to the Chasteler Corps in Tyrol. They will never join the De Vaux.
Between Aspern and Wagram: On May 25 it fought at St.Michael against Division Serras, and there it suffered so many losses which it was allowed only to deploy a combined Battalion of around 1500 men. The Battalion reached Graz and then Körmend where it was attached to the IX Corps FM Gyulai and camped at Lendva.
After Wagram: Von Bach was now generalMajor and Reissenfels became the new commander bringing back the “own” 4 companies in Tirol of his Gruppe “Reissenfels”. Finally reaching the strength of 2 Battalions it was enclosed in the Brigade Bach, Division Frimont, Army of Inner Austria. The regiment had incorporated also the 3 reserve companies and then finally marched to Vienna. However, having lost its Circle after the Treaty, the regiment was disbanded.
Disbanding a regiment: on November 13 it came the “Disbanding Order” from the Emperor Franz. Regiments 13, 23, 38, 43, 45, 46, 50 and 55 were fired off. The disbanding station for De Vaux was Wiener-Neustadt. It came to the last flag-raising with: 66 Staff, one combined fusilier Battalion of 1690 men, one grenadier Division of 296 men, one depot Division of 308 men. The flag was assigned to the Church of St.Michael (in memoriam).
K.K. IR 49 – FML-FZM Baron Wilhelm Kerpen – 3 Battalions
Recruitment: Viertel Ober dem Wiener Wald - Initially 1 Depot company in Krems, Division Mittrowsky under O’Reilly and, before Aspern, Reserve Division in Wien then in garrison at St.Polten (Hauptmann Paul Mayer).
Before Aspern: as for IR 4 in the Brigade Weissenwolf, Division Vincent, VI Corps . At Abensberg the brigade was under the “Hauptkolonne” Division FML comte Friedrich Baron von Kottulinsky. Till April 20 it was in Reserve at Pfaffenhausen.
During the Hiller’s southern retreat the Division Vincent was ordered to stop the French between Ergolding and Altdorf, close to the two important Landshut bridges. The 1st Battalion was committed on the left Isar bank with orders to cover the retreat, the other two Battalions went on the hills south of Landshut. The 3rd Battalion commander Major O’Brien opened the way with bayonets and saved part of his men marching with Jordis regiment and reaching his own at Vilsbiburg. The Landshut losses were: 34 dead, 122 wounded, 900 missing; many were prisoners. The regiment fought in the avant-garde at Neumarkt only with one company having 15 men wounded.
On May 2 Major O’Brien gathered 500 volunteers of the regiment and marched back towards Efferding, in order to hit the French on their rear front. They marched all the night under heavy rain but were forced to abandon the attempt, since the main French columns were too advanced. O’Brien then joined the Kerpen at Ebelsberg the next day. At Ebelsberg, Weissenwolf deployed his brigade behind some hills, close (800 m) to the road to Enns. The 1st Battalion and the 1st Deutschmeister were odered to watch the road on the left bank of the Traun, with an half artillery battery. When the large part of the Corps had passed (8 AM) the bridge the detachment was retreated on the right Traun’s bank. One company remained inside the town. The 2nd Battalion (Major von Bubna) and the 3rd (Major Baron Weweld) were deployed in line south of Ebelsberg. They engaged the French stopping their advance. The losses at Ebelsberg were: 42 dead, 166 wounded, 220 missing. At the battle’s end the brigade was ordered to grant the withdrawal of the Austrians and to watch the roads. The regiment was at St.Polten, where it learnt the DepotDivision had been transferred to Vienna (it will be taken prisoner). On May 11 the Kerpen reached Lang-Enzersdorf and the following day they fought at Schwarze Laken. The 1st Battalion and O’Brien formed the first line, the others the second. The Kerpen there lost: 65 dead and 296 wounded (they otherwise captured 370 Oudinot’s grenadiers and 15 officers, with a Chef-de-brigade, while around 300 other French went out of combat). O’Brien got command of the Schwarze-Laken island.
Before the Aspern battle the Brigade Weissenwolf had been attached to the III Corps Division Schustekh, the Danube watching corps. The brigade was reinforced by the 5th Battalion Salis-Gigers, Vienna volunteers and by the 3rd Jäger Battalion Baroni. Then Weissenwolf went to the V Corps Reuss-Plauen and the regiment in the Brigade Mayer.
At Aspern: it did not participate at the battle remaining on Schwarze-Laken sector. The regiment camped at Strebersdorf and there received the new attachment to Brigade Mayer, Division Nordmann, IV Corps Rosenberg.
At Wagram: the Avant-garde of the left Wing or Division Nordmann was then formed with troop of the former V and VI Corps. The regiment, with the twin Deutschmeister, was in the Brigade Mayer of the Nordmann Division On July 1, the Kerpen were at Stadtl-Enzersdorf. After a shot fire combat it was retreated at Markgraft-Neusiedl where it fought in the second line. Under the heavy artillery bombardment fell Nordmann, dead, Mayer and colonel Langenau, severely wounded. Major von Bubna (1st Battalion) got the provisional command, Major von Taintinière got the command of the 2nd Battalion (in place of Major Callot severely wounded on the first day of the battle) and the, now, Oberstlieutenant O’Brien led again is 3rd Battalion. With the Kerpen fought also the 5th Landwehr Battalion of the Major Count Cavriani, led by the Hauptmann Passon (Cavriani was also wounded). The regiment lost 197 men dead, 611 wounded. The 5th Landwehr Battalion lost 40 men, 203 wounded and 84 missing.
The rests of the regiment (with the IR 4, 44, 46, 58, one Jäger Battalion, 1st Battalion Znaim, three Hussars regiments) were gathered under FML Radetzky Division and ordered to cover the retreat.
After Wagram: the regiment followed the retreat of the IV Corps.
K.K. IR 59 – GM-FML Alexander von Jordis – 3 Battalions
Recruitment: Upper Austria Salzburg - initially 2 Depot company Brigade Sinzendorf in Linz, Division Anton Mittrowsky under O’Reilly then 1 Depot company Brigade Ritter, Garrison Linz. Part detached to the Brigade Hardegg before Aspern.
It began the campaign with the “Linz” Division FML comte Friedrich Baron von Kottulinsky in the Brigade GM comte Otto Hohenfeld, VI Corps Hiller. It was always in reserve till the April 21, when it was committed at Landshut and had orders to cover the bridge passages. The regiment deployed on the hills behind the town, left of the main road to Vilsbiburg. Two companies stood inside the town. The counterattack of the regiment caused the following losses: 72 dead, 131 wounded, who mainly were made prisoners. Three companies did fight at Neumarkt losing 18 men, dead, and 34 wounded. The 3rd Battalion was attacked near Riedau during the march and suffered heavy losses practically disappearing from the battlefields. At Ebelsberg the Jordis was not attacked and retreated till Stammersdorf finding part of its Depot Division on the left Danube bank with Brigade Hardegg. Since Ebelsberg the Hohenfeld brigade had been attached to Division Schustekh and the regiment had two Battalions.
At Aspern: the VI Corps became the 1st column under FML Johann Freiherr von Hiller, and the Jordis was in the Brigade Hohenfeld, Division Kottulinsky. The regiment attacked in the first afternoon the village of Aspern. On the second day the attacks were renewed. In the battle they lost: 21 dead, 145 wounded. On May 24, colonel Adler became brigadier and the regiment’s command was taken by Baron Georg Weveld. The regiment garrisoned Aspern and the redoubt.
Austrian Resident Units in Austria - Salzburg
Territorial commander (interim): FML Count Andreas O’Reilly
Landwehr Division FML Baron Anton von Mittrowsky
38315 men, 440 horses
The Austrian Landwehr Infantry
Since 1808, in the German hereditary lands (Germany, outer and inner Austria, Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Tirol), had been raised a special militia, organized with men fit to combat in each imperial province. This force, as for the Hofkriegsrat Notification of June 13, 1811, had to be of about 50000 men. The service in the Landwehr was allowed to:
The Landwehr soldiers period of duty was from 18 y.o. men till the age of 45. Initially they had to train themselves on every Sunday and holiday, while monthly they were gathered in larger units, coming from the nearby villages, and sent to the Battalion manoeuvres, which did not have to last more than three hours. Later this system was changed and they had to train with the weapons in short periods of 14 days, under the military Rule (generally half of the total force trainded itself in Spring, the others in Autumn, or in periods stated by the territorial regiment command). When employed in these training camps, the militians were supplied by the provinces. The trainings periods was recorded by the Districts-Commissariate (which maintained the Landwehr’s lists) and signed in the personal Folios (Karten). These were managed directly by the Kreis-Hauptmanns or the Bataillons-Commandanten. In the case of a War call-to-arms the Landwehr men had to:
The Landwehr generally had a catridge-box (Patronentasche) with 36 cartridges, bayonet, and hats (every land Battalions could have personal hats). Every Battalion had also to form a special section of snipers (Scharfschützen) generally armed with the best rifles.
In each province the Landwehr was split in two parts (Abtheilungen), the first formed by the best fit men, the second by the less fit to combat. In this second Corps were also the men aged from 45 till 50 years, the family fathers (hausväter) and all who owned a firearm (till the age of 50 years); provided, all the above mentioned, they were not completely fit for the Landwehr duty. This early prototype of Landsturm had the task to provide to the order and discipline of the inner land, to defend the inner ways of communications and villages, to garrison the fortresses and towns, to escort prisoners and other military services. The 2nd Class Landwehr had less difficult duties, often ordered directly by provinces. These civil governments provided also to the soldiers uniforms and equipments. During war-time these forces were led by former Officers in retirement, recalled on duty.
The Supreme Patent Act (Allerhöchstes Patent) of June 9, 1808, stated also that the towns, villages, in which was no military unit (regular or Landwehr) had to form (with armed citizens), during wartimes, Security patrols (Sichereitswachen) and had to give men for transports duties to the army.
The Hats. Landwehr hats must be common round black hats high 6 Zoll (15,80 cm) with a brim wide 3 ½ Zoll (around 9 cm). They had on both sides one black wool lace (loop with buttons) and on the left side of the hat they had a cockade large 3 Zoll (8 cm) bearing the national colours of the region.
The “Rock” or waistcoat: the act of June 1808 specified the uniform for Upper, Lower and Inner Austrian Landwehr districts being distinguished by their facing colours:
Uniform comprised a grey-green or dark green (Stahlgrün)  short coat with facing-coloured collar, cuffs and shoulder strap piping, and white buttons; white or pike grey breeches, black gaiters, and a 'round hat' six inches high, with a 3 inches brim usually turned up on one or both sides, bearing, as said, a cockade in provincial colours. White leather belts were worn, black for NCOs (but actually more widespread). The waistcoat was surmounted, on the breast, for 6 Zoll (16 cm) and was tied up by a double line of white buttons. The lenght of the waistcoat (also called Loden) reached the belly and after. The Collars had to be high 2/3 of the neck-band (which had to be generally black). Cuffs had to be wide 3 ½ Zoll (around 9 cm) and set on the forearm. Piping and turnbacks were of green tissue. On shoulders they had green shoulder straps, with regional colour piping, to guide the leather belts which sustained the bayonet and the cartridge bag.
The Gilet: was green with a single file of smaller white buttons. The Breeches: they were long, grey and had a german type bib and small belt. The Gaiters: were black with a lateral line of small leather buttons and long till the knee. Shoes: they were the classical Bundschuhe or short shoes. With bad time were allowed also boots or leather cover for gaiters. Belts: Landwehr men carried the bayonet with a 5 cm wide leather belt.
They had the same uniform but had a cane and a sabre, which was carried near the bayonet in a black leather sheath. The laces of the sabre were of green wool with the regional colours (Egalisierungs farbe).
NCOs also had sabres with regional colour knots, and the usual canes.
Hat: Officers wore bicorns high 11 Zoll (28,9 cm) in the back and 10 ½ Zoll frontally (27,6 cm), wide 5 Zoll (13 cm) and with a band wide 2 Zoll (5,26 cm). On the left side of the hat there was a silver loop - long 7 Zoll (18,4 cm) – wide 1/3 Zoll (0,87 cm) – with a small white button and the regional cockade. They had also silver silk tassels with the regional colours. Waistcoat: it was similar to that of the soldiers, but log up to the knees. Breeches: grey, long and with germans belt and bib with silk camel hair braid on the outer seams and as thigh knots (Stabs-officers had silver camel hair braid).
Boots: long up to the knees. They also carried a sabre with a silver and white knot on a black glazed shoulder belt with a Port d’Epée with silver silk laces and regional colours.
Rank markings were one, two or three silver loops (1cm wide) on the collar for Unterleutnant, Oberleutnant and Hauptmann respectively; field officers had silver-edged collar and shoulder straps, and silver braid on the breeches.
The Schützen (of Landwehr) who some author called also Jäger had the same uniform of the Landwehr. However they did not carry bayonet or cartridge-bag, they wore a waist belt (large 2 Zoll) with a cartridge box at the front instead of shoulder belts, and carried a powder horn on a green cord over the left shoulder; NCOs also carried a sabre.
Why oaks leaves on hats?
Austrian soldiers used to carry three oak-leaves on their helmets-shakos; but why?
In Germany oak were the Trees of the Homeland, the powerful war trees of the Teutons, whose leaves also served in war as a field mark. The oak was consecrated to the thundering god Donnar (Thor). Ancient Celts observed the oak's massive growth and impressive expanse. They took this as a clear sign that the oak was to be honored for its endurance, and noble presence. Further merit to its regal presence is its tendency to attract lightning. This was considered hugely powerful among the ancients and is associated with one of their foremost gods, Dagda.
More, in the old German language of flowers they told: “Who carries oak leaves, indicates his own determination and that thereby nobody will can stop him. So it was recommended, therefore, to be careful with those carrying oak leaves, and, above all, to avoid jokes with these fellows, who didn’t allow jokes.” The weapons put “at rest” during wars and campaigns were often hung up on oaks. It was easy to understand why German (and Austrian) warriors went in the battle with oak leaves.
Lower Austria (Nieder-Österreich) Landwehr
Commanders: Archduke Maximilian and Earl von Bissingen
Viertel Ober dem Mannhartsberg
5 Battalions in the Brigade Ulbrecht in Krems, Division Anton Mittrowsky under O’Reilly
Viertel Unter dem Mannhartsberg (UMB)
Viertel Ober dem Wiener Wald (OWW)
Viertel Unter dem Wiener Wald (UWW)
Battalions raised in August 1809
1st Combined Battalion OMB and UMB
from the remnants of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Landwehr Battalions OMB, 2nd and 4th Landwehr Battalion UMB
2nd Combined Battalion OMB and UMB
– Major Lichtenberg
from the 1st OMB and the 1st and 3rd Landwehr Battalions OWW
1st Combined Battalion UWW
also called 1st Combined Niederösterreich – Major Büchler from the 1st and 5th Landwehr Battalions.
2nd Combined Battalion UWW
also called 2nd Combined Niederösterreich – Major Hoyos from the 4th and 6th Landwehr BattalionUWW
3rd Combined Battalion OMB and UMB
– Major Fürstenberg
from the 1st and 4th Battalion Hausrückviertel, the 1st and 2nd Battalion Salzburger Landwehr the 2nd and 5th Landwehr Battalion OMB and from the 1st Landwehr Battalion UMB
Other than the OMB, UMB, OWW, UWW denominations, these Battalions were known by their commander name: Battalion Beissel alias 2nd Landwehr Battalion OMB and 4th Landwehr Battalion UMB: Battalion Colloredo alias 2nd Landwehr Battalion OMB and 4th BattalionLandw, UWW; Battalion Fuchs alias 2nd Landwehr Battalion UWW; Battalion Fürstenberg alias 5th Landwehr Battalion OMB and 2nd combined Landwehr Battalion OMB and UMB; Battalion Gilleis alias 4th Landwehr Battalion OMB; Battalion Haugwitz alias 1st BattalionLandwehr Znaym; Battalion Obergfell alias 2nd Landwehr BattalionUMB; Battalion Plunquet alias 4th Landwehr Battalion OWW; Battalion Praschma alias 1st Battalion Landwehr OWW; Battalion Richter alias 1st Battalion Landwehr UWW; Battalion Schönborn alias 2nd Battalion Landwehr UMB; Battalion Straka alias 1st Battalion Landwehr Innvierter and 1st Combined Oberösterreich (Innvierter); this unit was also listed as a niederösterreich Landwehr Battalion before Wagram, in the ranks of the Brigade Adler, Division Hohenfeldt, VI Corps .
Upper Austria Landwehr (Oberösterreich)
“Die Montur der Landwehr besteht bei uns in einem sich schliessenden Rocke von grauen Tuche mit rothen Aufschlägen. Dieser Rock muß weit und bequem genug seyn, um in Winter über die eigenen Kleider getragen werden zu können. Der gemeine Mann erhält einr Patron=tasche auf 36 Patronen an einen Gurte, dann eine Baionnet=Überschwung=Gurte, und am hute ein messingenes Schildchen, worauf der Kreis, zu welchem das Bataillon gehöret, so wie auch die Zahl des Bataillons zu ersehen ist. Dieses Schildchen wird an den gewöhnlichen runden Hut mit einem schwarzen Bande befestiget.” 
3 Battalions in the Brigade Nesslinger at Ried, 1 Battalion in the Brigade Sinzendorf at Linz, Division Anton Mittrowsky under O’ Reilly.
1st Battalion St Georgen
- Major Heinrich Kampfmüller then Major Count Anton Engel
Before Aspern: at Salzburg (then lots of deserters and prisoners made by the Bavarians hardly reduced it), disbanded before Aspern, its remnants in the III combined Niederösterreich Landwehr Battalion Fürstenberg.
2nd Battalion Lambach
- Major Hamsa then Baron Major Moltke
As above disbanded after Aspern, the remnants formed the 1st combined Oberösterreich (Innviertler) Landwehr Battalion .
3rd Battalion Waizenkirchen
- Baron Major Johann Schottendorf
Before Aspern: with the Brigade Sinzendorf of the detached Division Dedovich, then 2 companies with Army of Inner Austria in the Division Jellachich. It was disbanded immediately after Aspern (end of May), the remnants formed the 1st combined Oberösterreich (Innviertler) Landwehr Battalion.
3 Battalions in the Brigade Nesslinger at Ried, Division Mittrowsky under O’ Reilly.
4 Battalions in the Brigade Sinzendorf at Linz, Division Anton Mittrowsky under O’ Reilly.
2nd Battalion Neufelden
- Baron Major Christian Lahrbusch; then Major Maximilian Ungerhofer and finally Baron Major Münchhausen.
Before Aspern: with the Brigade Mc Dermott, detached Division Dedovich and then committed to watch duties along the bavarian borders outposts.
Between Aspern and Wagram: it was with the Brigade Erhardt, Division Jellachich, Army of Inner Austria
After Wagram: detached to the Brigade Bianchi
At the May’s end, with 2 companies of the 1st Hausrücker Battalion, with the remnants of the 2nd Battalion Innviertel and those of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Battalion Traunviertler Circle formed the new 2nd Combined Oberösterreich (Mühlviertler) Landwehr Battalion (Münchhausen).
3rd Battalion Leonfelden
- Major Count Franz Lichtenberg
Before Aspern: it was with the Brigade Sinzendorf, detached Division Dedovich and still before Aspern gave its remnants to (with the 1st Battalion) 2nd combined (Münchhausen) Landwehr Battalion.
Battalions formed during the Campaign
Group of Upper Austria Landwehr
The Landwehr from Salzburg
Commander: Count Saurau - 4 Battalion of the Brigade Legisfeld in Salzburg, DivisionAnton Mittrowsky under O’Reilly.
Salzburg had uniforms with green “Röcken” and yellow facing, white pants, black gaiters (or boots). In effects only Officers had this uniforms with the three City Companies. The other companies had grey Lodens. The 4th Battalion, Pinzgauer, Zillertaler, Brixentaler had brown waistcoats with yellow facings. They were committed by the Army Order of February 16, 1809. 
The organization was the following:
a) the Battalions got one number (1, 2, 3, etc.). Each had 800-1200
men and a Staff Officer as Commander.
1st Battalion City of Salzburg
- Major Johann Georg von Wilmanns
Before Aspern: Brigade Legisfeld, Division Jellachich
Between Aspern and Wagram: Brigade Legisfeld, Division Jellachich .
Commanders of the Landwehr Battalions 1808-1810
Lower UpperAustria and Salzburg, by Karel Sáček et al.
The Vienna Militia (Wiener Bürger-Corps)
1st City Regiment
2nd City Regiment
The City Grenadier Battalion
The Bombers (Bürgen artillerie ombardiers Corps)
The Academy of Arts Battalion (Corps der bildenden Künstler)
1809 – Volunteers Units of Austria and German Lands
Free Corps Brunswick (Braunschweiger Freikorps or the “Schwarze Schar”, the Black Bunch) formed by Jäger, Infantry and Hussars, Uhlans ?). Uniforms well known with its “Totenkopf”. At side the image of Uhlans.
Commander: the Duke of Brunswick Friedrich Wilhelm zu Braunschweig-Oels.
Before Aspern: autonomous unit.
Between Aspern and Wagram: attached to the XI Corps Kienmayr then also in the Brigade Am Ende (autonomous)
After Wagram: autonomous.
Free Corps Carneville
Inhaber (Owner) Commander: Oberst Count Franz Simon de Carneville.
Jäger Battalion – commander Major August Docteur
Before Aspern: some attched them to the Brigade Gratze, Division Rohan, IV Corps while others put it in the Brigade Grill, Division Dedovich, IV Corps or maybe as autonomous Brigade Carneville, Division Rohan, IV Corps. Sometimes called as IX Feldjäger Battalion.
At Wagram: fought with Brigade Provenchères, Division Radetzky, IV Corps
Carneville Hussars – led by Count Franz Simon de Carneville
Free Corps Dörnberg or (Westphälisches Scharfschützen bataillon)
Archduke Johann Jäger see under Salzburger Jäger
Fränkische Legion or Bayreuthische Legion
Salzburger Jäger or 2nd Innerösterreichisches Freibataillon (Archduke Johann Jäger)
so Schlegenbergische freiwillige Jäger or Wiener freiwilligr Jägerkorps / Wiener freiwillige Jägerkompanie.
Commander: Count Anton Schlegenberg
At Aspern: attached to the IR 39 Duka, Brigade Bianchi, VI Corps
Volunteers of Vienna - Wiener Freiwillige
1st Battalion – Major Count Emmanuel Bigot de St Quentin
Before Aspern: in Brigade Rothhacker, Division Reuss Plauen, V Corps then Brigade Albrecht, Division Dedovich, VI Corps. Later in the Brigade Nordmann, autonomous, VI Corps. All volunteers Battalions of Vienna took part at the defence of Ebelsberg.
At Aspern: Brigade Nordmann, Avant-garde VI Corps
At Wagram: with the Brigade Mariassy, Division Vincent, Avant-garde I Wing VI Corps
After Wagram: with the Brigade Wallmoden, Division Vincent, VI Corps.
2nd Battalion – Oberst Baron August Steigentesch
also commander of the Volunteers group.
Before Aspern: in Brigade Rothhacker, Division Reuss Plauen, V Corps then Brigade Albrecht, Division Dedovich, VI Corps. Later Brigade Nordmann ,autonomous, VI. Corps.
At Aspern: Brigade Nordmann, Avantgarde, VI Corps
3rd Battalion – Major Count Franz Waldstein
4th Battalion - Oberstlieutenant Johann Küffel von Küffelstein
5th Battalion Major Count Rudolf Salis-Gigers (Zizers)
6th Battalion – Major Chevalier Anton Managetta und Lerchenau
 De Serres Marcel M., Voyage en Autriche, essai statistique et géographique sur cette Empire, vol. 1- 4 Bertrand, Paris 1814.
 Stanka, Julius: Geschichte des k. u. k. Infanterie-Regimentes Erzherzog Carl Nr. 3. Wien: 1894.
 In effects the Depot Division of the regiment (someone told around 1000 men ?) had reached Vienna with the Division Dedovich and then the opposite Danube bank merging with the regiment and replacing the losses (the whole 2nd Battalion lost at Ratisbon). So it is possible the numbers of IR 3 at Aspern had been different than those referred. The regiment’s history gives a number of losses (from April 1 to the end of May of 23 officers and 963 men). Stanka, Julius ibidem pag. 432.
 Amon von Treuenfest, Gustav Ritter von: Geschichte des k. k. Infanterie-Regimentes Hoch- und Deutschmeister Nr. 4. Wien: 1879.
 Dragoni Edler von Rabenhorst, Alfons: Geschichte des K. u. K. Infanterie-Regimentes Prinz Friedrich August, Herzog von Sachsen, Nr. 45. Von der Errichtung bis zur Gegenwart. Brünn: 1897.
 The regimental history tells that the Help Circle for the De Vaux recruitment was Rzeszòw in Galicia and so justifies its disbanding after the lost of the outer recruitment district. Otherwise Wrede et al. do not refer of galician Circles for IR 45 (nor any depot company 45 appears in any army list for Galicia). Probably the outer “helping” Circle of the De Vaux was Judenburg in Styria and the reason of the disbanding was the loss of large parts of the Salzburg territory.
 Auspitz, Leopold: Das Infanterie-Regiment Freiherr von Hess Nr. 49. Eine Chronik nach den Weisungen des Regiments-Commandanten Obersten Anton Juriskovic von Hagendorf.Teschen: 1889.
 Leiler, Anton: Geschichte des k. k. Infanterieregimentes No. 59 seit seiner Errichtung 1682 bis zum Schlusse des Jahres 1855. Salzburg: 1864.
Capitulanten: former soldiers who did voluntarily extend their duty period (weiterdienen).
 “Belehrungen zur Circular-Verordnung vom 23sten Juny 1808, die Landwehre betreffend.” in Schallhammer, Anton von, Kriegerische Ereignisse im Herzogthume Salzburg in den Jahren 1800, 1805 und 1809, Verlag Mayr, 1853.
 Upper and Lower Austria had mainly grey waistcoats and round shields with the number of Battalion on the hat. See the following note.
 Upper and Lower Austria had so grey uniforms and hat badges. Kurz Franz, Geschichte der Landwehre in Oesterreich ob der Enns, Cajetan Hasslinger, Linz 1811. TR. “The uniform of our Landwehr consisten in a waist coat of grey tissue with red turnbacks. This waist coat had to be large and enough comfortable to allow, in winter, dressing it over the own common clothes. The common soldier got a cartridge bag sustained by a belt, with 36 cartridge and one belt to carry the bayonet, and also, on the hat, a small brass badge, which indicated the Circle from which came the Battalion together with the number of the same Battalion. This badge was fixed to the round hat by a black band”.
 Schallhammer, Anton von, Kriegerische Ereignisse im Herzogthume Salzburg in den Jahren 1800, 1805 und 1809, Verlag Mayr, 1853.
Placed on the Napoleon Series: August 2010
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