Military Subjects: Organization, Strategy & Tactics

British Regiments and the Men Who Led Them 1793-1815: Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards

By Steve Brown

Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards

Secondary Titles:

None (never officially the 2nd Foot Guards)

Regimental History

1661:

14 February – Monck’s Regiment renamed The Lord General's Regiment of Foot Guards

1711:

2nd Battalion formed (by addition of second Major to the establishment)

 
Colonels

1784: 

27 October

Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

1805:

5 September

Prince Albert Frederick, Duke of Cambridge

Stations and Combats – 1st Battalion

1793:

February – London; Greenwich; May – St Amand; Famars; Valenciennes; LINCELLES; Dunkirk; Lannoy; November – Menin; December – Ghent

1794:

Ghent; March – drafts to Flanders; April – Vaux; Caesar’s Camp; Roubaix; Tourcoing; Nijmegen; Retreat to Bremen

1795:

April – Bremen to Greenwich; London

1796:

Tower Hamlets

1797:

Tower of London

1798:

London; May – light companies to Ostend (taken prisoner); Hilsea; June – to Ireland; Ross

1799:

Ireland; June – Portsmouth; Shirley Common; Barham Downs; August – to Holland; Zyper-Sluis; Bergen; Egmont-Op-Zee; Castricium; Alkmaar; October – Yarmouth; London

1800:

March – Portsmouth; to Ireland; Cork; August – Kinsale; Monkstown; Cork – to Egypt; September –Vigo Bay; October – Gibraltar; December – Malta; Marmorice

1801:

January – Egypt; March – Aboukir Bay; Lake Mareotis; Alexandria; Siege of Cairo; October – Malta; December – Portsmouth; Winchester

1802:

Winchester; London

1803:

London; June - Chelmsford

1804:

Chelmsford; Coxheath; Chatham

1805:

May – London; June – Chatham; August – Deal; Dover Castle; Ramsgate; October – to Bremen

1806:

February – disembarked Ramsgate; Deal; Chatham

1807:

July – Sheerness; September – Copenhagen; November – Yarmouth; Chatham

1808:

Chatham; December – Canterbury; Ramsgate; to Peninsula

1809:

January – Spithead; February – Cork; March – Lisbon; Belem; Grijon; Oporto; TALAVERA

1810:

Celerico; Bussaco

1811:

FUENTES D’ONORO; Celerico; Pinhel

1812:

Ciudad Rodrigo; SALAMANCA; Madrid; Burgos; Musquetello

1813:

Burgos; Vittoria; Tolosa; San Sebastian; Pyrenees; Bidassoa; Nivelle; Nive

1814:

Bayonne; Bordeaux; July – Spithead; London

1815:

London.

Stations and Combats – 2nd Battalion

1793:

Tower Hamlets; Westminster; Tower of London

1794:

Knightsbridge

1795:

Knightsbridge; Warley Common; London

1796:

Westminster

1797:

Westminster

1798:

Tower of London

1799:

London

1800:

Tower of London

1801:

Tower of London; September – Chelmsford

1802:

London; August – Windsor; Kew

1803:

London

1804:

London

1805:

London

1806:

London

1807:

London

1808:

London

1809:

London; July – Chatham; light companies to Walcheren; September – disembarked Chatham

1810:

London; March – 2 companies Portsmouth; Isla de Leon; August – 2 companies at Cadiz

1811:

London; light companies at Cadiz; BARROSA; May – light companies home; Tower of London

1812:

Westminster

1813:

London; November – 6 companies to Greenwich; Ramsgate; to Holland

1814:

February – Steenbergen; August – 6 companies at Brussels; remaining 4 companies Ramsgate; to Ostend

1815:

March – Brussels; Quatre Bras; WATERLOO; Paris; Army of Occupation

1818:

October – to England.

Note: The Guards also formed a composite light infantry battalion (combined from flank companies of all three Foot Guards regiments) which existed from July 1794 to April 1795. This was re-formed for the raid on Ostend in 1798 and broken up in April 1802.

Stations and Combats – Light Battalion

1794:

July – formed from flank companies; Flanders

1795:

April – Bremen to Greenwich; companies back to parent battalions

1798:

Re-formed; May – Margate to Ostend; taken prisoner

1799:

April – home on parole; London; Barham Downs

1800:

Swinley; Colchester

1801:

Colchester; Chatham

1802:

April - companies back to parent battalions.

There was also a composite grenadier battalion (formed in similar fashion) which existed from March 1793 to May 1795. This was re-formed for the 1799 campaign in the Helder and broken up in April 1802.

Stations and Combats – Grenadier Battalion

1793:

March – formed from flank companies; Greenwich; The Hague; Raismes; Famars; Valenciennes; Caesar’s Camp; LINCELLES; Rosendael; Dunkirk; Catillon; December – Ghent

1794:

Ghent; February – Courtrai; April – Vaux; Roubaix; Mouveaux; Tourcoing; Retreat to Bremen

1795:

April – Bremen to Greenwich; May – companies back to parent battalions

1799:

Re-formed; London; Shirley; Barham Downs; August – to Holland; Zyper-Sluis; Bergen; Egmont-Op-Zee; Castricum; Alkmaar; November - to England

1800:

Swinley; Colchester

1801:

Colchester; Chelmsford

1802:

April - companies back to parent battalions.

Careers of Senior Officers (shown as highest rank attained in regiment in the period)

Note: In an army that embraced a commission system riddled with idiosyncrasies, the ranking of Foots Guards officers stands out as easily the most obfuscating.

Each Foot Guards regiment had in theory one Lieutenant-Colonel, plus one Major per battalion (therefore the Coldstream Guards had a 2nd and 1st Major); and company officers were styled ‘Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel’ to make their status above line officers clear to all. But in addition, many of these officers held these regimental ranks whilst also being general officers in the Army.

Therefore in theory a company in the Guards could have been commanded by a Captain who ranked the same as a Lieutenant-Colonel in the line, but who was also a Lieutenant-General in the Army. Hence why promotions through field officer and general ranks will appear intermingled in the chronological biographies below.

Because of this potentially confusing arrangement, I have omitted giving rank titles to officers in their headers - unlike the line regiments. This will avoid readers scratching their heads at the idea of captains commanding divisions. Readers will also no doubt note that a field command in the Guards was indeed a ticket to the top room.

All appointments between Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel and Lieutenant-Colonel are within the Coldstream Guards unless noted otherwise.

Anthony George Martin

Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 3 November 1769; 2nd Major June 1780; Major-General 20 November 1782; 1st Major 23 November 1785; Lieutenant-Colonel 26 May 1789; Colonel 51st Foot 2 December 1795; died 1800.

George Morgan

Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 26 May 1775; brevet Colonel 16 May 1781; 2nd Major 26 May 1789; Major-General 28 April 1790; retired 31 January 1793; Major-General on retired list 1815.

Hon. Lowther Pennington

Born Cumberland 1745; Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 17 December 1778; 2nd Major 1 February 1793; Major-General 20 December 1793; commanded 1/Coldstream Guards in Holland 1794; 1st Major 1 April 1795; Colonel 131st Foot 23June 1795; 2nd Baron Muncaster 1813; died 1818.

Thomas Slaughter Stanwyx

Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 22 February 1779; Major-General 20 December 1793; 2nd Major 1 April 1795; 1st Major 23 June 1795; Lieutenant-Colonel 2 December 1795; Major-General in Ireland 1798; Lieutenant-General 26 June 1799; Colonel-Commandant 5/60th Foot 9 May 1800.

William Morshead

Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 11 July 1785; commanded 1/Coldstream Guards 1793; 2nd Major 23 June 1795; 1st Major 2 December 1795; Major-General 26 February 1795; second in command under Sir Ralph Abercrombie in West Indies 1795 to 1798; Colonel-Commandant 5/60th Foot 30 December 1797; Lieutenant-General 29 April 1802; General 1 January 1812.

Hon. Chapel Norton

Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 1 June 1774 (on transfer from 1st Foot); 2nd Major April 1786; Major-General 28 September 1787; 1st Major 26 May 1789; Colonel 81st Foot 25 March 1795.

Edward Morrison

Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 13 January 1790; brevet Colonel 26 February 1795; 2nd Major 2 December 1795; 1st Major 30 December 1795; Major-General 1 January 1798; Lieutenant-Colonel 9 May 1800; Colonel of Leicester Fencibles 19 November 1800; Lieutenant-General 1 January 1805; General 14 June 1814.

Andrew Cowell

Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 27 October 1790; brevet Colonel 21 August 1795; 2nd Major 30 December 1797; Major-General 18 June 1798; commanded Guards brigade in Ireland 1798; 1st Major 9 May 1800; Lieutenant-Colonel 19 November 1800; Lieutenant-General 30 October 1805; General 4 June 1814; died 1821.

Hon. Edward Finch

Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 3 October 1792; brevet Colonel 3 May 1796; commanded 1/Coldstream Guards in Holland 1799; 2nd Major 9 November 1800; Major-General 1 January 1801; 1st Major 18 June 1801; Lieutenant-General 25 April 1808; Colonel of 54th Foot 3 August 1808.

Isaac Gascoyne

Born Suffolk 1763 (brother of Bamber); Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 5 December 1792; wounded at Lincelles 1793; brevet Colonel 3 May 1796; commanded 1/Coldstream Guards in Ireland 1798; exchanged to Lieutenant-Colonel 34th Foot 24 January 1799; MP 1796 to 1831.

John Calcraft

Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 25 April 1793; brevet Colonel 3 May 1796; commanded Guards composite light battalion at Ostend 1798 (taken POW); 2nd Major 8 June 1801; Major-General 29 April 1802; 1st Major 4 August 1808; Lieutenant-General 25 April 1808; General 12 August 1819.

Hon. James Ochonar Forbes (Lord Forbes)

Born Aberdeen 1765; Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 28 August 1793; brevet Colonel 3 May 1796; Major-General 29 April 1802; became Lord Forbes 1804; Colonel of 3rd Garrison Battalion 19 July 1807; Lieutenant-General 25 April 1808; second in command of all British forces in Mediterranean 1808; General 12 August 1819; died Germany 1843.

William Wynyard

Deputy Assistant Adjutant-General in Holland 1793; Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 1 April 1795; Colonel of West India Rangers 25 October 1806; later equerry to King George III.

Richard Ford William Lambart, 7th Earl of Cavan

Born Ireland 1763; 7th Earl of Cavan 1774; wounded at Valenciennes 1793; Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 23 June 1795; brevet Colonel 21 August 1795; Major-General 18 June 1798; 2nd Major 9 May 1800; 1st Major 19 November 1800; Colonel-Commandant 68th Foot 18 June 1801; Lieutenant-General 1805; General 4 June 1814; died London 1837.

Kenneth Alexander Howard, K.C.B., G.C.B.

Born Manchester 1767; wounded at St Amand 1793; Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 25 July 1798; brevet Colonel 1805; 2nd Major August 1808; Major-General 25 July 1810; commanded brigade in Peninsula February to October 1811; and again November 1812 to March 1813; commanded 1st Division in Peninsula March 1813 to April 1814; Lieutenant-General 12 August 1819; General 1837; 1st Earl of Effingham 1837; died Brighton 1845.

Thomas Armstrong

Served at Ostend 1798 and taken POW; Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 20 September 1799; commanded 1/Coldstream Guards in Hanover 1805 and Copenhagen 1807; retired 11 May 1808; re-entered Army June 1813; ADC to Duke of York as temporary Lieutenant-Colonel.

Harry Chester

Born Hertfordshire 1770; Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 18 January 1799; brevet Colonel 25 October 1809; served briefly in Peninsula; Major-General 1 January 1812; son-in-law of General Sir Henry Clinton; died 1821.

Henry Bayly

Wounded at Lincelles 1793; Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 5 September 1799; brevet Colonel 25 October 1809; Major-General 1 January 1812; on staff in Peninsula 1814; Governor of Guernsey 1816.

Henry Mackinnon

Born 1773; Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 18 October 1799; served in Peninsula March to December 1809; brevet Colonel 25 October 1809; commanded brigade in 2nd Division December 1809 to February 1810; commanded brigade in 3rd Division February 1810 to July 1811; and again November 1811 to January 1812; Major-General 1 January 1812; killed at Ciudad Rodrigo 19 January 1812.

Richard Hulse

Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 9 May 1800; commanded 1/Coldstream Guards in Peninsula March 1809 to September 1809; brevet Colonel 25 October 1809; commanded brigade in 1st Division November to December 1809; commanded brigade in 6h Division November 1810 to July 1812; Major-General 1 January 1812; commanded brigade in 5th Division August and September 1812; died Spain 7 September 1812.

Wroth Palmer Acland, K.C.B.

Born Devon 1770; Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 10 May 1800 (on transfer from Lieutenant-Colonel of 19th Foot); brevet Colonel 1803; served at Maida 1806; served in Peninsula August and September 1809; commanded a brigade in Walcheren 1809; Major-General 25 July 1810; Lieutenant-General 4 June 1814; Colonel of 1/60th Foot 1815.

William Henry Pringle

Born England 1770; Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 17 September 1802 (on transfer from 4th Foot); served in Hanover 1805 and Copenhagen 1807; transferred to Lieutenant-Colonel 1st Foot 1 December 1808.

Warren Marmaduke Peacocke, Kt., K.C.

Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 1 January 1800; Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 19 November 1800; served at Copenhagen 1807; brevet Colonel 25 April 1808; served in Peninsula March 1809 to April 1814 as commandant of Lisbon; Major-General 4 June 1811; died 1849.

John Ross

Born Scotland, brother of General Sir Charles Ross; Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 25 December 1802; brevet Major 29 April 1802; served in Peninsula March to July 1809; killed at Talavera 1809.

Joseph Fuller, K.B., G.C.H.

Born 1776?; Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 25 May 1803; commanded 1/Coldstream Guards in Peninsula March 1809 to March 1810; brevet Colonel 25 July 1810; commanded 1/Coldstream Guards in Peninsula April 1811 to May 1812; Major-General 4 June 1813; Colonel of 96th Foot January 1824; General 1838; died London 1841.

Matthew, Lord Aylmer, G.C.B.

Born Ireland 1775; 5th Baron Aylmer 1785; Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 9 June 1803; Assistant Adjutant-General in Peninsula April 1809 to July 1811; brevet Colonel 25 July 1810; Deputy Adjutant-General in Peninsula November 1812 to June 1813; Major-General 4 June 1813; commander of independent brigade July 1813 to April 1814; Adjutant-General in Ireland 1814 to 1823; Governor-General of British North America 1830 to 1835; died London 1850.

Sir William Sheridan, Bart.

Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 25 June 1803; brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 25 June 1803; served in Hanover 1805 and Copenhagen 1807; severely wounded at Talavera 1809; taken POW 4 August 1809; brevet Colonel 1 January 1812; Major-General 4 June 1813; released from captivity April 1814.

Hon. Henry Otway Brand (Trevor) (Lord Dacre), C.B.

Born Hertfordshire 1777; Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 25 October 1806; served in Peninsula March 1809 to March 1810; commanded 1/Coldstream Guards March 1810 to April 1811; and again July to October 1812; Lieutenant-Colonel 25 July 1814; Major-General 19 July 1821; General 1851; 21st Baron Dacre 1851; took surname of Trevor; died London 1853. 

Richard Downes Jackson, K.C.B.

Born 1777; Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 4 August 1808; served in Peninsula with 2/Coldstream Guards April 1810 to March 1811; commanded light companies at Barrosa; Assistant Quarter-Master General April 1811 to May 1813; and again October 1813 to April 1814; 1st Major 25 July 1814; Colonel Royal Staff Corps 18 January 1820; Administrator in Canada 1841 to 1842; died Montreal 1845.

Henry Frederick Bouverie, K.C.B., G.C.M.G.

Born Northampton 1783; served in Peninsula March 1809 to August 1810; ADC to Wellesley May 1809 to August 1810; wounded at Talavera 1809; Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 28 June 1810; Assistant Adjutant-General in Peninsula April 1812 to April 1814; served in Netherland 1814; 2nd Major 18 January 1820; Governor of Malta 1836 to 1843; died 1853.

James Macdonell, K.C.B., K.C.H.

Born Scotland 1781; Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 8 August 1811 (on transfer from Lieutenant-Colonel 2nd Garrison Battalion); served in Peninsula May 1812 to January 1814; acting 1st Major at Waterloo; commanded defence of Hougoumont; Junior Major 5 July 1821; Lieutenant-Colonel 1825; Major-General 1830; died London 1857.

John Hamilton

Deputy Assistant Quarter-Master General in Cadiz April 1810 to October 1811; Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 30 January 1812; Deputy Assistant Quarter-Master General in Spain November 1813 to April 1814: 1st Major 27 May 1825.

William Clinton Wynyard

Born Berkshire 1789, son of William Wynyard; served in peninsula as ADC to Acland August to November 1808; Deputy Assistant Adjutant-General November 1808 to January 1809; Brigade-Major in Guards brigade in Cadiz October 1810 to July 1811; Deputy Assistant Adjutant-General July 1811 to November 1812; Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 24 September 1812; died London 27 April 1814.

Lucius Frederick Adams

Served in Peninsula March 1809 to February 1812; Brigade-Major Guards brigade; brevet Major 4 June 1811; Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 31 January 1812; served in Netherland 1813 and 1814; retired 13 May 1817.

Alexander George Woodford. G.C.B., G.C.M.G.

 Born London 1782; served in Peninsula January 1812 to April 1814; commanded Guards light companies at Salamanca; Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 8 March 1814; brevet Colonel 4 June 1814; commanded 1/Coldstream Guards in Peninsula 1814; 2nd Major 25 July 1814; commanded 2/Coldstream Guards at Waterloo; 1st Major 18 January 1820; Lieutenant-Colonel 25 July 1821; General 1854; Field Marshall 1868; died London 1870, the longest surviving British battalion commander from Waterloo.

Daniel Mackinnon

Born London 1791, nephew of Henry Mackinnon; served in Peninsula March 1809 to August 1811; ADC to Stopford June to August 1811; again in Peninsula June to September 1812; Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel 25 July 1814;  acting 2nd Major at Waterloo; wounded at Hougoumont; Junior Major 2 June 1826; Lieutenant-Colonel 1830; wrote history of Coldstream Guards 1833; died 1836.

Hon. Alexander Abercrombie, C.B.

Born Scotland 1784, son of Sir Ralph Abercrombie; Lieutenant-Colonel 81st Foot 1808; Lieutenant-Colonel 28th Foot 1808; brevet Colonel 4 June 1814; Captain & Lieutenant-Colonel Coldstream Guards 25 July 1814; Assistant Quarter-Master General in Peninsula 1811 to 1814; Assistant Quarter-Master General at Waterloo; died 1853.

Sources:

War Office. Army Lists 1796 to 1815. London: various years.

Mackinnon, Daniel. Origin and Services of the Coldstream Guards. 2 volumes; London: Richard Bentley, 1833.

McKenna, Michael G. The British Army – And Its Regiments and Battalions. West Chester, Ohio: The Nafziger Collection. 2004.

Fletcher, Ian. Wellington’s Regiments. Staplehurst: Spellmount, 1994.

Park, S.J. and Nafziger, G.F. The British Miltary – Its System and Organization 1803-1815. Cambridge, Ontario: Rafm Co. Inc. 1983.

Philippart, John. The Royal Military Calendar, or Army Service and Commission Book. London: A.J. Valpy, 1820.

Hall, John A. A History of the Peninsular War: Volume VIII – The Biographical Dictionary of British Officers Killed and Wounded 1808-1814.  London: Greenhill Books, 1998.

London Gazette Website. April 2009. http://www.gazettes-online.co.uk/search.

The Napoleon Series – Peninsula Roll Call

Wikipedia. April 2009. Various pages.

 

Placed on the Napoleon Series: November 2011; updated April 2013

 

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