Military Subjects: Organization, Strategy & Tactics



Portuguese Artillery of the Napoleonic Wars: Combat Record

By João Centeno

Campaign of 1809

Under the Immediate Command of Beresford

Three Portuguese batteries under the command of Major Victor von Arentschild, of the King’s German Legion, with guns of 6 pounders, a light battery with of 3 pounders, and a English  with 3 pounder guns.

Siege guns from batteries of the 4th Regiment of Artillery

The 1st Regiment (Lisbon), with one battery commanded by Capitan Barreiros, who participated in the defense of the bridge of Amarante 18 April and  2 May, also 2 batteries from the 4th regiment (Porto), commanded by Lieutenant Bento José Vieira de Sá Barreto.

Campaign of 1810

The Portuguese Artillery consisted of four regiments of about 1,200 men each, from which batteries were formed for campaign service or for garrison duty.  In general they were organized in batteries of 5 pieces and 1 howitzer, composed of about 140 men.

The following units fought at Bussaco 

1º Regiment

# of Batteries

Commander

Guns

Commanders of the Batteries

2

Major Alexander Dickson

6 Pounders

Captain Pedro de Rozierres

6 Pounders

Captain João da Cunha Preto

2º Regiment

# of Batteries

Commander

Guns

Commander of the Batteries

2

Major Victor von Arentschild

3 Pounders

Captain João Porfírio da Silva

3 Pounders

Captain Jacinto P.M. Freire

4º Regiment

# of Batteries

Commander

Guns

Commander of the Batteries

1

Captain António de Sousa Passos

6 Pounders

Captain António de Sousa Passos

There were also in front, but not engaged on Bussaco, two more batteries that were with the Lecor Division behind the Alva na Ponte position of Murcella

Regiment

# of Batteries

Commander

Guns

Commander of the Batteries

3

1

Without Captain till October 1, then Captain Wilhelm Braun

9  Pounders

Later on join the command of Major Dickson on 28  September

Later under the command of Major von Arentschild

1

 

3  Pounders

 

Two field batteries joined the army in the Torres Vedras Lines after its retreat:

 

Regiment

Number of  Batteries

Commander

Guns

Commander of the Batteries

Later under Major Dickson

1 Battery

Captain Francisco Cipriano Pinto

6 Pounders

 

Later on join under Major von Arentschild.

1 Battery

(Without Captain)

6 Pounders

 

The rest of the artillery in Lisbon was used as garrison artillery for the Lines and it received many poorly trained volunteers of the Milicias and Ordenanças, so it cannot be consider as forming part of the regular army (of Line).

The 4th Regiment of the Portuguese Artillery (Porto) only supplied a battery (the one of Captain António de Sousa Passos) for Wellington's army.  The others were with Silveira's army in the north, Trant´s Militia, or part of the garrison of Porto. The 4th Regiment had also contributed to Almeida Fortress garrison

The 3rd Regiment did not supply any element for the field army or the garrison of the Torres Vedras Lines. It was absorbed in the garrisons of Abrantes, Elvas, Campo Maior, and other places in the South border of Tejo.

Lines of Torres Vedras: November of 1810

2 6 pounder batteries, both of 6 pounders commanded by Major Dickson

Captain Pedro de Rozierres

Captain João da Cunha Preto

2 Batteries, both of  3 pounders,  commanded bh Major von Arentschild

Captain João Porfírio da Silva

Captain Jacinto P. M. Freire

1 Battery commanded by Captain António de Sousa Passos with 6 pounder guns.

 

There were also two batteries who did not participate in the Lines, who were with the Lecor Division: one with 9 pounders without a Captain until October 1, whose command passed to Captain Wilhelm Braun, and one with 3 pounders.

Two campaign batteries joined the troops behind the Lines

Captain Francisco Cipriano Pinto with pieces 6 pounders supported Major Dickson

 

Distribution of Batteries in the Lines of Torres Vedras

Alhandra Forts

Major João C. Pinto

Bucelas Forts

Colonel Romão de Arriaga

Monte Agraço Forts

Major J. J. da Cruz

Torres Vedras Forts

Captain F. J. V. Barreiros

Mafra Forts

Major Caetano P. Xavier

 

Campaign of 1811

Five Portuguese campaign batteries accompanied Wellington's Army in the pursuit of Massená and fought at Fuentes de Oñoro.

 Division / Battery

Regiment

Batteries

Commander

Guns

Commander of the Batteries

3rd Division

2

2

Victor von Arentschild

 

Lieutenant J. C. de Sequeira
2º Lieutenant J. C. Rosado

Pack Battery

2

1

Captain Francisco Cipriano Pinto

   

5th Division

1

1

Captain João da Cunha Preto

   

6th Division .

1

1

Captain Pedro de Rozierres

   

 

Fuentes de Oñoro (3-5 May 1811)

Commander of All Anglo-Allied Artillery: Brigadier Howorth
Commander of the Portuguese artillery force:

Regiment

Commander

2

Captain F.A de Sequeira

1

Captain João da Cunha Preto

1

Captain Pedro de Rozierre

2

2º Lieutenant J.C. Rosado

 

Two batteries, under the command of Major Dickson, were with Marshal Beresford in Estremadura and fought at Albuera on 13 May.

Regiment

Batteries

Commander

Guns

Commander of Batteries

2

Major Dickson

6 x 6 Pounders

Captain Wilhelm Braun

1

6 x 6 Pounders

Captain Romão de Arriaga

 

For the 2 sieges of Badajoz in May and June:

Regiment

Batteries

Commander

Commander of Batteries

2

Half-Company

Major Dickson

Captain F. A. de Sequeira;

1

1

Captain F. Pedrosa Barreto

3

3

Only one name is known, that of Captain José de Sampayo.

 

The 4th regiment supplied Silveira's body with two batteries under the command of Capitães F. J. de Mariz and D. G. Ferreri which saw action against  Claparéde in the beginning of the year.

The half  company that defended Campo Maior in March, came from the 3rd Regiment and it was commanded by Lieutenant J. Leal  Murteira.

Battle of Arroyo de Molinos 28 October 1811

Artillery Commander: Major Hartmann K.G.L
Commander of the Portuguese Artillery: Romão de Arriaga

Commander

# of Batteries

Guns

Romão de Arriaga

1

6 Pounders

 

The Campaign of 1812

Eight Portuguese batteries were with the Anglo-Allied Army in 1812. Five of these batteries were equipped with 5 9 pounder guns and 1 5.5 inch howitzer. The other three were armed with  5  6 Pounders and 1 5.5 inch howitzer. Eight Batteries were kept in reserve in Portugal.

Salamanca

Commander of All Anglo-Allied Artillery:  Lieutenant -Colonel Hoylet Framingham
Commander of the Portuguese Artillery:

Major Arriaga

Regiment

Commander

# of Batteries and Commander

Guns

1

Major Romão de Arriaga

1 Battery
4 Officers and 110 soldiers

 6 x 24 Pounders

Campaign of 1813

Vitoria  21 June 1813

Commander of Anglo-Allied Artillery: Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander Dickson

Commander of the Portuguese artillery force:

Higher Command

Artillery Regiment

Type of Guns

Hill Corps (with Portuguese  Division)

Battery commanded by João da Cunha Preto

6 Pounders (Heavy)

Hill Corps

Battery comanded by C.C. Michell

9 Pounders

Hill Corps (with 2nd Division )

Battery comanded by Major A.Tulloh

 

Portuguese Reserve

 Battery comanded by Romão de Arriaga

9 Pounders

 

July 1813

 

Column

Battery

Guns

Portuguese Division

Major João da Cunha Preto

6 Pounders

Reserve with Graham Corps

Major Romão de Arriaga

9 Pounders

The Campaign of 1814

Battle of Nivelle

Regiment

Commander

# of Batteries

Commander of Batteries

1

Major Romão de Arriaga

2

Captain Costa e Silva

Battle of  Nive

Regiment

Commander

# of Batteries  

Commander of Batteries

1

Major João da Cunha Preto

2

Captain Costa e Silva

 

Battle of Orthes

Regiment

Commander

# of Batteries

1

Captain Costa e Silva

1

 

Battle of Toulouse 10 April 1814

Regiment

Commander

# of Batteries

Commander of Batteries

1

Lieutenant-Colonel Arentschild

3

António da Costa e Silva

 

 

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