The Austrian Imperial-Royal Army (Kaiserliche-Königliche Heer) 1805 – 1809:
THE AUSTRIAN IMPERIAL-ROYAL ARMY
Kaiserliche-Königliche Heer 1805 – 1809
THE HUNGARIAN INSURRECTIO IN 1809
(from: Exercier Reglement für die Insurrection des Adels von Ungarn. Pesth 1809,
Erstes Hauptstückt. Erster Abschnitt. Stell und Abteilung.)
The Landwehr system was extended also to Hungary and to a part of the Croatia by the Pressburg (Pozsony-Bratislava) parliament (Landstag) (August 20 – November 5, 1808), which decided to raise a force of about 20.000 men for the national line regiments and by direct proposal of the Kaiser Franz, in the case of a direct threat against the hungarian Crown lands, decided to raise a Personal Insurrection Levy.
The company had two Feldwebeln like the regular units in war (because the Insurrectio was raised only as wartime units). Here the equivalent terms in Hungarian (the language of Insurrectio)
A Brief History of the Hungarian
That's a great problem in the Hungarian history of the 18th and the 19th century. The insurrectio was generally "der adelige Aufstrand", the feudal militia of the noblemen. But in the truth, at the beginning of the 19th century, the Hungarians weren't able to determine, who must go to war when the insurrectio was called.
The Insurrectio had been called four times: in 1797, 1800, 1805 and 1809; but only in 1809 the insurgents did fight. The Military Borderlands were part of the Hungarian Crown lands (as well as Croatia. The Croatian Kingdom was under the rule of the Hungarian Crown, but, in effects, it was governed by the Banus of Croatia).
However the Border was under the direct control of the Hofkriegsrat, not of the King of Hungary (the Kaiser himself). The serfs in the Border weren't paying any tax but directly served as soldiers when called. In the war against the Turks (1788-1791) more Grenzer troops were raised than before and this happened also later, in 1796, and until 1848-1849. It was not a special event because it was allowed by the law.
The "Magyar" or Hungarians was actually a dependant of the Hungarian Crown. So the born Croatian, Serbs, Romanians were called as being hungarians (this happened many years before the spreading of nationalism), provided they live in hungarian lands, Frontier apart. However the Croatian, Serbs, Romanians, who lived in the Borderlands, were only Grenzer, militarized citizens of that lands.
In order to push back enemies through the borders and in order to achieve the so called “Tregua Domini” (by the Lord a Truce), the higher Prelates, the royal barons and the hereditary lands barons (landowners) had to raise their own troops, under their own standards (Fähnlein) or Banderia. This was the:
- Insurrectio Banderialis: noblemen and the Holy-orders had to raise hussars regiments (banderia. Singular Banderium) according to their financial wealth. These men were organised into the "Banderia" (at least 50 men, namely 1/8 of the full 400 men banderium force) of the noblemen owner (or Holy-order). It fought under the colour (standard) of the "Owner". If the noble was not so wealthy to raise 50 hussars, the eventual enrolled men were sent under the colour of the County (Banderium of the county). The King, the Queen, the Lords, Higher Prelates and some Holy-order could retain their own Banderia.
Even the lesser nobility, but enough in wellfare to get money for raising troops, could have their small armies and join the Insurrectio (here called Particularis). These were an Insurrectio mode, which had some character of volunteers-call to arm (at least for the commanders).
In effects, there were two ways to call for Insurrectio:
1. Insurrectio Partialis: whenever only one or two (of the former three feudal Lords) components were called to arms nationwide or in some regions of the country.
2. Insurrectio Generalis: all components were called to arms, nationwide. In this case “all and each” Prelates, hereditary or acquisite barons with their subordinate vassals (for Croatia, the Summalisten), must raise troops paying directly them and for them. The poorer noblesmen had to enroll “personally under the King’s Flags” for the so called:
3. Insurrectio Personalis: where all the hungarian nobles (personalis = persons, but even organizations Ie. the free cities) had to stand up (but this was restricted more times). So the insurrectio personalis was a personal insurrection of the nobles and of all their cities, towns and other corporations, which held the noble title. The nobles didn't pay taxes, but were compelled personally to defend the Country. They had the opportunity to send deputy soldiers instead of themselves; but this, actually, was not common;
In every case there were also standard rules to understand the richness degree of the nobles. They simply counted the number of rural farms (Porta) in order to have a measure of the landowner wellfare. So many paid and raised troops along with this rating value.
4. Insurrectio Portalis: the poorer Vassals (and sometimes with the higher nobles aid) raised hussars and footsoldiers according to what stated by law. The "porta" is a term which means house. The earlier origin is not known. It was, therefore, the taxation standard units, when taking off money from each farmhouse, owned by a landowner. In the Hungarian Kingdom (as above mentioned, they were not the same thing as the lands of the Hungarian Crown) there were 5405,5 Porta. The country-soldiers were formally volunteers, but the recruiting was not always free from violence.
The portalis and the banderialis Insurrections were often mixed and combined. The banderialis and portalis Insurrections had not different Statutes. The Statutes were so complicated that it was impossible to keep them as the original statement. Actually, except in the personalis component, nobles and aristocrats raised as many troops as they wanted; usually more than the number fixed by the Statutes. In reality the laws changed very fastly and the called insurrections were never the same in strenght or in organization.
At Agram (Zagreb) the Insurrectio recruitment had specific legislative Council Committee. Their proposal in 1809 was to raise up to 10.000-12.000 insurgents. This was not a Landwehr statement but only a privilege of nobles and High Clergymen. The Insurrectio could have been general or a mass-recruitment (Generalis or Massalis) or partial (Insurrectio particularis or partialis). Also in Croatia it was splitten between personal, banderial or portal (Insurrectio personalis, banderialis, portalis). A personal Insurrectio came from nobles (Turopoljce, Kalničane, through the countryside of SV Ivan Zeline free towns and others), namey from people who, for personal ethical wish, did go into war with a “personal” Banal regiment. The Banderial occurred in the case when someone organized a Banderial regiment, in which men would have been recruited (lend) for a larger period. The Banderials were volunteer-soldiers under the flag (Banderium) of some border feudal Lord (or, in the 1809 event, under the Holy flags of the Church, the “Zagrebački” Bishop Maksimilijan Vrhovac). Also there the countryland nobility was burdened with the so called "portalis insurrectio" according to the number of their taxation fees (used to estimate the number of the bondmen to be enrolled).
Practically, the Agram’s bishop, Maksimilijan Vrhovac, actually the Ban’s Lieutenant, in 1809, raised 17.726 insurgent, whereof 15.742 were common infantrymen, and 1.984 horsemen. Among this fellows, therefore, he could count on 1.042 “personalis” staff insurgents (Officers), about 10.000 “portalis” insurgents through the counties, only 29 volunteers and 1.644 soldiers enrolled in his “banderial” Insurrectio. This was the utmost number of soldiers raised there as Insurgents. However they were rather undrilled, mostly rude peasants, many reaching their battalions as irregular crowds of youngmen and boys. The commander was there the Ban, Fieldmarshal Ignaz Gyulai helped by the vice- commander of the Croatian Kingdom, the “podmaršal” Vinko Knežević. The cavalry was led by the Colonel Joseph Drašković, while the infantry had, as commanders, the colonels Patačić, Amadeo, Peharnik and Berković.
This mass of soldiers did participate to the 1809 larger engagements (St. Michael, Graz, Raab and Wagram) only in a nominal part. Most of them were employed to defend the Bosnian borders against Turks and against Marmont and in repressive duties during the internal riots in their Homeland.
Insurrectio in Napoleonic times
In 1715 the King gave to the Reichstag nobles a Proposition by which (ex art. 8) he explained what would have to be really the Personal Insurrectio of his Vassals and that of their “Banderias”. “Quandoquidem Nobiles et omnes illi, quos sub nomenclationem hac, in Ungaria lex complectitur, pro Regni defensione militare, adeoque personaliter insurgere, suaque respectiva Banderia producere et praestare teneantur”. They must raise troops and must act in the name of the Crown.
In 1796 the Insurrectio was called two times, in 1797, 1800 one time; all calls did not go till the first line in battles. The first call raised a contingent of 17969 Hussars (erste Aufgebot) and 3556 soldiers (in the same time around 50000 recruits reached the Depots of the regular hungarian infantry). The second call gave a contingent of 10778 cavalry, 26606 infantry and, for the first time, 6416 Croatians (a total of 47916 men).
From 1800 the Insurrectio had the character of expecial emergency. From 1805 till 1808 all was clearly stated in the Reichsprotokoll. Hungary (apart of Croatia and Slavonia) had to raise 17214 hussars and 21230 soldiers, the K.K. Frei Städten (Free Towns) and the special Districts had to raise 4000 more Bürger zu Pferd (mounted civilians). It was a grand total of 41000 men called to defend Homeland, which had to be counted with 1952 Scharfschützen (snipers in volunteers units) and around 20000 recruits for the regular army. Under the Rule Law of 1808 this service had to continue for at least three years (after the King’s call), with the advantage they will remain (and eventually fight) in their Homeland territories.
The “Insurrectio” hungarian Cavalry (Hussars) in 1809
Besides the Insurrection units of the present list (under), many Counties and free City formed both divisions or single squadrons (also half-sqns) as volunteers cavalry units. These cavalry was ready to fight around August, but, having never met the enemies, yjey were mainly disbanded or used to replenish other units. Only the Hont’s division was attached, as 5th division, to the 2nd Hussars Archduke Joseph regiment.
The “Insurrectio” Hungarian Infantry in 1809
HUNGARIAN INSURRECTIO INFANTRY 1809
1 - left Danube bank
or Cis-Donau: Davidovich
Districts cis-Donau (Commander Davidovich), battalions:
Districts trans-Donau (Commander Mécsery), battalions:
Districts cis-Theiss (Commander Hadik), battalions:
Districts trans-Theiss (Commander Duka), battalions:
- Commander: archduke Joseph, but probably the first was archduke Rainer
ABAUJVÁR, Insurrectio batt. n° 19 - oberst Keller then oberst Hánlo
BIHAR, Insurrectio batt. n° 14 - Oberstleutnant Poroszlay
BORSOD, Insurrectio batt. n° 16 - Oberstleutnant Szemere then Oberstleutnant Bay
1st EISENBURGER Insurrectio batt. n° 5 - Oberstleutnant Karoly Erdödy
2nd EISENBURGER Insurrectio batt. n° 6 - major Terczánsky
GÖMÖR, Insurrectio batt. n° 17 - Oberstleutnant Fay
HEVES, Insurrectio batt. n° 15 - major Tibad
KOMORN Insurrectio batt. n° 7 - major Kmosko
- Recruitment: from Komorn (Komarno) and Raab
MÁRAMAROS, Insurrectio batt. n° 13 – commander not known
from Máramaros County
NEOGRAD, Insurrectio batt. n° 4 - major Szábo
NEUTRA, Insurrectio batt. n° 3 - Oberstleutnant Ordody
PEST, Insurrectio batt. n° 2 - major Podhorsky
PRESSBURG, Insurrectio batt. n° 1 - oberst Borbély
STUHLWEISSENBURG, Insurrectio batt. n° 10 - Hauptmann Pribek
SZALA (Zala), Insurrectio batt. n° 8 - oberst Ghilány
1st SZATMÁRER Insurrectio batt. n° 11 – comm. not known
2nd SZATMÁRER Insurrectio batt. n° 12 – comm. not known
VESZPRIM, Insurrectio batt. n° 9 - oberst Markus
ZEMPLIN, Insurrectio batt. n° 18 - Oberstleutnant Szentessy
HUNGARIAN INSURRECTIO CAVALRY
ARAD Hussars raised in October 1809
BARS - oberst Knesevich Hussars
BIHAR - oberst Doboszy Hussars
EISENBURG - oberst Batthyány Hussars
HEVES - oberst Almássy Hussars
HONT see volunteers
JAZYGIER and KUMANIER
NEOGRAD - oberst Garnika Hussars
NEUTRA KOMITAT Husaren see Volunteers
ÖDENBURG - oberst Festeticz Hussars
PEST - oberst Gosztóny Hussars
PRESSBURG - oberst Esterházy Hussars
PRIMARTIAL Hussars see Volunteers
SZABOLCZ - oberst Kallay Hussars
SZALA – ZALA oberst Foky Hussars
SZATMÁR oberst Vécsey Hussars
SZEKLER see the Hussar Regiment n° 11 in the regular cavalry section.
SZÜMEGH - oberst Pásztory Hussars
TORONTÁL - oberst Lázár Hussars
VESZPRIM - Oberstleutnant Zichy Hussars
ZEMPLIN - oberst Kantó Hussars
see also the table above.
BANDERIAL-PERSONAL-MASSAL INSURRECTIO INFANTRY
BANDERIAL, PERSONAL, SLAVONIAN-SERBIAN INSURRECTIO HUSSARS
PORTALIS. Note: Magnates of Hungary raised 5 cavalry Div. (2 Sqns. each) for the regular Hussars regiments.
SIEBENBÜRGISCHE INSURRECTIO, (Infantry and Hussars) never organized. was only a project.
1809 – VOLUNTEERS UNITS OF HUNGARY
FREIWILLIGE or the true free-corps of Volunteers (often also Jäger battalions or only Jäger named), set up in the empire by nobles (who called themselves also as proprietaires) or early nationalist (Schill) or a mixture of both (the Duke of Brunswick - Braunschweig, i.e.) and the Freiwilligenbataillone (Freibat. in the contemporary literature).
They follow here an alphabetic order in accordance with their denominations.
ARADER GEBIRGSJÄGERKORPS - Hauptmann Joseph Nagy
BUKOWINAER Freibataillon – major Chevalier Friedrich Forget de Borst
ERZHERZOG KARL Husaren see Siebenbürgische Hussars
MARIA LUDOVICA Freikorps see Siebenbürgisches Freikorps
NEUTRAER Regiment freiwillige Husaren - Insurrectio
They were also considered a regular-like Hussars regiment, apart for the Insurrectio call-to-arms time:
PRIMATIAL (Primartial) Regiment freiwillige Husaren - Insurrectio
At the service and paid by the archduke Carl Ambrosius
SIEBENBÜRGISCHES Jägerkorps Maria Ludovica – Transylvanian Chasseurs
I Bat. (Saxon) - Oberstleutnant Kolb
In Hungary, never engaged.
II Bat. (Hungarian) - Hauptmann Simon Christof
In Hungary, never engaged.
SIEBENBÜRGISCHE HUSAREN Erzherzog Karl
Data not available
 from: Exercier Reglement für die Insurrection des Adels von Ungarn. Pesth 1809, Erstes Hauptstückt. Erster Abschnitt. Stell und Abteilung. Courtesy of Jeff Lewis, Napoleon Series.
 These numbers was those of the Enrollment Lists but they were rather lower in the battlefields (unfit, ill and deserters).
 The combat of Papa (12 June 1809) was a rearguard action fought during Archduke John of Austria's retreat towards the Danube after the failure of his invasion of Italy. Prince Eugène himself reached Papa on the morning of 12 June, to find the Archduke's entire army camped before him, but the rest of the French troops were slow in arriving. By the time Grenier's division arrived, at about 2pm, most of the Austrian infantry were already on their way north. A rearguard, consisting of two battalions of regular hussars, one battalion of regular infantry, one of frontier infantry (Grenzer) and three of Insurrection Hussars (a militia raised in an emergency), was left around Papa under the command of FML Frimont. Frimont posted his cavalry to the south-west of Papa, facing the French, and his infantry to the north
The French were finally ready to attack at around 2pm. Eugène sent troops to outflank the Austrians on both sides, then ordered Montbrun, the Badeners and two chasseur regiments to charge the Austrian centre. The first attack failed, but the second succeeded, and the town fell to the French, while the Austrians fled north. The French made something of a mess of the pursuit, only using their light cavalry, while the 1st Dragoon Division wasn't used all day. Despite this failure they inflicted around 600 casualties on the Austrians, many of the prisoners, three times their own losses of around 200 men. On the following day the French continued the pursuit, and on 14 June they inflicted a major defeat on the Archduke at Raab.From http://www.histoire-empire.org.
 Karakó combats: June 8, 1809. Eugene arrived with 18,000 men at Steinamanager (Szombathely). Lauriston drove 4,000 men to Sárvár, who was caught by chasseurs and Baden cavalry of Colbert. On June 9, 1809, he formed a junction, east of Sárvár, with the main army. The cavalry hold the following positions:
division Sahuc at Gógáufa - General Colbert 9th Hussars at Karakó, the 20th chasseurs at Merse and the 7th chasseurs at Kenyeres; Montbrun occupied Pápócz (1st chasseurs), Asszonyfa (2nd chasseurs) et Marcaltö (7th hussars) .
The defenders, under command of colonel Gosztonyi (a division of Pest cavalry, 230 Gradiskaner under major Taza) withdrew by Jánosháza up Karakó. But the next day, they were attacked again, about two o'clock in the afternoon. This time, they managed to push back the 900 cavalry of general Marollet, despite three attacks.
The French so tried to pass the Raab river at Bodonhely rather than at Marcal. General Andrássy stopped them with his troops stationed on the Marcal: Pest Cavalry (628 men), Veszprém (1143 men), and the Archduke Joseph Hussars (739 men) at Gógánfa.
June 8 saw new troop movements. The Szala cavalry (1100 h.) and the Insurrectio battalion n. 2 (1094 men) were ordered to go to Tét, the cavalry regiment Somogy (1272 riders) moved to Pápa. They should strengthen the Andrássy cavalry.
On 10 June, general Macdonald reached Körmend. The same day, at 13 pm, Karakó was again attacked. The French have gathered at Jánoshásza seven cavalry divisions and two infantry battalions. General Andrássy moved to Dobróka two cavalry divisions (Veszprém), a hussars archduke Joseph division, a division of Blankenstein hussars and a half battery of horse artillery.
At three o'clock in the afternoon, two infantry battalions and three cavalry divisions did attack again the hungarian Colonel János Gosztonyi at Karakó. Despite heavy losses, they pushed up them till Dobróka, followed by the 9th hussars (general Debroc), who drove against the infantry, bound to decline in mass.
Blocked by the muddy ground, Hungarian cavalry could not attack at that time. The French put in battery, at a distance of 2500 paces, four pieces of eight and two howitzers. The Archduke Joseph hussars and part of the Veszprém cavalry threw themselves on the French, which retreated immediately. However a counterattack with two cavalry divisions regained the lost ground. Gosztonyi lost 300 men.
Archduke John withdrew towards Pápa, which he reached during the night. Eugene now expected that archduke John was to take position at Papá to fight. From http://www.histoire-empire.org.
 Insurrectio banderialis: noblemen and the holy order had to raise hussars according to their wealth. These men were organised into "banderium" (at least 50 men, the 1/8 of the full 400 men banderium) of the noblemen (and holy order). It fought under the color (standard) of the "raiser". If the noble not so wealthy to raise 50 hussars theese men were sent under the color of the county (banderium of the county). The king, the queen, the lords and some holy orders had their own banderium. (note by István Nagy 2007)
 Insurrectio personalis: the mandatory stand-up of all the noble persons (and organisations f.e. the free cities) (it was restricted more times).
 Esztergom was the seat of the prímás (Primate) of the Roman Catholic Church in Hungary.
 Bakony (German: Bakonyer Wald) is a mountainous region in Transdanubia, Hungary. It forms the largest part of the Transdanubian Medium Mountains. It is located north of Lake Balaton and lies almost entirely in Veszprém county. The Bakony is divided into the Northern and Southern Bakony through the Várpalota-Veszprém-Ajka-Devecser line.
 The Dukla Pass is a strategically significant mountain pass in the Carpathian mountains on the border between Poland and Slovakia, and close to the western border of Ukraine. It is the lowest mountain pass in the Carpathian mountains main range. Located south of Dukla in Poland and northeast of Prešov in Slovakia, the Dukla pass is acknowledged as an area where Eastern and Western Slavic cultures meet..
 Arva county in northern Hungary.
 Eger (German: Erlau) is a city in northern Hungary, the county seat of Heves, east of the Mátra Mountains. The defence of the northern Hungary was decided after the Russian threats and their intervention during the campaign in Poland.
 Two islands in the Danube, situated in the Hungarian plain between Pressburg and Komorn Great Schütt Island is bordered by the Danube proper on the south and west, and by the Little Danube and the Schwarzwasser (Oeregduna) It is 58 miles long, from 10 to 20 miles wide, and is subject to the floods of the rivers, being low and even. Owing to its rich soil, it is called the Golden Garden of Hungary. It has several towns, including Komorn, which is situated in the southeast corner of the island. Little Schütt Island, bordered by the Danube proper on the north and east, and by the Wieselburger Danube, and lying to the southwest of Great Schütt Island, is 28 miles long.
 The Váh (German: Waag; Hungarian: Vág) is the longest river entirely in Slovakia. A left tributary of the Danube river, the Váh is 406 km long, including its Čierny Váh branch. Its two sources, the Biely Váh (White Váh) and the Čierny Váh (Black Váh), are located in the High Tatras and Low Tatra mountains, respectively, and it flows over northern and western Slovakia and finally pours into the Danube near Komárno (Komarom).
 Jablunka Pass (Czech: Jablunkovský průsmyk) is a mountain pass in the Beskids, located in the elevation of 553 m above sea level, currently in the Czech Republic, near the border with Poland and Slovakia. It separates the Moravian-Silesian Beskids and the Silesian Beskids mountain ranges. It is one of the most important transport routes in the Western Carpathians. Road from Žilina to Těšín runs here. Košice-Bohumín railway line also runs here. It was an important route from the Middle Ages, connecting Upper Hungary with Silesia, more precisely Cieszyn Silesia.
Placed on the Napoleon Series: March 2011
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