Military Subjects: Battles & Campaigns






Military Cross-Reference Index

There are numerous articles and papers that cover many different aspects of the Napoleonic Campaigns and Battles. There are memoirs, orders-of-battle, doctrine, and battlefield tours among others. There are are so many, we decided to list only those that dealt with specific battles and campaigns in this section. However, so that you can find all related documents, we have developed a Military Cross Reference Index. If you can not find the information you are looking for in the list below, check our Index.


Cinti, Maurizio
La Maddalena, 1793

La Maddalena, 22/25 February 1793. The baptism of fire for a young Lieutenant Colonel, a certain Napoleone Di Buonaparte from Ajaccio.

Goetz, Robert
Catherine the Great’s Military Contribution to the Struggle against France: 1793-1796

An overview of Russia's involvment in the Revolutionary Wars.


Davis, Peter
French Cavalry Defeats Dutch Fleet?

Did the French cavalry really capture the ice-bound Dutch fleet?


Voykowitsch, Bernhard
Lonato 1796

Diving into the vast material of the Vienna Kriegsarchiv, Bernhard Voykowitsch found the Austrian orders of battle and reports.

Vital-Duran, Gabriel
1796-1798 : Trois tentatives d’invasion françaises en Irlande

Three attempts by the French to invade Ireland (1796-1798)


Holmberg, Tom
The Defense of Great Britain

A collection of primary source documents showing how the British government prepared for a possible French invasion.

Millar, Stephen
French Naval Order of Battle at Aboukir Bay (Battle of the Nile): 1-2 August 1798

The ships and their commanders.

Vovsi, Eman
The Power and Question of Faith: Murad Bey’s Pros and Cons during the French Invasion of Egypt, 1798-1801

The struggle for Egypt from a Mameluk's perspective.


Acerbi, Enrico
The 1799 Campaign in Italy

A look at the forces, personalities, and battles of this pivotal campaign in Napoleon's career.

Brier, Bob and Mary Mendenhall Wood
Napoleon in Egypt: The Battle of Chobrakit

A little known, but important battle that preceded the battle of the Pyramids.

Feinberg, Herb
North to Palestine: Napoleon Marches Against the Turks

Bonaparte's campaign against the Ottoman Empire in Palestine.

Gichon, Mordechai
Jaffa, 1799

The siege of Jaffa.

Runyan, Cory
Napoleon in Egypt

Every now and then, in the study of history one will encounter an episode so strange and unusual that it captures the attention and the imagination. The Egyptian Campaign is one such example...

Vital-Durand, Gabriel
Seringhapatam: 4 mai 1799

The battle where the young future Duke of Wellington, beat the Sultan Tippoo. In French.

The Eye of the Cyclone at the Fall of the XVIII Century:  The Ill-Fated Helvetic Republic (1798-1803)
Note: This paper won an Honorable Mention in the Best General History Category of the 2004 Napoleon Series Writing Contest!

A look at the battles in the Alps.


Kiley, Kevin
La Garde a Feu! The Consular Guard at Marengo

Did the Consular Guard turn and run at Marengo?

Scattolin, Roberto
Clash of Arms:  Marengo, 14 June 1800

A brief overview of the battle.

van Uythoven, Geert.
About the March of the French Artillery across the Alps: 1800

A contemporary account of how the French artillery was carried through the Grand Saint Bernard Pass.


Vital-Durand, Gabriel
Capitulation du général Menou: 31 août 1801

What happened in Egypt after Napoleon left. In French.


Holmberg, Tom
Monson's Retreat: India,1804

Tom Holmberg shows that the Napoleonic Wars were truly a world war in his article about a disastrous retreat during the the Second Anglo-Maratha War in India.

Millar, Stephen
Seizing the Gold of Spain: the Action off Cape Santa Maria

British frigates intercept the Spanish gold fleet!


Goetz, Robert
Russian Naval Forces in the Mediterranean: 1805-1809

Russian Land Forces in the Adriatic: 1803-1807

A pair of articles dealing with the Russian presence in the Mediterranean.

Mikaberidze, Alexander
Report on Killed and Missing in Action at the Battle of Austerlitz: 2 December 1805

These are figures based on the after-action reports of the Russian commanders.

Report on the Losses of Russian Artillery Units at the Battle of Austerlitz: 2 December 1805

These are figures based on the after-action reports of the Russian artillery commanders.

A Few Notes on the Russian Losses at Austerlitz

Information on Russian casualties and what happened to the thousands of wounded left behind in French care.

Millar, Stephen
Russian-Austrian Order-of-Battle at Austerlitz: 2 December 1805

A detailed order-of-battle down to regimental size units.

Miscellaneous Russian After-Action-Reports
Lieutenant General Peter Bagration’s Report to General Mikhail Kutuzov on Actions at Austerlitz
General Buxhöwden’s Report to General Kutuzov on the Battle of Austerlitz
Lieutenant General Miloradovich’s Report to General Kutuzov on the Battle of Austerlitz
Lieutenant General Przhebishevsky’s Report on Actions of the 3rd Column during the Battle of Austerlitz

Primary source material from the Russian State Archives. Translated by Alexander Mikaberidze

Scattolin, Roberto
Popular Support and Military Inadequacy in the Transcaucasic Sphere of Strategic Dominance: a 1805 Georgian Lamentation

The Russian - Persian War of 1805


Auerstadt and Jena

Burnham, Robert
Marshal Davout's Orders leading to the Battle of Auerstädt (In French)

Marshal Davout's Orders leading to the Battle of Auerstädt (In English)

Although many marshals and generals of the Napoleonic Wars have left memoirs of the events they participated in, they rarely include actual sets of orders that they received that led up to these events. The following are the orders Marshal Davout received from Imperial Headquarters in the week prior to the battle and in some cases his response to those orders.

Kiley, Kevin
Prussian Light Infantry in the Jena Campaign

A look at why were the Prussians so deficient in their light infantry arm during the 1806 campaign.

Millar, Stephen

Disposition of Prussian Infantry Regiments for the 1806 Campaign

The Prussian Army at Auerstadt: 14 October 1806

The Prussian-Saxon Army at Jena: 14 October 1806

The Orders-of-Battle for the Prussian- Saxon forces at Auerstadt and Jena.

The Golymin and Pultusk Campaign

Goetz, Robert

The next three articles won the 2002 Napoleon Series Writing Contest "Best Military Paper Award"!

Action at Borkowo, 24 December 1806

Cavalry combat between French and Russian forces in the early stages of the Campaign in Poland.

Action at Kolozab, 24 December 1806

The second of three actions in which the French sought to force crossing of the Wkra River

Action at Sochocin, 24 December 1806

The third of three actions in which the French sought to force crossing of the Wkra River

Greg Gorsuch

French Order-of-Battle during the the Golymin and Pultusk Campaign

Detailed orders-of-battles for the French forces.



Benningsen, Baron
Prelude to Eylau: Benningsen's Report to the Czar
Original Document Translated by Greg Troubetzkoy

Baron Benningsen was the over-all Russian commander, and was expected to make periodic reports to the Czar. Written a week before the battle of Eylau, it shows the rather optimistic view of the Russian commander.

Davidov, Denis
The Battle of Eylau
From Denis Davidov's Memoirs
Translated and introduced by Greg Troubetzkoy

The battle as seen through the eyes of a Russian officer.

Gorsuch, Greg (Translator)
Eylau: Precis Des Travaux de la Grande Armée (In French)
Eylau: An Abstract of the Chronological Exploits of the Grand Army (In English)

A reprint and translation of the 1807 book: "Precis Des Travaux de la Grande Armee, Par Ordre de Dates; Avec un Expose des principaux faits qui se sont passses pendant la glorieuse et memorable Campagne de 1806 a 1807, depuis le depart de S. M. I. NAPOLEON-LE-GRAND, jusqu'a la bataille d Eylau."

Holmberg, Tom
Danish Privateering:  1807-11

Denmark waged a war against American shipping in the North and Baltic Seas, causing huge losses to the U.S. merchant fleet.

Hugo, A.
France Militaire. Histoire des Armées Françaises de Terre et de Mer de 1792 à 1837:Chapter IV: Expédition du Portugal
Translated by Tim Mahon

First published in 1838, a look at the French invasion of Portugal in 1807 - 1808.

Kiley, Kevin
Action Front! Senarmont at Friedland

During the battle of Friedland, General Senarmont improvised a new artillery tactic to crush the Russian forces to his front. This artillery assault was one of the most aggressive artillery actions of the Napoleonic Wars.

Megorsky, Boris V.
Rearguard Action Near Eylau: 7 February 1807

On 7th February 1807, the Russian Army was retreating from the town of Landsberg to Preussisch-Eylau where the Commander-in-Chief, General Bennigsen, decided to fight a decisive battle with Napoleon...

Mikaberidze, Alexander
Napoleon's Polish Campaign: General Peter Bagration during January - February 1807

The role of Russian General Bagration during the Winter Campaign of 1807

Millar, Stephen
Russian-Prussian Order-of-Battle at Eylau: 8 February 1807

A detailed order-of-battle of the Russian and Prussian forces.

French Order of Battle for Friedland: 14 June 1807

A detailed order-of-battle of the French forces.

Spett, Stefan
Accidental Enemies: When the Dutch Fought the Swedes in 1807

Marshal Mortier's VIII Corps invaded Swedish Pomerania in January, 1807. The 2nd Dutch Hussars participated although a chevaux-leger regiment did most of the fighting. During the blockade of Stralsund in February-March a large area of Pomerania was nearly unoccupied and was not asked to make contributions. On 1 April, the Swedes made a breakout. The fighting was not very bloody, but it was noisy.

Spett, Stefan
The Forgotten Debacle: Dänholmen Island, Swedish Pomerania August 1807

How the little island of Dänholmen guarding the harbour of Stralsund was transformed into the outpost of the Swedish Army.


Centeno, João
Portuguese Army Actions: 1808

Combats, sieges, and battles that the Portuguese Army fought in.

Cueto, Dionisio Álvarez
The British Army during the Retreat to Corunna in 1808: The Artwork of Dionisio Álvarez Cueto

Paintings by a Spanish artist who lives in Madrid.

Frilund, G.
The Russo-Swedish War of 1808-1809

In 1807 Tsar Alexander and Napoleon signed the treaty of Tilsit, dividing Europe between themselves. The Russians were promised free hands with Sweden, who was at war with France at the time. The Tsar immediately started building up invasion forces at the Russo-Swedish border...

Frilund, G.
The Union's Last War: The Russian-Swedish War of 1808-09

Without declaring war on Sweden, Russian troops crossed the border to Finland on February 21, 1808. That day, a Sunday, Swedish Major Gustav Arnkihl, of the Nyland Dragoons - who was posted at the border - signed a report to the brigade command. "...that the Russians have crossed the border at 5 o'clock today, with a considerable force..." The union's last war had begun.

Hadaway, S.
Rolica: A Most Important Affair

A detailed look at Wellington's first battle in the Peninsula War.

Mahon, Tim (Translator)
Recollections of capitaine de frégate Pierre Baste

Note: This paper won an Honorable Mention in the Best Publication and/or Translation into English of New Archival Material or Books Long Out of Print Category of the 2006 Napoleon Series Writing Contest!

An eyewitness account of the early days of the French invasion of Spain, including a detailed description of Bailen.

McGuigan, R.
The British Army in Portugal and Spain: Its Order-of-Battle (June 1808 - April 1809)

The British expeditionary force that was sent to the Iberian Peninsula underwent numerous changes in its organization in its first year there. Ron McGuigan has done a superb job tracking all of the changes in the order-of-battle!

Morillon, Paul
Capri, Octobre 1808: Opération amphibie et "commandos" de l'Empereur

During the Napoleonic Wars, there were numerous raids and attacks by British forces on French held islands in the Mediterranean Sea. This piece, written in French, provides detailed information on the attack on Capri and includes orders-of-battle and numerous black and white illustrations of the uniforms of the participants.

Sandoval, Juan A. Patrón
The Capitulation of Bailén according to an Eyewitness of the Battle
La Capitulación de Bailén Según un Testigo Presencial de la Batalla (In Spanish)

An eyewitness accountof the battle of Bailén.

Scattolin, Roberto
The Inheritance of History: Ethics, Warfare, and the Bando of Móstoles in 1808 Spain

A look at some of the factors in the Spanish popular uprising in 1808.

Sorando Muzás, Luis
Trophies of the Battle of Bailen (Jaén)  (19 July 1808)

Trofeos de la Batalla de Bailen (Jaén), (19 Julio 1808) (In Spanish)

What happened to trophies captured by the Spanish at Bailen.

Spatt, Stefan
Four Actions in Finland during the Russian-Swedish War of 1808-09

Four actions in 1808 in Finland.

A Vicious Combat in the Norwegian Woods: 1808

A look at the little known Swedish invasion of Norway.


Bamford, Andrew
The Corps of Embodied Detachments, 1809

A little known unit of the British Army during the Walcheren Expedition.

Bamford, Andrew
The Guadiana Fever Epidemic

The epidemic that devastated the British Army in 1809.

Burnham, Robert
British Battalions of Detachments in 1809

Examines the role of two little known British units during the battles of Oporto and Talavera

Burnham, Robert
The British Expeditionary Force to Walcheren: 1809  

The organization of the British Force that invaded the Low Countries in 1809.

Centeno, João
Portuguese Army Actions: 1809

Combats, sieges, and battles that the Portuguese Army fought in.

Cueto, Dionisio Álvarez
The Armies at Talavera: The Artwork of Dionisio Álvarez Cueto

Paintings by a Spanish artist who lives in Madrid.

Douglas, Howard
The French Bridging Operations across the Danube in 1809

First published in 1832, this article provides technical detail on how the Danube was bridged in two separate operations.

Falls, Cyril
The Battle of La Coruña: Decisive in a Vital Campaign

Translation of a Spanish article.

Paul Latham
Battle of Mount Kitta (also called Kitta Mount) 16th May 1809

A little know battle of 1809.

McGuigan, Ron
Seniority of British Commanders in Spain and Portugal in 1809

There were many British general officers serving in the Iberian Peninsula in 1809. Some had local rank and others permanent rank. Ron McGuigan does an excellent job sorting it all out!

Miley, Caroline (Translator)
The Spanish at Talavera (28-7-1809)

The role the Spanish blatted in the battle of Talavera.

Millar, Stephen
Austrian Order-of-Battle at Wagram: 5 - 6 July 1809

A comprehensive order-of-battle down to the regimental level.

The French Army at Talavera de la Reyna: 27 - 28 July 1809

A detailed order-of-battle.

Scattolin, Roberto
Piave River 1809: British Navy and Royal Marines Assault the Fort at Cortellazzo

A little known action in Italy.

South Tyrol 1809: When Faith Sustained Honour

A vicious combat in northern Italy.


Boue, Gilles
Battin: l'Austerlitz russe 7 septembre 1810

A look at the battle that ended the Russo-Turk War. (In French)

Burnham, Robert
General Robert Craufurd's Letter to General Wellington Reporting the Results of the Action on the River Coa

The River Coa, Spain; 24 July 1810. The famous Light Division of the British Army is nearly cut-off and destroyed by a surprise attack by French forces under Marshal Ney.

Centeno, João
Portuguese Army Actions: 1810

Combats, sieges, and battles that the Portuguese Army fought in.

North, Jonathan
Attack along the Danube: The Russo-Turkish War of 1810

This paper examines the Russian campaign of 1810 against the Ottoman Empire and how it set the stage for Russian embroilment in the region.


Centeno, João
Portuguese Army Actions: 1811

Combats, sieges, and battles that the Portuguese Army fought in.

Centeno, João and Donald E. Graves (Translators)
"At dawn, great firing was heard:" A Spanish Eyewitness to the Sieges of Badajoz, 1811

A rare eyewitness account of the siege of Badajoz from a civilian inside the city.

Graves, Donald E.

Soult's Report on the Battle of Albuera, 16 May 1811

Marshal Soult's after-action-report

"The contest was arduous, and our situation was critical:" Major-General William ("Auld Grog Willie") Stewart Reports on the 2nd Division at Albuera, May 1811

Major General Stewart's after-action-report

"Three times the French was take the bridge:" A King's German Legion Officer at Albuera, May 1811

A letter written shortly after the battle by a junior officer.

“We drove them back with charged bayonets:” A King’s German Legion Rifleman at Albuera

The battle, as seen from a private's viewpoint.

A German Officer on the Spanish Staff at Albuera, 1811

The battle, from the Spanish perspective.

Millar, Stephen
The French Army at Albuera: 16 May 1811

The French order-of-battle

Muzás, Luis Sorando
Trophies of Albuera (May 16, 1811)
Trofeos de la Albeura (16 de mayo de 1811) (In Spanish)

A look at the colours lost by the combattants at the battle of Albuera.


Burnham, Robert
A Devil of an Affair: the Combat at Majahalonda 11 August 1812

A little known, but vicious cavalry fight during the Peninsula War.

Centeno, João
Portuguese Army Actions: 1812

Combats, sieges, and battles that the Portuguese Army fought in.

Dominique Contant, Robert Ouvrard, and Jonathan Cooper
Marshal Suchet and the Siege of Valencia

This paper won "Best Military Paper: Honorable Mention" in the 2003 Napoleon Series Writing Contest!

A look at how the French treated the Spanish who surrendered at Valencia.

Grodzinski, John R.
“Universally Esteemed by His Brothers in Arms:” Lieutenant Edward de Salaberry, R.E. at Badajoz, 6 April 1812

The story of a Canadian officer at the Siege of Badajoz

Kuhn, Anthony
Rivers and the Destruction of Napoleon’s Grand Army

The impact of rivers on the French Army in the 1812 Campaign.

McGuigan, Ron
The British Army Stationed in British North America 1812-1815

A listing of British regiments serving in North America

Mikaberidze, Alexander
The Mutiny of Generals: Peter Bagration and Barclay de Tolly at Smolensk August, 1812

A major paper on the internal divisions in the Russian high command during the early days of the 1812 Campaign.

The Battle of Borodino

Orders-of-Battle, primary source documents, and articles about the battle.

Muzás, Luis Sorando
Trophies Taken by the British from the Napoleonic Army during the War of Spanish Independence (Peninsular War) 1808 - 1814
Trofeos Tomados Por Los Británicos Al Ejercito Napoleónico Durante La Guerra De La Independencia Española ( Peninsular War) 1808 – 1814

This paper won an Honorable Mention in Best Military Paper Category in the 2005 Napoleon Series Writing Contest!

What the British captured in six years of fighting.

Vovsi, Eman M.
French Numbered Infantry Regiments At Borodino: 5 - 7 September 1812

A look at the French infantry order-of-battle at Borodino and the officers who led them.


Burnham, Robert
British Artillery at Vitoria: 21 June 1813

Order-of-Battle of the Anglo-Allied Artillery at this key battle of the Peninsula War.

Celle, J.Y.
Hanau 1813

An account of the Battle of Hanau. Article only available in French.

Centeno, João
Portuguese Army Actions: 1813

Combats, sieges, and battles that the Portuguese Army fought in.

de Groot, Bas
Russian Cossacks in Holland: 1813

Contemporary prints of the Cossacks in Holland in 1813!

Millar, Stephen
Allied Order-of-Battle at Dresden: 26 - 27 August 1813

A detailed listing of the Allied units.

Allied Order-of-Battle at Leipzig: 16-18 October 1813

A huge order-of-battle that covers all of the Allied forces!

French Order-of-Battle at Leipzig: 16-18 October 1813

A massive order-of-battle that covers all of the French and their Allies!


Bamford, Andrew
The British Army in the Low Countries, 1813-1814

The British expedition in support of the Allies move against France.

Brito, Manuel Antonio
Le 4e  Régiment de Dragons à Nangis 1814

A look at a little known cavalry action in 1814. In French.

Centeno, João
Portuguese Army Actions: 1814

Combats, sieges, and battles that the Portuguese Army fought in.

Lasson, Ludovic. Translated by Yves Martin
The Russian Occupation of Nogent-sur-Seine, February 1814

One of the on-going debates is why the French people still supported Napoleon in 1814 and then welcomed him back in 1815. Three contemporary testimonials were written by French civilians about the occupation of their town, Nogent-sur-Seine, by Russian Cossacks in February 1814. Are they eyewitness accounts at their best or is it propaganda?

Sandbekken, Martin
The Norwegian-Swedish War of 1814

Rather than accepting a union with Sweden, the Norwegians fought for their independence.


Boersma, Hans
The Crossroads: Netherlands Forces at Les Quatre Bras 15 - 16 June 1815

The Netherlands contribution to this key battle of the 1815 Campaign.

Quatre Bras: The Maps Use in Battleground Prelude to Waterloo Computer Wargame

A look at the historical maps that were used in the wargame.

Contant, Dominique
French Orders and Reports from the Waterloo Campaign

Original orders and reports written by senior French officers during the opening days of theWaterloo Campaign -- mostly from 16 June 1815.

Elmer, Bob
The Defense of Hougoumont

The importance of the walled farm of Hougoumont, lying in front of the western end of the Allied lines was emphasized by the elite troops that Wellington assigned to its defence...

de Groot, Bas
Chassé's Division at Waterloo: Two Eye-witness Accounts

Rare accounts of the battle from two Dutch soldiers and the role of the Dutch in defeating the Imperial Guard.

Libert, Fons
The Hundred Days

This is the story of Napoleon's last campaign, culminating in his final defeat at Waterloo.

McGuigan, Ron
Anglo-Allied Army in Flanders and France - 1815

The definitive order-of-battle for the Allies!! Units and commanders are listed down to battalion and battery level!!!

McManus, Mark
The Capture of a French General at Waterloo

A 19th Century account of a capture of an unknown French general.

Millar, Stephen
The Key to Victory: General d’Erlon’s I Corps, 16 June 1815

Was d'Erlon responsible for the fiasco on 16 June?

Millar, Stephen
French Order-of-Battle at Waterloo: 18 June 1815

The definitive order-of-battle for Waterloo!

French Order-of-Battle at Wavre: 18 June 1815

The definitive order-of-battle for Wavre!

Prussian Army of the Lower Rhine: the Waterloo Campaign 1815

The Prussians!

Ney, Michel
Letter of the Prince of Moskowa to His Excellency the Duke of Otranto about Waterloo

Transcribed by Susan Howard

Ney's perspective of Waterloo.


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