Military Subjects: Organization, Strategy & Tactics

British Regiments and the Men Who Led Them 1793-1815: 1st Regiment of Foot

By Steve Brown

Secondary Titles:

1782: The Royal Regiment; 11 February 1812: The Royal Scots

Regimental History

1661:

25 January - raised from Scottish troops in French service

1686:

1 March - 2nd Battalion formed

1804:

1 August - 3rd Battalion formed at Hamilton

1804:

15 December - 4th Battalion formed at Hamilton.

Colonels

1782: 

9 May

Lord Adam Gordon

1801:

21 August

Edward, Duke of Kent, K.G.

Stations and Combats – 1st Battalion

1793:

Jamaica

1794:

February - San Domingo; L’Acal fortress

1795:

San Domingo

1796:

San Domingo

1797:

To England

1798:

Stirling Castle; July - to Ireland; Blairs Huts

1799:

Blairs Huts; received drafts from the Irish militia

1800:

Blairs Huts; May - to Scotland; Glasgow; Leith; July - to England; Canterbury; August – Windsor; October – Horsham; Chelmsford; December - Horsham

1801:

January – Horsham; February - to West Indies; May - St. Martin; St. Thomas; Vera Cruz; St. Croix

1802:

St. Thomas; St. Martin; August – Dominica; October - Antigua

1803:

Antigua; June – Leeward Islands; September - to Guyana; Essequibo; Demerara; Berbice

1804:

Guyana

1805:

Tortola; Tobago

1806:

Demerara

1807:

Demerara; Barbados, many fever deaths; Tobago

1808:

Demerara

1809:

Demerara

1810:

Capture of Guadeloupe; Antigua; Tobago

1811:

Demerara; December – received drafts from home

1812:

Demerara; August - to Lower Canada

1813:

Montreal; Quebec; May - Sacketts Harbour; December - NIAGARA; Black Rock; Buffalo

1814:

Upper Canada; Longwood; Fort Erie; Niagara Falls

1815:

January - Queenston; Quebec; Lundy’s Lane; July - to England.

Stations and Combats – 2nd Battalion

1793:

Toulon (Fort Mulgrave)

1794:

Corsica; San Fiorenzo

1795:

Corsica

1796:

Elba

1797:

Gibraltar; to Lisbon

1798:

Lisbon

1799:

Lisbon; June – to England; Canterbury; July - Windsor; August – Holland; Zuyper-Sluis; Bergen; Helder; Crabbendam; Egmont-Op-Zee; Castricum; Alkmaar; October – to England; Silver Hill

1800:

Silver Hill; June – Canterbury; July – Windsor; September - to Ferrol; Gibraltar

1801:

March – arrive Egypt; Aboukir; Mandora; Rosetta; Cairo; Alexandria; December – arrived Gibraltar

1802:

Gibraltar

1803:

Gibraltar; April – arrived England; May – to West Indies; ST. LUCIA; Morne Fortunée

1804:

Tobago; Dominica

1805:

Barbados; Trinidad; Tobago

1806:

To England; February – Ospringe; March – Leith; Stirling

1807:

April – Hilsea; Portsmouth; to India; September – Prince of Wales Island; December – 6 companies at Madras, 4 companies at Penang

1808:

India - Wallajabad

1809:

Hyderabad; Nundy Droog

1810:

Madras

1811:

Masulipatam

1812:

4 companies to Quilon, Travancore; quelled riot amongst sepoys

1813:

Bangalore

1814:

Bangalore

1815:

Maharatta Confederacy

Stations and Combats – 3rd Battalion

1804:

1 August - formed at Hamilton

1805:

Guernsey; February – Alderney; to Scotland; Leith; November – to England

1806:

Horsham; Chichester

1807:

Jersey; received 120 French POW volunteers

1808:

Jersey; 12 September - to Peninsula; October - disembarked at Corunna

1809:

CORUNNA; February – arrived England; to Ireland; 16 July - to Walcheren; Siege of Flushing; to England

1810:

Portsmouth; March - to Peninsular; July - joined field army; BUSACO

1811:

FUENTES D’ONORO

1812:

Badajoz (served as Wellington’s bodyguard); SALAMANCA

1813:

Burgos; VITTORIA; SAN SEBASTIAN; Bidassoa (first British regiment to enter France); Pyrenees; Nivelle

1814:

NIVE; Bayonne; September - to England

1815:

May - to Ostend; QUATRE BRAS; WATERLOO; Paris; Army of Occupation; brought up to strength by drafts from 3rd Battalion

1816:

Army of Occupation

1817:

24 March - to England; April - disbanded at Canterbury.

Stations and Combats – 4th Battalion

1804:

15 December - formed at Hamilton

1805:

Hamilton

1806:

Stirling; July – to England; Kent; to Ireland

1807:

Ireland; April - Leith; Glasgow; July - Edinburgh

1808:

Leith; August – Harwich; Weeley Barracks; December - Chelmsford

1809:

Chelmsford

1810:

August – Tilbury; to Scotland

1811:

Stirling; May – sent draft to 3rd Battalion

1812:

Stirling; Musselburgh

1813:

Musselburgh; January - sent draft to 3rd Battalion; July – Leith; August - to Stralsund; Lubeck

1814:

8 March - Bergen-op-Zoom (most of battalion taken prisoner); April - paroled in England; May - to Lower Canada; Quebec

1815:

Quebec; sent draft to 3rd Battalion

1816:

Quebec; January - to England; 24 March - disbanded at Dover.

Careers of Senior Officers (shown as highest rank attained in regiment in the period)

Lt. Col. James Lumsdaine

Major in 1st Foot 5 November 1776; Lieutenant-Colonel 10 December 1778; brevet Colonel 13 December 1783. Subsequently Major-General 20 December 1793; Lieutenant-General 26 June 1799; died May 1807.

Lt. Col. Sir Francis Dundas

Lieutenant-Colonel in 1st Foot 10 March 1787 on transfer from 45th Foot; brevet Colonel 17 September 1793; Adjutant-General in North America 28 September 1793; Colonel and ADC to the King 16 October 1793; served in Martinique 1794; Transferred as Colonel-Commandant of the Scotch Brigade 1794. Subsequently Major-General 26 February 1795; Lieutenant-General 29 April 1802; General 1 January 1812.

Lt. Col. Justly-Watson Green

Major in 1st Foot 8 August 1791; Lieutenant-Colonel 9 October 1794; commanded 1/1st Foot 1794; retired about 1797.

Lt. Col. John Drinkwater

Major in 1st Foot 28 November 1794; Secretary of military department of Corsica 1794; Lieutenant-Colonel 1 September 1795; commanded 2/1st Foot 1795 to 1799; transferred to 109th Foot 19 March 1799.

Lt. Col. William Duncan

Major in 1st Foot 8 November 1794; Lieutenant-Colonel 26 September 1795; appointed Paymaster 3 December 1798; Colonel of Stirlingshire Volunteers 23 October 1804.

Lt. Col. Robert Nicholson

Major in 1st Foot October 1794; Lieutenant-Colonel 1 September 1797; commanded 1/1st Foot 1797 to 1808; brevet Colonel 2 November 1805; Brigadier-General in Antigua 1809; died 1814.

Lt. Col. Peter Garden

Major in 109th Foot 1798; Lieutenant-Colonel in 1st Foot 19 March 1799 (on transfer from 109th Foot); died October 1801 in Egypt.

Major Sir William James Cockburne, Bart.

Major in 1st Foot 1 September 1795; brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 29 July 1797; Deputy Quarter-Master General in St. Domingo; died 1800.

Lt. Col. John Clayton Cowell

Major in 1st Foot 12 March 1800; Lieutenant-Colonel 16 July 1800; Inspecting Field Officer of Yeomanry by 1803.

Lt. Col. Duncan Campbell

Major in 1st Foot 1 January 1798; Lieutenant-Colonel 11 December 1800; commanded 2/1st Foot 1800 to 1805; to 9th, then 5th Veteran Battalion by 1805.

Major Sir Edward Baker Littlehales

Born London 1764; Military and Private Secretary to Lord-Lieutenant in Ireland 1798; brevet Lieutenant-Colonel in 17th Foot 1799; Major in 1st Foot 24 January 1800 (on transfer from 17th Foot); retired 21 July 1802.

Lt. Col. Donald McDonald

Major in 1st Foot 13 July 1799; Lieutenant-Colonel 7 November 1801; commanded 2/1st Foot in West Indies 1803; wounded at St. Lucia; retired April 1808.

Lt. Col. Archibald Stewart

Major in 1st Foot 16 July 1800 (on transfer from 94th Foot); Lieutenant-Colonel 25 February 1802; Colonel 4 June 1811; subsequently Major-General 4 June 1814.

Lt. Col. Frederick William Buller

Major in 57th Foot 1795; transferred to 88th Foot 27 June 1796; brevet Lieutenant-Colonel in 88th Foot 1 January 1801; Lieutenant-Colonel in 88th Foot 28 August 1804; transferred to 1st Foot February 1806 (from the half-pay of the 11th Garrison Battalion); exchanged to 1st Foot Guards December 1808.

Lt. Col. William Danser

Major in 1st Foot 17 November 1801 (on transfer from 40th Foot); Lieutenant-Colonel 1 August 1804; commanded 3/1st 1804 to 1807; exchanged (with Hay) to 72nd Foot 19 March 1807; retired June 1807.

Col. Andrew Hay

Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel in Fencible regiment 1 January 1800; Lieutenant-Colonel in 1st Foot 19 March 1807 (on transfer from 72nd Foot); brevet Colonel 25 April 1808; commanded the 3/1st Foot in the Peninsula from October 1808 to January 1809; subsequently Major-General 4 June 1811. Killed in action at Bayonne 1814.

Lt. Col. Henry Conran

Brevet Major in 52nd Foot 1795; Lieutenant-Colonel in 52nd Foot 1799; transferred to 1st Foot 7 May 1807; commanded the 2/1st Foot in India from 1807 onwards; Colonel 25 October 1809; subsequently Major-General 1 January 1812; commanded a brigade in Upper Canada 1814; Lieutenant-Governor of Jamaica 1816.

Lt. Col. James Stevenson Barns, K.C.B.

Major in 1st Foot 18 September 1802; brevet Lieutenant-Colonel in Fribourg Regiment November 1806; Lieutenant-Colonel in 1st Foot 21 April 1808 (on transfer from Chasseurs Brittanique); commanded 3/1st Foot in the Peninsula April 1810 to August 1810; brigade commander in 5th Division August and September 1810; brigade commander in 7th Division December 1812; brigade commander in 2nd Division November 1813; brevet Colonel 4 June 1814; served at Busaco, Fuentes d’Onoro, Badajoz, Salamanca, San Sebastian, Nive, Nivelle.

Major Frederick Hardyman

Major in 1st Foot 16 July 1802 (on transfer from 17th Foot); brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 6 July 1804; Lieutenant-Colonel in 17th Foot 31 October 1805; subsequently brevet Colonel 4 June 1813 and Major-General 12 August 1819.

Lt. Col. Andrew Francis Barnard

Major in 1st Foot Guards 1 January 1805; Lieutenant-Colonel in 1st Foot 15 December 1808 (on transfer from 1st Foot Guards); commanded 4/1st Foot 1808 to 1810; transferred to 95th Rifles 29 March 1810.

Lt. Col. Norman McLeod, C.B.

Major in 4th Foot 25 February 1802; served in the Corunna campaign; brevet Lieutenant-Colonel in 95th Rifles 4 May 1809 (on transfer from 4th Foot); Lieutenant-Colonel in 1st Foot 29 March 1810 (exchanged with Barnard); commanded the 2/1st Foot in India; Colonel 12 August 1818.

Lt. Col. Neil McKellar, C.B.

Major in 1st Foot 2 August 1804; Lieutenant-Colonel 6 December 1810; served with 2/1st Foot in India; brevet Colonel 12 August 1819.

Lt. Col. Henry Frederick Muller

Major in 1st Foot 17 July 1806; served in the Peninsula April to July 1810; brevet Lieutenant-Colonel in 1st Foot 4 June 1811; Lieutenant-Colonel in 1st Foot 2 January 1812; in Portuguese service July 1810 to January 1814 - Lieutenant-Colonel of 5th Portuguese Line 27 July 1810; Colonel of same 5 December 1812; retired 25 January 1814.

Major David Rattray

Major in 1st Foot 12 November 1803; brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 25 July 1810; Lieutenant-Colonel in 63rd Foot 27 September 1810 (on transfer from 1st Foot).

Major John Gordon

Major in 1st Foot 13 August 1807; served in Peninsula October 1808 to January 1809; and again August 1810 to February 1811; served at Walcheren 1809; commanded 1/1st Foot in Canada; killed in action, Canada 1814.

Lt. Col. Thomas Deane

Major in 1st Foot 25 June 1808; brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 4 June 1814; Lieutenant-Colonel 29 June 1815.

Major Swan Hill

Born Scotland c.1773; Major in 1st Foot 21 July 1808; served in Walcheren 1809; served in the Peninsula April 1810 to March 1811; to India with 2/1st Foot in 1811; brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 4 June 1814.

Major Thomas Fraser

Major in 1st Foot 8 June 1809; served in the Peninsula January 1811 to March 1812; brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 4 June 1814.

Major Colin Campbell, C.B.

Major in 1st Foot 27 September 1809 (on transfer from 46th Foot); served in the Peninsula April 1812 to September 1813; brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 17 August 1812; served at Castalla, Salamanca, Burgos, Villamur, Osma, Vittoria (where he was wounded); commanded the 3/1st Foot in 1813/1814 and at Quatre Bras and Waterloo; died 1833.

Major Robert Nixon

 Major in 1st Foot 8 February 1810; served in the Peninsula March 1811 to October 1811; Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 4 June 1814.

Major Peter Fraser

Major in 1st Foot 2 January 1812; served in the Peninsula December 1812 to July 1813; commanded 3/1st Foot at Vittoria; killed in action at San Sebastian 25 July 1813.

Sources:

War Office. Army Lists 1796 to 1815. London: various years.

Weaver, Lawrence. The Story of the Royal Scots (The Lothian Regiment). London: Country Life, 1915.

Mileham, Patrick. The Scottish Regiments 1633-1996. Staplehurst: Spellmount, 1988.

McKenna, Michael G. The British Army – And Its Regiments and Battalions. West Chester, Ohio: The Nafziger Collection. 2004.

Fletcher, Ian. Wellington’s Regiments. Staplehurst: Spellmount, 1994.

Park, S.J. and Nafziger, G.F. The British Miltary – Its System and Organization 1803-1815. Cambridge, Ontario: Rafm Co. Inc. 1983.

Philippart, John. The Royal Military Calendar, or Army Service and Commission Book. London: A.J. Valpy, 1820.

Hall, John A. A History of the Peninsular War: Volume VIII – The Biographical Dictionary of British Officers Killed and Wounded 1808-1814.  London: Greenhill Books, 1998.

London Gazette Website. March 2009.

The Napoleon Series – Peninsula Roll Call. March 2009.

17th-18th Century Burney Collection Newspapers. December 2012. National Library of Australia.

 

Placed on the Napoleon Series: April 2009; updated October 2009; revised February 2013

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