Military Subjects: Organization, Strategy & Tactics

 

British Forces at Cadiz 1810-1814: Organisation, Strength, and Losses

By Andrew Bamford

Organisation in 1814

January

The first month of 1814 saw no organisational changes from the previous year, beyond that what had been known as the Battalion of Foreign Recruits was taken into line as the 8th Battalion of the 60th (Royal American):[1]

Commanding the Force: Colonel the Hon. Thomas Edward Capell

Cadiz and Isla de Leon

29th (Worcestershire)
Nine companies 8/60th (Royal American)
Detachment Royal Artillery
Detachment Royal Artillery Drivers
Detachment Royal Engineers

Tariffa

One company 8/60th (Royal American)
Part Campbell’s Company, Royal Artillery

Carthagena

Part Campbell’s Company, Royal Artillery
Detachment Royal Engineers

Unit strengths as of January 25th were as follows:[2]

29th (Worcestershire) (641/688)
8/60th (Royal American) (465/590)
Royal Artillery (254/406)
Royal Artillery Drivers (63/85, with 107 horses)
Royal Engineers (44/59)

Total: 1470/1826, with 102 horses

February

The 29th (Worcestershire) left the station, being posted to Gibraltar and then on to North America. This meant that the main body of the 8/60th, less the detached company at Tariffa, which had been concentrated at Cadiz itself, had to be split between there and the Isla de Leon.[3] Unit strengths as of February 25th were as follows:[4]

8/60th (Royal American) (466/589)
Royal Artillery (256/403)
Royal Artillery Drivers (63/85, with 107 horses)
Royal Engineers (47/57)

Total: 832/1134, with 107 horses

March

No organisational changes, but a detachment of the Royal Artillery Drivers, comprising one lieutenant, four sergeants, seventy-six rank and file, and ninety-seven horses, was transferred to “the Grand Army” – that is, the main field army under Wellington.[5] Unit strengths as that return were as follows:

Battalion of Foreign Recruits (485/548)
Royal Artillery (253/401)
Royal Artillery Drivers (5/9, with 4 horses)
Royal Engineers (44/57)

Total: 787/1015, with 4 horses

April

No organisational changes. Unit strengths as of April 25th were as follows:[6]

Battalion of Foreign Recruits (479/575)
Royal Artillery (252/397)
Royal Artillery Drivers (6/9, with 4 horses)
Royal Engineers (45/57)

Total: 782/1038, with 4 horses

May

No organisational changes. Unit strengths as of May 25th were as follows:[7]

Battalion of Foreign Recruits (471/562)
Royal Artillery (320/393)
Royal Artillery Drivers (7/8, with 3 horses)
Royal Engineers (49/57)

Total: 847/1020, with 3 horses

June

A detachment of the 4th Royal Veteran Battalion arrived before the 25th, and was posted to the Isla de Leon, giving a distribution of forces as follows.

Commanding the Force: Colonel the Hon. Thomas Edward Capell

Cadiz and Isla de Leon

Nine companies 8/60th (Royal American)
Detachment 4th Royal Veteran Battalion
Detachment Royal Artillery
Detachment Royal Artillery Drivers
Detachment Royal Engineers

Tariffa

One company 8/60th (Royal American)
Part Campbell’s Company, Royal Artillery

Unit strengths as of June 25th were as follows:[8]

Battalion of Foreign Recruits (473/560)
Detachment 4th Royal Veteran Battalion (148/152)
Royal Artillery (327/391)
Royal Artillery Drivers (7/9, with 3 horses)
Royal Engineers (49/57)

Total: 1004/1169, with 3 horses

July

The Veteran detachment had gone by July 25th, but no other organisational changes were recorded. Capell having been promoted, the organisation of the remaining forces in the last ful month of the detachment’s service stood as follows:

Commanding the Force: Major General the Hon. Thomas Edward Capell

Cadiz and Isla de Leon

Nine companies 8/60th (Royal American)
Detachment Royal Artillery
Detachment Royal Artillery Drivers
Detachment Royal Engineers

Tariffa

One company 8/60th (Royal American)
Part Campbell’s Company, Royal Artillery

Unit strengths as of July 25th were as follows:[9]

Battalion of Foreign Recruits (472/552)
Royal Artillery (326/390)
Royal Artillery Drivers (7/8, with 3 horses)
Royal Engineers (53/56)

Total: 858/1006, with 3 horses

August

The last of the British garrison left early this month, with the 8/60th going to Gibraltar, where it arrived on August 20th, and the remainder of the force returning to England .[10]

Notes:

[1] Allocation of January 25th 1814 in TNA, WO1/266, p.193.

[2] TNA, WO17/1488.

[3] Allocation of February 25th 1814 in TNA, WO1/266, p.201.

[4] TNA, WO17/1488.

[5] Note to monthly return of March 25th 1814, in TNA, WO17/1488.

[6] TNA, WO17/1488.

[7] TNA, WO17/1488.

[8] TNA, WO17/1488.

[9] TNA, WO17/1488.

[10] Note to monthly return of July 25th 1814, in TNA, WO17/1488.

 

Placed on the Napoleon Series: October 2009

 

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