Military Subjects: Organization, Strategy & Tactics

Austria
Baden
Bavaria
Croatia
Denmark
France
Germany
Great Britain
Hannover
Hesse
Italy
Lithuania
Naples
Netherlands
Poland
Portugal
Prussia
Russia
Saxony
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
UnitedStates
Westphalia
Wurttemberg
Other


Austria

Embree, Mike
Austrian Regular Infantry

A re-publication of a classic work originally published by the Napoleonic Association.

Millar, Stephen
Austrian Regiments and Their Commanders 1792 - 1815: Line Infantry Regiments

The Austrian infantry and their commanders.

Baden

Awards and Decorations

The Baden Order of Fidelity and the Order of Military Merit

Bavaria

Awards and Decorations

The Bavarian Orders of Saint Hubert, the Palatinate Lion, and Maximilian-Joseph

Croatia

Broughton, Tony
Regiments d’Infanterie Etrangers and the Colonels who led them during the period 1804-1815: Regiments Croates
Officer Casualties Suffered by the Regiments d’Infanterie Etrangers during the period 1804-1815: The Regiments Croates

Denmark

Decorations and Awards

Orders of the Elephant and Dannebrog

France

Webb, Mark (Editor)
État Militaire de France pour l'année 1789

A reproduction of the 1789 year book describing the pre-Revolution French military establishment.

Beorn, Waitman
"Heads Up, By God!"

French Cavalry At Eylau, 1807 And Napoleon's Cavalry Doctrine.

Broughton, Tony
Armes d’Honneur Awarded to the Regiments de la Garde Impériale

Armes d'Honneur Awarded to the French Cavalry: 1799 - 1802

Armes d’Honneur Awarded to the Regiments d’Infanterie de Ligne

Armes d’Honneur Awarded to the Regiments d'Infanterie Legere

Armes d’Honneur Awarded to the Regiments d’Artillerie

Armes d’Honneur Awarded to the Bataillons du Train d’Artillerie

Prior to the introduction of the Legion d'Honneur in 1803 the men of the French Army received  Armes d'Honneur in recognition of their bravery on the battlefield.

Broughton, Tony
French Artillery Regiments and the Colonels Who Led Them 1792-1815

Napoleon's artillery was the most feared in the world. This group of articles looks at the French gunners and the men who led them!

Broughton, Tony
French Cavalry Regiments and the Colonels Who Led Them 1792-1815

While there are literally thousands of books on the Emperor and his marshals, generals, and the people who surrounded him very little as been written on the men who commanded his regiments. This is a 21 part series that looks at the history of each cavalry regiment, plus their regimental commanders and officer casualties. This series of articles won the 2000 Napoleon Series Writing Contest's Best of Series Award!

Broughton, Tony

French Infantry Regiments and the Colonels Who Led Them 1792-1815

French Infantry Officer Casualties during the Napoleonic Wars

A 32 part series on the history of the French line infantry and the men who led them!!

Broughton, Tony

French Light Infantry Regiments and the Colonels Who Led Them 1792-1815

A eight part series on the French light infantry regiments. This group of articles won the 2002 Napoleon Series Writing Contest's "Honorable Mention, Best of Series Award"!

Broughton, Tony & J.F.
The Imperial Guard

A variety of articles on the most famous units of the Napoleonic Wars.

Brougthon, Tony
Auxiliary Regiments in the Service of France and the Colonels who led Them during the period 1804 - 1815: Regiments d’Infanterie Suisse

Officer Casualties suffered by the Auxiliary Regiments in the Service of France 1804-1815: Regiments d’Infanterie Suisse

The Swiss Regiments!

Regiments d'Infanterie Etrangers and the Colonels who led them during the period 1804-1815

Regiments d'Infanterie Etrangers and the Colonels who led them during the period 1804-1815: Bataillons Etranger

Officer Casualties Suffered by the Regiments d’Infanterie Etrangers during the period 1804-1815: Part One

Officer Casualties Suffered by the Regiments d’Infanterie Etrangers during the period 1804-1815: Part Two

The Foreign Regiments!

Regiments d'Infanterie Etrangers and the Colonels who led them during the period 1804-1815: The Polish Regiments

Officer Casualties Suffered by the Regiments d’Infanterie Etrangers during the period 1804-1815: the Polish Regiments

The Poles!

Regiments d'Infanterie Etrangers and the Colonels who led them during the period 1804-1815: The Spanish and Portuguese Regiments

Officer Casualties Suffered by the Regiments d’Infanterie Etrangers during the period 1804-1815: the Spanish and Portuguese Regiments

The Spanish and Portuguese Units!

Regiments d’Infanterie Etrangers and the Colonels who led them during the period 1804-1815: Regiments Croates

Officer Casualties Suffered by the Regiments d’Infanterie Etrangers during the period 1804-1815: The Regiments Croates

The Balkans!

Burnham, Robert
French Artillery during the battle of Auerstadt

Until recently the exact order-of-battle for the artillery during the battle of Auerstadt was difficult to find. Sources are contradictory and few even agree on the number of guns...

Burnham, Robert
The Tirailleurs Corses.

Organization and Uniforms of the Tirailleurs Corses in 1809.

Burnham, Robert
Uniforms of the French 23rd Chasseurs-a-Cheval 1811-1812

The name says it all...

Contant, Dominique
Les Medaillers de Saint Helene (In French)

The Medaillers of Saint Helene (In English)

In 1857, Napoleon III created the medal of Saint Helene for all the veterans of the wars of the Revolution and the Empire. . .

Contant, Dominique
Organization of a French Infantry Demi-Brigade: 1793

Its organization based on the 12 August 1793 Law.

Contant, Dominique
Recommendations by France's Council of State on Conscription in 1806

Recommendations by France's Council of State on Conscription in 1811

Figures on what each department had to provide and to which regiment.

Cueto, Dionisio Álvarez
The French Armies in Spain 1808: The Artwork of Dionisio Álvarez Cueto

The French Armies in Spain 1809: The Artwork of Dionisio Álvarez Cueto

Paintings by a Spanish artist who lives in Madrid.

Dawson, Paul
French Artillery in 1807

The organization of the artillery in the Grande Armee.

Napoleon's Gunners: The Guard Foot Artillery

The organization, uniforms, tactics, and employment of the Napoleon's Imperial Guard Artillerie-á-Pied.

The Artillery of System An XI

Why the System An XI artillery replaced the Gribeauval system of guns.

The Imperial Guard and Polish Nationalism: 1812-1814

Little known foreign units in the Imperial Guard.

Napoleon's Polish Lancers of the Guard

A brief history of this famous regiment.

Officer’s Coat, Chevau-Leger-Lanciers Polonaise de la Garde Imperiale c.1812

A heavily illustrated guide to the coat worn by an officer of the Polish Lancers.

Tirailleurs de la Garde Imperiale: 1809-1815

The organization, leaders, uniforms, and employment of the Napoleon's Tirailleurs of the Guard.

Uniforms of the Chasseurs-ŕ-Pied de la Garde

Uniforms of the Chasseurs-ŕ-Pied  de la Garde: the Drummers & Musicians

Uniforms of the Chasseurs-ŕ-Pied  de la Garde: the Sappers

Uniforms of the Chasseurs-ŕ-Pied  de la Garde: the Officers

A detailed look at the uniforms and equipment of the Old Guard Chasseurs! Contains many photos.

Uniform of the Grenadiers-á-Pied de la Garde: 1810-1815

Uniform of the Drummers of the Grenadiers-á-Pied de la Garde: 1810-1815

Uniform of the Sapeurs of the Grenadiers-á-Pied de la Garde: 1810-1815

Uniform of the Officers of the Grenadiers-á-Pied de la Garde: 1810-1815

A detailed look at the uniforms and equipment of the Old Guard Grenadiers! Contains many photos.

 

Desanois, Emmanuel
Organisation

L'organisation des armées du Premier Empire. Article only available in French.

Gibson, David J.
Napoleon and the Grande Armée: Military Innovations Leading to a Revolution in 19th Century Military Affairs

The great innovations represented by the Grande Armée gave Napoleon a tool that fit perfectly with his emphasis on speed, maneuver, and maintaining the offensive...

Holmberg, Tom
Following the Drum: Cantiničres

A look at the brave women, who served their regiments so well.

Jones, John
Organization of the French Engineer Equipment Train as decreed on 25 March 1811

Kiley, Kevin
The Eagle's Talons: Generalship in La Grande Armée

Across Europe they strode like colossus...

The Grand Quartier-General Imperial and the Corps d'Armée

The French staff system.

Organization, Tactics, and Employment of Artillery in the Grande Armee, 1800-1815

A look at French artillery doctrine.

Theorists, Instructors, and Practitioners: The Evolution of French Doctrine

A look at how French military doctrine evolved from pre-Revolutionary times to the Napoleonic era.

Lo Presti, Francois
A Brief History of the 12th Chasseurs-à-Cheval.

The name says it all...

Lozier, Jean-Francois
Foot Grenadier.

About Napoleon's most famous soldiers: the Foot Grenadiers of His Imperial Guard.

Marc
Light Cavalry Sabers the French Army

Marc examines the 4 different kinds of sabers used by the light cavalry.

Marc
The Chasseur-à-Cheval de La Garde Impériale Sabre

A look at the sabres carried by the troopers of the Chasseur-à-Cheval de la Garde Impériale.

Marc
The "Superior Officer Hussar Style - Consulate" Sabre

A look at the sabres carried by the superior officers of the French hussars.

Martin, Yves
French Artillery 1789 to 1800

Organization prior to the Revolution: 1789-1790.

Martin, Yves
The Uniform Plates of Vernet - Lami: The French Army 1791 - 1815 

A huge collection of Napoleonic Uniform Plates! You have to see these to believe them!!

Martin, Yves
French Voluntary Foreign Pioneers.

An overview of the Voluntary Foreign Pioneers in the French Army.

Morillon, Paul
Capri, Octobre 1808: Opération amphibie et "commandos" de l'Empereur.

During the Napoleonic Wars, there were numerous raids and attacks by British forces on French held islands in the Mediterranean Sea. This piece, written in French, provides detailed information on the attack on Capri and includes orders-of-battle and numerous black and white illustrations of the uniforms of the participants, including the numerous French units.

Morillon, Marc
Translated by Paul Morillon. Drawings by Pierre Salamand.
The Siege Mortars and Their Related Skills During the Napoleonic Era

Some of you have probably noticed in "la Cour d'honneur des Invalides," some strange "guns" with a short and wide tube. These devices deserve to be better known and represented.

Nafziger, George
Napoleon's Use of His Imperial Guard

In his unpublished doctorate dissertation, George Nafziger demonstrates how Napoleon used his Guard as a instrument of French Imperial policy in several different ways.

Nafziger, George
Oudinot's Grenadier Division: 1806-1809

A total of 17 "elite" battalions were raised and organized into seven regiments in December 1806...

Nafziger, George
What a French Fusilier Carried in 1812

The contents of an 1812 French Fusilier's knapsack and haversack.

Neveu, Stephane
Auerstadt 1806

Orders of battle for the Battle of Auerstadt. Article only available in French.

Ouvrard, Robert
Mottos of French Cavalry Regiments

A compilation of French regimental cavalry slogans. This is a companion piece to Mr. Ouvrard's Infantry Mottos!

Ouvrard, Robert
Mottos of French Infantry Regiments

A compilation of French regimental infantry slogans. This piece is the result of many hours of research and I know of no other place where there is such a comprehensive listing!

Pouvesle, Frédéric
La Garde Impériale

A brief history and description of the uniforms of all (?) regiments of the French Imperial Guard. Article only available in French.

Saint Hilaire, Emile Marco de
History of the Imperial Guard
Translated by Greg Gorsuch

The first English translation of this seminal work on the Imperial Guard that was published in 1845. It first sold as a subscription and eventually consisted of 40 "books" each of 16 pages!

Smith, Steven H.
X Corps de la Grande Armée in 1812

A superb order-of-battle for the X Corps of the Grande Armée in 1812.

Smith, Steven H.
French Military Manuals

A Bibliography of French Military Manuals and Instructions Concerning the Napoleonic Period.

Vovsib, Eman
Le 3e (Piémont) Régiment d’infanterie de ligne 1495-1815

A history of one of the oldest regiments in the French Army.

Wasson, Major James U.S. Army
The Army Corps

The development of the Corps D'Armée and its impact on Napoleonic warfare


Germany

Burnham, Robert
Greatcoats of the Minor German States

An overview of the greatcoats of the Minor German States of the period 1809 - 1812.

Burnham, Robert
The Baden Army at the Battle of Talavera 27 - 28 July 1809

An overview of the organization and uniforms of the Baden contingent of the French Army at the Battle of Talavera.

Hofschröer, Peter
German Waterloo Sources:

An Examination of Material in the German Language on the Campaign of 1815.

Taenzer, Michael A.
King's German Artillery 1814 - 1815

The Organization of the King's German Artillery 1814 - 1815


Great Britain

British Army Ranks and Their Naval Equivalent

Burnham, Robert
The British Army in the Napoleonic Wars: Manpower Stretched to the Limits?

Were Great Britain's global commitments stretching her too thin?

Burnham, Robert
The British Battalions of Detachment in 1809

A look at two little known units of the British Army in the Peninsula War.

Burnham, Robert
The British Regimental Mess in the Peninsula War

During the Napoleonic Wars, the British Army officer's life centered around his regimental mess when he was not on duty...

Burnham, Robert
Murder in the 42nd

A story of love, murder, and British military justice in the 42nd Highlanders along the Spanish border in 1813.

Burnham, Robert
Spanish Recruits in the British Army 1812 - 1813

Reclutas Españoles en el Ejército Británico 1812 - 1813 (In Spanish)

Late in the Peninsular War, the British Army was running out of men. So they instituted a program to recruit Spanish men into their infantry regiments.

Burnham, Robert
What a British Rifleman Carried in 1809

During the Napoleonic Wars, a British rifleman carried almost eighty pounds of equipment.

Burnham, Robert and Cook, John
Nicknames of British Units during the Napoleonic Wars

Most military units throughout the world have a nickname that they are often called in an informal setting. Sometimes these nicknames are given out of respect for some heroic deed, but more often they were given to the unit by people outside of the unit to make fun of it...

Centeno, Joăo
British Officers Serving as General Officers in the Portuguese Army

Many of the Portuguese Army's Brigade Commanders were British officers.

Egerton, T.
Light Infantry Exercise: As Ordered in His Majesty's Regulations for the Movement of the Troops

A reprint of a 1797 document on how British Army Regulations thought light infantry should operate.

Hadaway, Stuart
The Regimental School System and Education in the British Army in the Napoleonic Era

How the British Army set up schools to teach their soldiers and the children of the regiment how to read and write. This paper won "Best General History Paper" in the 2001 Napoleon Series Writing Contest!

McGuigan, Ron
Allied Occupation Army in post-Waterloo France

British & Hanoverian Contingents of the Allied Occupation Army in post- Waterloo France

McGuigan, Ron
The British Army: 1793

A look at the British Army at the start of the Era, to include a list of senior officers and the individual regiments. This paper won "Best Military Paper: Honorable Mention" in the 2003 Napoleon Series Writing Contest!

McGuigan, Ron
The Forgotten Army: Fencible Regiments of Great Britain 1793-1816

The force behind Britain's Regular Army. To include organization, units, commanders, strength, dates of raising, and dates of existence. This paper won "Best Military Paper: Honorable Mention" in the 2003 Napoleon Series Writing Contest!

McGuigan, Ron & Robert Burnham
State of the British Army in 1805

An overview of the garrisons and strength of the British Army in 1805.

Morillon, Paul
Capri, Octobre 1808: Opération amphibie et "commandos" de l'Empereur

During the Napoleonic Wars, there were numerous raids and attacks by British forces on French held islands in the Mediterranean Sea. This piece, written in French, provides detailed information on the attack on Capri and includes orders-of-battle and numerous black and white illustrations of the uniforms of the participants, including the numerous British units such as the Royal Corsican Rangers and Marines.

Read, Martin
The British 1796 Pattern Light Cavalry Sword

A look at the light cavalry sword used by the British Army.

Getting the Point: Some Functional Aspects of the 1796 British Heavy Cavalry Sword

Examines the different modifications made by soldiers in the field to the British heavy cavalry sword point. This paper won "Best Military Paper" in the 2003 Napoleon Series Writing Contest!

Cavalry Combat and the Sword: Sword Design, Provision, and Use in the British Cavalry of the Napoleonic Era.

Why British swordmanship was so effective!

Taenzer, Michael A.
King's German Artillery 1814 - 1815

The organization of the King's German Artillery 1814 - 1815


Hannover

Cook, John
The Hanoverian Legion

The Légion Hanovrienne was created by General Mortier, Governor of Hanover, on 12 August 1803 following the French occupation.

McGuigan, Ron
Allied Occupation Army in post- Waterloo France

British & Hanoverian Contingents of the Allied Occupation Army in post- Waterloo France.

McGuigan, Ron
Hanoverian Light Battalions: 1813 - 1815

An examination of the light infantry units in the Hanoverian Army.

Taenzer, Michael A.
King's German Artillery 1814 - 1815

The Organization of the King's German Artillery 1814 - 1815


Hesse

Decoraations and Awards

The Order of Saint Ludwig

Desanois, Emmanuel
Les Hessois

Les Alliés de la France durant la campagne de Russie. Article only available in French.


Italy

Frasca, Francesco
Les Italiens - The Italians

Les Italiens dans l'armée Française:récrutement et encadrement - Italians in the French army: recruitement and incorporation

Frasca, Francesco
Les Italiens dans l'Armée napoléonienne: Des légions aux Armées de la République italienne et du Royaume d'Italie

A detailed look at the Italian units that served with the French during the Revolution and the Empire. (In French)


Lithuania

Dawson, Paul
The Imperial Guard and Polish Nationalism: 1812-1814

A look at the Lithuanians who served in Napoleon's Imperial Guard.

Kudriashov, Ilya
Lithuanian Military under Napoleon in 1812

On 24 June 1812, the French army invaded the Russian Empire near Kaunas... On 1 July 1812, Napoleon established the Great Lithuanian Principality with its own government and army. This is about the organization of that army.


Naples

Morillon, Paul
Capri, Octobre 1808: Opération amphibie et "commandos" de l'Empereur

During the Napoleonic Wars, there were numerous raids and attacks by British forces on French held islands in the Mediterranean Sea. This piece, written in French, provides detailed information on the attack on Capri and includes orders-of-battle and numerous black and white illustrations of the uniforms of the participants, including the Neapolitan units.


Netherlands

van Uythoven, Geert
The Dutch Army of 1793-1794

This material is taken from a book that Mr. van Uythoven is writing on the organization, orders-of-battle, and uniforms of the Dutch army from 1792-1815.

van Uythoven, Geert
The Dutch Indian Brigade

On 13th August 1814, the former Batavian/Dutch colonies were given back to the Dutch government by the Treaty of London. At 18th August the strength for the troops to be sent to the colonies was established...

van Uythoven, Geert
The Netherlands Reserve Army 1815

On 24 May 1815 it was decided to create a Reserve Army, to reinforce the Netherlands Field Army...


Poland

Broughton, Tony
Regiments d'Infanterie Etrangers and the Colonels who led them during the period 1804-1815: The Polish Regiments

Officer Casualties Suffered by the Regiments d’Infanterie Etrangers during the period 1804-1815: the Polish Regiments

Burnham, Robert
Polish Infantry and Artillery

Polish Infantry and Artillery Uniforms of the V Corps during the Invasion of Russia, 1812.

Dawson, Paul
The Imperial Guard and Polish Nationalism: 1812-1814

A look at the Poles who served in Napoleon's Imperial Guard.

Napoleon's Polish Lancers of the Guard

A brief history of this famous regiment.

Officer’s Coat, Chevau-Leger-Lanciers Polonaise de la Garde Imperiale c.1812

A heavily illustrated guide to the coat worn by an officer of the Polish Lancers.

Uniforms of the Polish Artillery: 1812

What the Polish Artillery wore in 1812.

Martin, Yves
Polish Grenadiers of the Imperial Guard 1813.

On the 14th September 1813, Napoleon issued an order in the camp at Dresden organizing the "new" division of the Old Guard...

Martin, Yves
The 8th Polish Corps in 1813

In early February 1813, Prince Poniatowski began organizing a new Polish corps (the future 8th corps)...


Portugal

Broughton, Tony
Regiments d'Infanterie Etrangers and the Colonels who led them during the period 1804-1815: The Spanish and Portuguese Regiments

Officer Casualties Suffered by the Regiments d’Infanterie Etrangers during the period 1804-1815: the Spanish and Portuguese Regiments

The Portuguese who served with the French.

Burnham, Robert
Portuguese Line Infantry Flags of the Napoleonic Wars: 1806-1812

Very few flags of the Portuguese Army survive today. This paper examines the colors carried by the line regiments during most of the Peninsula War.

Burnham, Robert
Uniforms of the Portuguese 6th Cacadores in 1811

A look at a little known, but hard fighting unit of the Portuguese Army.

Centeno, Joăo
General Officers in the Portuguese Army

A listing of Portuguese generals of the era.

Portuguese Artillery of the Napoleonic Wars

The organization, uniforms, and combats of the Portuguese Artillery.

 


Prussia

Dallas, Gavan
Prussian Cavalry Standards 1808 - 1815

A superb piece on Prussian cavalry standards and resolves many of the conflicts that are found in other sources.

Lewis, Jeff
The Use of the Third Rank and Brigade Formations According to the Prussian Regulations of 1812

A look at Prussian tactical formations in accordance with their regulations.

Mantle, Robert
Prussian Reserve Infantry: 1813-15

A re-publication of a classic work originally published by the Napoleonic Association.

Millar, Stephen
Prussian Infantry Regimental Colonels-in-Chief 1792 - 1806

A listing, by regiment, of the regimental colonels-in-chief.

Neveu, Stephane
Auerstadt 1806

Orders of battle for the Battle of Auerstadt. Article only available in French.

Schiavonetti
Prussian Uniforms Published by Schiavonetti in 1806

Six contemporary uniform plates of the Prussian Army.

Schmidt, Oliver
Prussian Swordknots 1802 - 1808

The colors of Prussian Swordknots from 1802 to 1808, according to Kling in his definitive work on the Prussian infantry: Infanterie.


Russia

Boltishev, Victor
The Artwork of Victor Boltishev

Some original art of the Napoleonic Wars by a Russian artist.

Gingerich, Jonathan
Russian Infantry Facings - Inspection Era

This article describes the facings of the Russian infantry during the inspection period from 1802 until the introduction of divisions at the start of 1808.

Goetz, Robert
The Development of the Russian Inspectorate, 1762-1806

Between Inspections and Corps:  The Russian Divisional Structure, 1806 - 1810
Note: This paper won the 2002 Napoleon Series Writing Contest "Honorable Mention, Best Military Paper Award"!

Two major studies of how the Russian Army developed into the formidable force it was during the Napoleonic Wars.

Mikaberidze, Alexander
Russian Artillery on the Eve of the Battle of Borodino, 7 September 1812

An exhaustive look at the organization of the Russian artillery at Borodino.

Composition and Strength of the Russian Armies at the Beginning of 1812

A detailed order-of-battle of the Russian Forces that would oppose Napoleon.

Officer Ranks under Peter the Great’s “Table of Ranks” of 1722

A look at the rank system instituted by Peter the Great that survived for almost 200 years.

Russian Cavalry Maneuvers in 1812

A series of plates showing how the Russian cavalry was supposed to maneuver according to the drill regulations.

Podmazo, Alexander
Chefs and Commanders of the Regular Regiments of the Russian Army: 1796-1815

A massive history of the Russian Regiments and the men who led them.

Smith, Steven H.
Riga Military Command.

The organisation of the Riga Military Command.

Smith, Steven H.
Russo-Swedish War of 1808-09: A Bibliography.

A Bibliography of the Russo-Swedish War of 1808-09...

Smith, Steven H.
Russo-Turkish War 1806-1812: A Bibliography

A Bibliography of the Russo-Turkish War of 1806-12...

Tselorungo, Dmitry
The Russian Officer Corps