Military Subjects: Organization, Strategy & Tactics

 

British Forces at Cadiz 1810-1814: Organisation, Strength, and Losses

By Andrew Bamford

Organisation in 1810

February

The Spanish having finally permitted a British reinforcement to join the Cadiz garrison, the order was given on February 6th 1810 for the dispatch from Lisbon of a brigade under Major General the Hon. William Stewart. This force was similar in size and composition to that sent a year previously under Mackenzie, and was composed as follows:

Commanding the Force: Major General Hon. William Stewart
1/79th (Cameron Highlanders) (872/925)
2/87th (Prince of Wales’s Irish) (462/667)
94th (Scotch Brigade) (596/662)
Owen’s Company, Royal Artillery (No data)[1]

These forces mostly disembarked on February 11th 1810, and were joined six days later by the two battalions of the 20th Portuguese Infantry, also sent from Lisbon. Detailed returns for the forces at Cadiz do not exist before April 1810, but the allied return of February 24th gives the total strength of the 20th Portuguese as 1,272 rank and file and the Royal Artillery, after the arrival of the second company noted below, at 270.[2]

Due to the lack of trained gunners, one sergeant, one corporal, and twelve privates from each of the infantry battalions were detached to be trained in artillery.[3] However, on February 23rd more men of the Royal Artillery arrived from Gibraltar, although it is unclear if this meant that the infantrymen were returned to their units.[4] Also arriving in the same convoy was the 2/88th (Connaught Rangers): as of January 25th 1810, the date of the last Gibraltar monthly return in which the battalion appears, it had mustered 576 effectives out of 620 total rank and file, whilst its total rank and file strength as of February 24th was 640 men.[5]

March

On March 5th, a provisional battalion of light infantry was formed by detaching the light companies and placing them under the command of Major James Allan of the 94th.[6] On March 11th, orders were given for the formation of “a field brigade of Light Artillery consisting of 4 lt. 3 pounders and 1 5 ½ inch howitzer drawn by mules […] to be stationed at Fort Puntales.”[7] As of March 25th, the organisation of the Anglo-Portuguese contingent at Cadiz stood as follows. Unit strengths from return of British forces inPortugal , March 25thst 1810, with which the troops at Cadiz were still included.[8] This does not include data for Portuguese units, and it is not possible to separate the artillery at Cadiz from the total figure.

Commanding the Force: Major General Hon. William Stewart
1/79th (Cameron Highlanders) (848/922)
2/87th (Prince of Wales’s Irish) (421/656)
2/88th ( Connaught Rangers) (522/634)
94th (Scotch Brigade) (456/661)
Light Battalion (included in the above)
20th Portuguese Infantry, two battalions (No data)
Detachments of Royal Artillery (No data)

Major General Stewart was evidently not impressed by what he found upon his arrival at Cadiz, and he wrote home to the Commander in Chief to make his views apparent in no uncertain terms. Stewart first detailed the deficiencies of his Spanish allies, although he allowed that some improvements were taking place due to “Brigadier General Lacy having been lately appointed Adjutant General of that Army, [who] has consolidated and inspected many of the weaker Corps”. He then went on to total the strength of the defenders, drawing some gloomy conclusions:

“The General Total of Effective rank and File in the Island of Leon may therefore be stated as follows:
Duke of Albuquerque’s Army – 10,400
British Troops – 2,900
Portuguese Troops – 1,200
Volunteers of Cadiz – 2,400

The total sick and noneffective, not included in the above force, may be calculated at 3,600 Rank and File, giving an aggregate Force of 20,500 Rank and File. As the whole of these Sick and noneffective are Spanish, with the exception of a few British and Portuguese, the actual Force for the defence of the Isle of Leon, including Cavalry, Artillery, Infantry, and Volunteers is, as I have had the honour to detail, 16,900 Rank and File. The number of Men required for the adequate defence of Cadiz and the present extensive works on the Isle of Leon may be stated at 25,000 effective rank and file.

A Corps of eight or nine thousand British Troops appears to be indispensable for the Security of Cadiz, in addition to the force already here. I have stated this to His Majesty’s Minister, Mr. Henry Wellesley, and he fully accords with this opinion.

From the Knowledge that I have acquired of the Spanish Character, in the few weeks of my Command on the Isle of Leon, I think that I may without presumption, fortell [sic], that unless the British Government undertake nearly the whole Defence of Cadiz, and that without loss of time, the Enemy, if in earnest, and as powerful in numbers, as there is reason to expect, will ultimately possess himself of the whole of the Isle of Leon; that he, on the other hand, will never possess himself of it, if England be determined to defend it may, I feel, without more presumption be equally asserted.”[9]

Stewart also provided a detailed breakdown of the composition of Albuquerque’s Spanish forces, which is reproduced here as Appendix I.

By this date, however, a new commander was already on his way to supersede Stewart, and he was bringing with him reinforcements sufficient to bring the Anglo-Portuguese contingent to the levels that Stewart hoped for. The new British commander was Lt. General Sir Thomas Graham, and he arrived and assumed command on March 25th. Six days later, the first of the reinforcements began to disembark, being a brigade composed of detachments of Foot Guards and riflemen under Brigadier General William Dilkes.[10] The Foot Guards totalled eleven companies, drawn from the second battalions of all three regiments. Most accounts tend to assume that they formed three distinct units, a belief reinforced by the fact that all three detachments are listed independently in the monthly strength returns and by the fact that they did become divided in this manner during the fighting at Barossa. However, the inspection report on the brigade a few months after its arrival in Cadiz makes it clear that whilst the six companies from 2/1st Foot Guards retained a distinct identity the remaining five companies were combined into a single tactical unit. The report also reveals an interesting choice in the men assigned to this service:

“The men of [2/1st Foot Guards] look older than appears by the return, nearly 60 have served 18 years and upwards and above 200 have been transferred or exempt from service in the 1st Brigade as not being fit for active service, or on account of having large families, the return of wives and children is considerable, all left in England […] The Detachment Battalion is composed of 224 rank and file of the Coldstream Regt. formed into two, and 342 of the 3rd Guards formed into three companies; of the former 100 have been transferred from or exempted service in the 1st battn. of the Regiment as being unfit for active service, or on account of having large families, of the last three companies only 48 exempted or transferred.”[11]

The three Foot Guards second battalions had since 1804 been formed into the Third Guards Brigade, functioning largely in a home depot role and therefore containing men not fit for active service with the other four battalions. However, just as in 1809 the flank companies of this brigade had been drawn off to go to Walcheren, so too now were those men fit for garrison service sent to Cadiz, leaving only a rump at home to process recruits and provide drafts for the remaining battalions. The fact that the 1st Foot Guards was able to provide more men than the other two units combined may be attributed to the fact that the regiment’s first and third battalions were then at home, whilst the first battalions of the other two regiments were on active service with Wellington and thus had a greater need for replacement manpower. The detachment of riflemen comprised two companies of the 2/95th and three of the 3/95th. Also arriving were a further three companies of Royal Artillery, and one of the Royal Staff Corps.[12]

April

On April 3rd, Major Allan’s light battalion was disbanded, “in consequence of the arrival of a considerable detachment of the Rifle Corps”, and on the following day the 2/44th (East Essex) disembarked, followed on the 16th by a squadron of the 13th Light Dragoons.[13] It was discovered that the men of the 2/95th were not fit for active duty, and on April 19th, “The two companies of the 2nd battn. of the 95th Rifle Regt. marched from the Telegraph Heights to the barracks at Cadiz on account of the men suffering from a complaint the remains of the Walcheren fever.”[14] At some point during the month, Brigadier General John Sontag also joined the staff of the force. The initial brigading of the infantry is unclear, not being given in either the Cadiz Journal or Graham’s correspondence, although it may be assumed that the Foot Guards remained together under Dilkes. In any case, organisation must have remained fluid during the first two months of Graham’s command as more units and commanders arrived. On April 25th 1810, the date of the first complete return for the Cadiz command,[15] the force was composed as follows:

Commanding the Force: Lt. General Sir Thomas Graham, with Major General William Stewart, Brigadier General John Sontag, and Brigadier General William Dilkes.
2/1st Foot Guards (588/632)
Foot Guards Detachment Battalion (538/567), comprising

Two companies. 2/Coldstream Guards (216/224)
Three companies. 2/3rd Foot Guards (322/343)

2/44th ( East Essex) (526/559)
1/79th (Cameron Highlanders)  (851/922)
2/87th (Prince of Wales’s Irish) (476/586)
2/88th (Connaught Rangers) (626/672)
94th (Scotch Brigade) (646/692)
Detachment 2/95th Rifles (167/200)
Detachment 3/95th Rifles (291/300)
20th Portuguese Infantry, two battalions (1181/1300)
Detachment 13th Light Dragoons (157/161, with 167 horses)
Royal Artillery (560/609)
Royal Engineers (48/48)
Royal Staff Corps (48/50)
Total: 6703/7298, with 167 horses

There seems to have been considerable confusion as to the exact relationship between the forces at Cadiz and the main army, which in part explains the lack of detailed returns for the earliest months of the British presence. The return for the main Peninsular field army for April 25th 1810 includes a note that:

“In order not to delay this Monthly Return and it being supposed that the General Officer at the Cadiz Station will transmit direct a Monthly Return to the Adjutant General’s Office, the whole of the Officers and Regiments at Cadiz formerly on the strength of this Army have been excluded. A separate Monthly Return of the Troops stationed at Cadiz shall be made out and forwarded as soon as the Returns have been received.”[16]

Only in July was the matter finally resolved:

“In consequence of a letter from the Adjutant General dated Horse Guards 31st July 1810, advising that the Regiments &c &c stationed at Cadiz should not be included in the Monthly Return which is transmitted from this Command the whole of the Staff Officers and Regiments stationed at that place are not included.”[17]

May

On May 24th, Brigadier General Daniel Hoghton joined the force,[18] allowing Graham to order a new brigade organisation. This was announced on May 29th, to take effect two days later.[19] Using the unit strengths from the return of May 25th,[20] the distribution of forces worked out as follows:

Commanding the Force: Lt. General Sir Thomas Graham

First (Guards) Brigade: Brigadier General William Dilkes (1125/1198)

2/1st Foot Guards (596/632)
Foot Guards Detachment Battalion (529/566), comprising

Two companies. 2/Coldstream Guards (215/224)
Three companies. 2/3rd Foot Guards (314/342)

Second Brigade: Major General William Stewart (1825/2110)

1/79th (Cameron Highlanders)  (804/920)
94th (Scotch Brigade) (596/692)
Detachment 2/95th Rifles (153/200)
Detachment 3/95th Rifles (272/298)

Third Brigade: Brigadier General John Sontag (1714/1853)

2/44th ( East Essex) (512/558)
20th Portuguese Infantry, two battalions (1202/1295)

Fourth Brigade: Brigadier General Daniel Hoghton (1144/1325)

2/87th (Prince of Wales’s Irish) (521/645)
2/88th ( Connaught Rangers) (623/680)

Detachment 13th Light Dragoons (155/161, with 167 horses)
Royal Artillery (557/607, with 32 horses)
Royal Engineers (48/48)
Royal Staff Corps (47/50)

Total: 6615/7191, with 199 horses

The Fourth Brigade was stationed in Cadiz itself, whilst the other three were on the Isla de Leon. As well as commanding the Second Brigade, Stewart was also Graham’s second-in-command. The organisation of the Royal Artillery remained static for the rest of the year, the five companies present under the command of Major Alexander Duncan being those of Owen, Hughes, Roberts, Dickson, and Shenly.[21]

June

On June 1st, two squadrons of the 2nd KGL Hussars disembarked to reinforce the garrison, followed the next day by the 2/30th (1st Cambridgeshire), which had come from Gibraltar. As per Graham’s distribution of forces laid out the previous month, the 2/30th was assigned to the Fourth Brigade, whereupon the 2/88th was reassigned to the Second Brigade with effect from June 3rd.[22] At some point, a contingent of Royal Artillery Drivers also joined, along with additional artillery horses, although it is not made clear at what point the ad hoc mule battery was disbanded. At the date of the next monthly return, on June 25th, the organisation therefore stood as follows:[23]

Commanding the Force: Lt. General Sir Thomas Graham

First (Guards) Brigade: Brigadier General William Dilkes (1101/1197)

2/1st Foot Guards (582/631)
Foot Guards Detachment Battalion (519/566), comprising

Two companies. 2/Coldstream Guards (212/224)
Three companies. 2/3rd Foot Guards (307/342)

Second Brigade: Major General William Stewart (2344/2806)

1/79th (Cameron Highlanders)  (785/922)
2/88th ( Connaught Rangers) (605/682)
94th (Scotch Brigade) (547/704)
Detachment 2/95th Rifles (167/200)
Detachment 3/95th Rifles (240/298)

Third Brigade: Brigadier General John Sontag (1672/1859)

2/44th ( East Essex) (476/562)
20th Portuguese Infantry, two battalions (1196/1297)

Fourth Brigade: Brigadier General Daniel Hoghton (1100/1293)

2/30th (1st Cambridgeshire) (606/648)
2/87th (Prince of Wales’s Irish) (494/645)

Cavalry (364/391, with 270 horses)

Detachment 13th Light Dragoons (152/161, with 166 horses)
Detachment 2nd KGL Hussars (212/230, with 104 horses)

Royal Artillery (530/606) [24]

Detachment Royal Artillery Drivers (46/50, with 116 horses)

Royal Engineers (46/48)
Royal Staff Corps (44/50)

Total: 7247/8300, with 486 horses

July

On July 8th, Major General Ronald Ferguson arrived and replaced Stewart, who returned to the main field army in Portugal .[25] On July 25th, Sontag and Hoghton were promoted to the rank of Major General,[26] and on the same day the strength of the various units present were returned as follows:[27]

Commanding the Force: Lt. General Sir Thomas Graham

First (Guards) Brigade: Brigadier General William Dilkes (1072/1192)

2/1st Foot Guards (564/628)
Foot Guards Detachment Battalion (508/564), comprising

Two companies. 2/Coldstream Guards (203/224)
Three companies. 2/3rd Foot Guards (305/340)

Second Brigade: Major General Ronald Ferguson (2529/2886)

1/79th (Cameron Highlanders)  (907/1016)
2/88th ( Connaught Rangers) (609/677)
94th (Scotch Brigade) (591/700)
Detachment 2/95th Rifles (177/199)
Detachment 3/95th Rifles (245/294)

Third Brigade: Major General John Sontag (1636/1813)

2/44th ( East Essex) (455/554)
20th Portuguese Infantry, two battalions (1181/1259)

Fourth Brigade: Major General Daniel Hoghton (1090/1293)

2/30th (1st Cambridgeshire) (592/648)
2/87th (Prince of Wales’s Irish) (498/645)

Cavalry (368/391, with 268 horses)

Detachment 13th Light Dragoons (152/161, with 166 horses)
Detachment 2nd KGL Hussars (216/230, with 102 horses)

Royal Artillery (539/605)

Royal Artillery Drivers (46/51, with 118 horses)

Royal Engineers (42/48)
Royal Staff Corps (42/50)

Total: 7364/8329, with 386 horses

By July 30th, two further companies of the 3/95th had arrived, taking the place in the Second Brigade of the two companies of the 2/95th, which were transferred to the Fourth Brigade, assigned to less active duties in Cadiz itself.[28] It is unclear whether, in reality, these latter two companies had ever returned to their officially assigned posting after being detached as unfit back in April. As late as this month, consideration was still being given to relocating the whole British army to Cadiz if Lisbon became untenable, although Wellington expressed the view that the Spanish would ascribe “selfish motives” to such a move.[29]

August

The organisation of July 30th was short lived, as the subsequent departure of some of the commanders concerned necessitated a rethink that created five brigades more equal in size, removing the anomaly of an over-sized second brigade for the second-in-command. In effect, the old Second Brigade was split in two, with part being joined with the cavalry to form a Reserve. The brigades were then renumbered to reflect the changed seniority of their commanders, who now also included William Wheatley, posted as Colonel on the Staff. The new arrangement came into force on August 9th, with the five reorganised brigades standing as follows:[30]

First (Guards) Brigade: Brigadier General William Dilkes

2/1st Foot Guards
Foot Guards Detachment Battalion

Second Brigade: Major General Daniel Hoghton

2/30th (1st Cambridgeshire)
2/87th (Prince of Wales’s Irish)

Third Brigade: Colonel William Wheatley

2/88th ( Connaught Rangers)
94th (Scotch Brigade)

Fourth Brigade: Lt. Colonel Charles Egerton

2/44th ( East Essex)
20th Portuguese Infantry, two battalions

Reserve: Lt. Colonel John Cameron

1/79th (Cameron Highlanders)
Detachment 2/95th Rifles
Detachment 3/95th Rifles

Detachment 13th Light Dragoons
Detachment 2nd KGL Hussars

This rearrangement was also of short duration, as the growing French threat to Portugal led to the first of several transfers that would rapidly reduce the size of the British contingent from its brief peak in excess of the eight thousand rank and file that Stewart had believed to be essential. The first units to go were the 1/79th, 2/88th, and the squadron of the 13th Light Dragoons, which all embarked for Lisbon on August 15th. Oon the same day, Colonel Kenneth Mackenzie disembarked to join the garrison’s staff. A new order of battle was outlined the following day to allow for these changes. [31] Using the strengths returned as of August 25th,[32] this distributed the remaining forces as follows:

Commanding the Force: Lt. General Sir Thomas Graham

First (Guards) Brigade: Brigadier General William Dilkes (1026/1177)

2/1st Foot Guards (544/621)
Foot Guards Detachment Battalion (482/556), comprising

Two companies. 2/Coldstream Guards (193/221)
Three companies. 2/3rd Foot Guards (289/335)

Second Brigade: Major General Daniel Hoghton (1092/1267)

2/30th (1st Cambridgeshire) (590/643)
2/87th (Prince of Wales’s Irish) (502/624)

Third Brigade: Colonel William Wheatley (1656/1845)

2/44th ( East Essex) (445/539)
20th Portuguese Infantry, two battalions (1211/1306)

Reserve: Colonel Kenneth Mackenzie (1422/1572, with 188 horses)

94th (Scotch Brigade) (609/680)
Detachment 2/95th Rifles (180/195)
Detachment 3/95th Rifles (353/395)

Detachment 2nd KGL Hussars (280/302, with 188 horses)

Royal Artillery (520/597)

Royal Artillery Drivers (44/51, with 117 horses)

Royal Engineers (46/48)
Royal Staff Corps (42/47)

Total: 5848/6604, with 305 horses

September

Early in September, the 94th was also recalled to the main field army, rejoining Wellington on the 20th.[33] Concerned with his own affairs, Wellington did not share Stewart’s view of the necessity of retaining a large force at Cadiz, and stressed this in correspondence with Liverpool:

"My Lord

I have had the honour of receiving your Lordship’s dispatch of the 17th August, in which you enclosed one of the 15th August addressed to Lt. General Graham.

I am not certain from the perusal of these papers whether it is your Lordship’s intention that any Troops should be sent from Cadiz to Portugal besides the 79th and 94th Regts, and the Squadron of the 13th Light Dragoons; or whether it is your Lordship’s intention to leave to General Graham’s discretion to send more troops to Portugal if he should find that I am pressed by the enemy.

I understand that I am not to call for more than those already arrived, but Lt. General Graham, as well as His Majesty’s Government is acquainted with my opinion that all the British Troops might with safety be withdrawn from Cadiz, with the exception of small detachments, and that the reinforcement of this Army is an object of Importance if it is wished to maintain the contest in the Peninsula.

I have the honour to be
My Lord
Your most obedient servant

Wellington"[34]

The 94th was replaced in the Reserve by the 2/87th, with the two companies of the 2/95th posted to the Second Brigade in partial recompense. Wheatley replaced Mackenzie in command of the Reserve, with Egerton of the 44th again assuming command of the Third Brigade. This reorganisation was completed by September 12th, on which date the four brigades stood as follows:[35]

First (Guards) Brigade: Brigadier General William Dilkes

2/1st Foot Guards
Foot Guards Detachment Battalion

Second Brigade: Major General Daniel Hoghton

2/30th (1st Cambridgeshire)
Detachment 2/95th Rifles

Third Brigade: Lt. Colonel Charles Egerton

2/44th ( East Essex)
20th Portuguese Infantry, two battalions

Reserve: Colonel William Wheatley

2/87th (Prince of Wales’s Irish)
Detachment 3/95th Rifles

Detachment 2nd KGL Hussars

This left the Second Brigade, the only troops in Cadiz itself, very weak, and Graham felt obliged to include a note to Lord Liverpool with this allotment of forces, explaining his reasons:

“My Lord, I have the honour to send enclosed the present allotment of the troops, by which your lordship will see that all is left here is 1 battn. 30th Regt. and two companies of the 95th. I should not have reduced the garrison of this place so low but for the necessity I have to get on with the field works of Isla de Leon before the rainy season sets in .

I have the honour to remain, my Lord, your lordship’s most obedient humble, Thos. Graham, Lt. General.”[36]

Presumably due to the weight given to Wellington’s opinion about the uselessness of the Cadiz command, Graham’s difficulties were about to get worse. On September 23rd the Cadiz Journal records the receipts of “an order […] for the immediate embarkation of the 2nd battns. of the 30th & 44th Regts. for the purpose of joining the army under Ld. Wellington”.[37] Both battalions left the station on the 25th, along with Major General Hoghton, forcing Graham to pull troops back from the Isla de Leon and recast his remaining troops into two brigades only.[38] Including the unit strengths returned on the same date,[39] the organisation now stood as:

Commanding the Force: Lt. General Sir Thomas Graham

First (Guards) Brigade: Brigadier General William Dilkes (1015/1172)

2/1st Foot Guards (535/619)
Foot Guards Detachment Battalion (480/553), comprising

Two companies. 2/Coldstream Guards (182/219)
Three companies. 2/3rd Foot Guards (298/334)

Second Brigade: Lt. Colonel Andrew Barnard[40] (801/1016)

2/87th (Prince of Wales’s Irish) (502/622)
Detachment 3/95th Rifles (299/394)

Not Brigaded (temporarily reporting to Dilkes)

Detachment 2/95th Rifles (178/195)
Detachment 2nd KGL Hussars (297/348, with 226 horses)
20th Portuguese Infantry, two battalions (1210/1311)

Royal Artillery (546/597)

Royal Artillery Drivers (141/149, with 208 horses)

Royal Engineers (39/48)
Royal Staff Corps (40/46)

Total: 4267/4882, with 434 horses

Elements of the Foot Guards were posted in Cadiz itself, along with the 2/95th; the remainder of the forces were on the Isla de Leon. It is unclear why Wheatley, who was still at Cadiz, was not given a command per this allocation.

October

As of October 2nd, the arrival of a small infantry reinforcement in the shape of the 2/47th ( Lancashire) and the return to duty of Colonel Wheatley allowed for the implementation of a new organisation. Brigading now stood as follows, with the Second Brigade forming the Cadiz garrison and the remaining forces on the Isla de Leon:[41]

First (Guards) Brigade: Brigadier General William Dilkes

2/1st Foot Guards
Foot Guards Detachment Battalion

Second Brigade: Colonel William Wheatley

2/47th ( Lancashire)
Detachment 2/95th Rifles

Third Brigade: Lt. Colonel Andrew Barnard

2/87th (Prince of Wales’s Irish)
Detachment 3/95th Rifles

Not Brigaded (temporarily reporting to Dilkes)

Detachment 2nd KGL Hussars
20th Portuguese Infantry, two battalions

On October 9th, a new second-in-command arrived in the shape of Major General Moore Disney, and on October 12th he was posted to command a reconstituted Reserve composed of what had been the Third Brigade, plus the two squadrons of hussars. The 20th Portuguese Infantry was later also placed under Disney’s orders. [42] As of the Return of October 25th,[43] the force stood thus:

Commanding the Force: Lt. General Sir Thomas Graham

First (Guards) Brigade: Brigadier General William Dilkes (1036/1145)

2/1st Foot Guards (557/605)
Foot Guards Detachment Battalion (479/540), comprising

Two companies. 2/Coldstream Guards (183/215)
Three companies. 2/3rd Foot Guards (296/325)

Second Brigade: Colonel William Wheatley (863/998)

2/47th ( Lancashire) (690/807)
Detachment 2/95th Rifles (173/191)

Reserve: Major General Moore Disney (2372/2696, with 221 horses)

2/87th (Prince of Wales’s Irish) (581/688)
Detachment 3/95th Rifles (326/389)
Detachment 2nd KGL Hussars (281/320, with 221 horses)
20th Portuguese Infantry, two battalions (1184/1299)

Royal Artillery (584/625)

Royal Artillery Drivers (138/147, with 193 horses)

Royal Engineers (44/47)
Royal Staff Corps (41/44)

Total: 5087/5702, with 414 horses

Wheatley’s Second Brigade remained at Cadiz, with the remaining forces on the Isla de Leon.

November

After the October 1810, there is a gap in the archival coverage of the Cadiz journal of operations, forcing a reliance on Graham’s correspondence alone to establish the organisation of his forces. Inasmuch as this does not contain a new Allotment of Forces until December 9th, it must be assumed that the order of battle given for October remained in force until that date, although elements of the Chasseurs Britanniques had arrived and joined the garrison by the time of the November 25th Monthly Return.[44] Since they were stationed in Cadiz itself throughout their brief stay with the force,[45] and were part of the Second Brigade in the December 9th Allotment, it seems reasonable to assume that they were posted to it on arrival. This being so, the strength and organisation as of November 25th works out as follows:

Commanding the Force: Lt. General Sir Thomas Graham

First (Guards) Brigade: Brigadier General William Dilkes (1058/1144)

2/1st Foot Guards (564/606)
Foot Guards Detachment Battalion (494/538), comprising

Two companies. 2/Coldstream Guards (194/214)
Three companies. 2/3rd Foot Guards (300/324)

Second Brigade: Colonel William Wheatley (1323/1441)

2/47th ( Lancashire) (690/795)
Detachment Chasseurs Britanniques (457/457)
Detachment 2/95th Rifles (176/189)

Reserve: Major General Moore Disney (2444/2710, with 217 horses)

2/87th (Prince of Wales’s Irish) (579/684)
Detachment 3/95th Rifles (354/387)
Detachment 2nd KGL Hussars (280/320, with 217 horses)
20th Portuguese Infantry, two battalions (1231/1319)

Royal Artillery (576/619)

Royal Artillery Drivers (139/146, with 189 horses)

Royal Engineers (78/86)
Royal Staff Corps (40/43)

Total: 5658/6189, with 406 horses

December

By December 9th, the 2/67th (South Hampshire) had joined the force, and on that date the order of battle was accordingly recast to accommodate the new battalion by creating a new brigade.[46] The remainder of the Chasseurs Britanniques had now disembarked, and in addition a body of foreign recruits had arrived and attached to that unit. Disembarking on December 22nd, this contingent had been assembled at Gibraltar and were now posted to Cadiz apparently with a view towards using them as a nucleus of a second battalion for the Chasseurs.[47] This was never followed through, but these men formed the nucleus of a battalion that would remain with the Cadiz command, under various names, for the remainder of the war. Graham speculated on the initial prospects of these men in a letter of January 3rd 1811:

“My Lord, I omitted to mention that Genl. [Colin] Campbell had sent 312 German Deserters here, whom I have attached to the Chasseurs Britanniques meanwhile. Genl. Roche tells me that there are several hundred more of the same description at Alicante and other places on that Coast. After consulting with H.M.’s Minister here I have requested they may be sent here. Whether they shall be permanently attached as a second battalion to the C. Britanniques, or whether they shall be formed into a kind of Detachment Battalion, they will be a valuable addition to the force here and I trust therefore that what I have determined on will be approved of. It would be very desirable that a decision were taken by the Government concerning them so that they may be rendered efficient as soon as possible by having clothing, arms and accoutrements and officers appointed to them. Meanwhile, those attached to the C. Britanniques have received arms and accoutrements and there will be a necessity to incur some expense in clothing them which however shall be kept as moderate as possible.

Genl. Roche tells me that the Spanish prisons are full of Germans and Poles who would be glad to enter into H.M.’s service and that a Corps to the amount of several thousand men might be formed immediately from among these prisoners with the consent of the Spanish Government. I mention this for your Lordship’s consideration. I would by no means recommend taking any French. Several men of the C. Britanniques amongst the recruits last sent from England and understood to have been enlisted from the prisons have deserted to the Enemy since their arrival here. All of them were natives of France .

I have the honour to remain, My Lord, your Lordship’s most obedient and most humble,

Sir Thos. Graham”[48]

Including these new arrivals, and with units strengths from the return of December 25th,[49] the organisation on that date stood as follows:

Commanding the Force: Lt. General Sir Thomas Graham

First (Guards) Brigade: Brigadier General William Dilkes (1091/1139)

2/1st Foot Guards (581/602)
Foot Guards Detachment Battalion (510/537), comprising

Two companies. 2/Coldstream Guards (204/214)
Three companies. 2/3rd Foot Guards (306/323)

Second Brigade: Colonel William Wheatley (1902/2055)

2/47th ( Lancashire) (748/786)
Chasseurs Britanniques (857/972)
Foreign Recruits (297/297)

Third Brigade: Lt. Colonel William Prevost (640/710)

2/67th (South Hampshire) (457/521)
Detachment 2/95th Rifles (183/189)

Reserve: Major General Moore Disney (2486/2702, with 214 horses)

2/87th (Prince of Wales’s Irish) (606/681)
Detachment 3/95th Rifles (363/385)
Detachment 2nd KGL Hussars (290/323, with 214 horses)
20th Portuguese Infantry, two battalions (1227/1313)

Royal Artillery (589/619)

Royal Artillery Drivers (141/144, with 223 horses)

Royal Engineers (78/85)
Royal Staff Corps (41/42)

Total: 5968/7496, with 439 horses

The Second Brigade continued to form the garrison of Cadiz itself, the Third Brigade was stationed near Puntales, and the remaining troops were on the Isla de Leon.

Notes:

[1] Organisation from Cadiz Journal, February 6th 1810, in TNA WO28/339; strengths from return of British forces in Portugal , February 25th 1810, in TNA, WO17/2464. It is impossible to separate the data for Owen’s Company from that for the Royal Artillery as a whole.

[2] “Return of the Allied Forces in the Island of Leon, February 24th 1810”, TNA, WO1/247, pp.25-26.

[3] Cadiz Journal, February 21st 1810, in TNA WO28/339.

[4] Cadiz Journal, February 23rd 1810, in TNA WO28/339.

[5] Gibraltar Monthly Return of January 25th 1810, in TNA, WO17/1797; “Return of the Allied Forces in the Island of Leon , February 24th 1810”, TNA, WO1/247, pp.25-26.

[6] Cadiz Journal, March 5th 1810, in TNA WO28/339.

[7] Cadiz Journal, March 11th 1810, in TNA WO28/339.

[8] TNA, WO17/2464.

[9] Stewart to Dundas, March 22nd 1810, in TNA WO1/247, pp73-79. Emphasis as original.

[10] Cadiz Journal, March 25th and March 31st 1810, in TNA WO28/339.

[11] Dilkes to Graham, June 16th 1810, accompanying inspection returns in TNA, WO27/98.

[12] Cadiz Journal, March 31st 1810, in TNA WO28/339.

[13] Cadiz Journal, April 4th and 16th 1810, in TNA WO28/339.

[14] Cadiz Journal, April 19th 1810, in TNA WO28/339.

[15] TNA, WO17/2486.

[16] Peninsular Monthly Return, April 25th 1810, in TNA, WO17/2465.

[17] Peninsular Monthly Return, August 25th 1810, in TNA, WO17/2465.

[18] Cadiz Journal, May 24th 1810, in TNA WO28/339.

[19] Cadiz Journal, May 29th 1810, in TNA WO28/339.

[20] TNA, WO17/2486.

[21] Oman , Peninsular War, Vol.III, p.559.

[22] Changes listed in Cadiz Journal, June 1st-4th 1810, in TNA, WO28/339.

[23] TNA, WO17/2486.

[24] As of this return, the distinction between gunners and drivers is made for the Royal Artillery. This total is for the gunners only, the drivers and horses being listed separately.

[25] Cadiz Journal, July 8th 1810, in TNA, WO28/339.

[26] Robert Burnham (ed.), “Lionel S. Challis's ‘Peninsula Roll Call’”.

[27] TNA, WO17/2486.

[28] Allotment of July 30th 1810, in TNA, WO1/247, p.467.

[29] Wellington to Liverpool, July 14th 1810, in TNA, WO1/246.

[30] Cadiz Journal, August 9th 1810, in TNA, WO28/340, although this does not give commanders for the Third and Fourth Brigades, for which see “Brigading Scheme of the Troops under Lt General Graham 13th August 1810”, in TNA, WO1/247, p.507.

[31] Cadiz Journal, August 16th 1810, in TNA, WO28/340.

[32] TNA, WO17/2486.

[33] Oman , Wellington’s Army, p.348.

[34] Wellington to Liverpool, September 12th 1810, in TNA WO1/246 pp.529-530.

[35] Allotment of September 12th 1810, in TNA, WO1/247, p.587.

[36] Graham to Liverpool, September 13th 1810, in TNA, WO1/247, p.583.

[37] Cadiz Journal, September 23rd 1810, in TNA, WO28/340.

[38] “State of Troops” September 25th 1810, in TNA, WO1/247, p.635.

[39] TNA, WO17/2486.

[40] The Cadiz Journal, September 26th 1810, in TNA, WO28/340, merely states that the Second Brigade was to report to the senior field officer, but Barnard of the 3/95th had seniority over Hugh Gough of the 2/87th.

[41] Allotment of October 2nd 1810, in TNA, WO1/247, p.645.

[42] Cadiz Journal, October 9th and 12th 1810, in TNA, WO28/340; Allotment of October 24th 1810, in TNA, WO1/247, p.663.

[43] TNA, WO17/2486.

[44] TNA, WO17/2486.

[45] Alistair Nichols, Wellington’s Mongrel Regiment. A History of the Chasseurs Britanniques Regiment 1801-1814 (Staplehurst: Spellmount, 2005) p.66.

[46] Allotment of December 9th 1810, in TNA, WO1/247, p.729.

[47] Nichols, Mongrel Regiment, pp.66-67.

[48] Graham to Liverpool, January 3rd 1811 No.2, in TNA, WO1/252 pp.5-7. Graham’s total of 312 includes fifteen sergeants: see Nichols, Mongrel Regiment, p.66.

[49] TNA, WO17/2486.

 

Placed on the Napoleon Series: August 2009

 

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