Military Subjects: Organization, Strategy & Tactics



  By Leopold Kudrna, with Biographical Essays by Digby Smith.




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Austrian Generals
1792-1815


O
 
Oberndorf  to  Otto
 
 
 
 
 
 O1 Oberndorf, Johann Friedrich
 
Personal Information
Born: 17??
Died: Ofen (Buda) / Hungary, 27.01.1820

Name Variants
also: Oberdorf

Promotions

Major:
Oberstleutnant:
Oberst:
Generalmajor: 12.02.18091
Retired: 1814

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

– (?)

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)



Printed Sources

Amon, IR18, pp.343, 360 | MilSchem

Internet Sources

Schmidt-Brentano, Generale

Notes

1) Amon, IR18, p.360: 11.02.1809 (?)


 
O2 Ocskay, Joseph
Ocskay von Ocskó, Joseph Freiherr

Personal Information

Born: "Ocska" (Ocsko / Com. Neutra ?) / Hungary, 1740
Died: Dubova / Banat, 08.12.1805

Name Variants

also: Ócskay von Ócska

Promotions

Major: 1782
Oberstleutnant:
Oberst:
Generalmajor: 01.01.1794 (w.r.f. 08.11.1791)
Retired: 1797

Elevation of Social Status

Freiherr: 28.07.1790 (with predicate: "von Ocskó")

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

Military Maria Theresian Order – KC: 21.12.1789

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)

– (?)

Biographical Essay (by Digby Smith)

Joseph Ocskay (since 1790:) Freiherr von Ocskó was born in Hungary in 1740. On 1 January 1794, he was promoted to Generalmajor. In 1796 he served as Infantry Brigadier in the Army of the Upper Rhine and then in Italy. He was in Wurmser's main column in the first attampt to relieve Mantua. On 31 July of that year he was beaten at Lonato by André Masséna's division under Napoleon's command and lost over 500 men. Three days later he defeated Masséna's rearguard under GdB Jean-Joseph-Magdelaine Pijon on 3 August at Lonato and took three guns off him. Pijon was captured.
Ocscay was then in Davidovich's Corps of the Tyrol. As part of Alvinczy's third attempt to relieve Mantua, he fought at St. Michele and Segonzano, on the Etsch, north of Trient, on 4 November, and at Calliano on 6 and 7 November. Here he took the post at Mori and this forced GdD Vaubois to retreat south to Rivoli. He also fought in the Austrian victory at Rivoli on 17 November, and in their defeat there five days later.
He commanded an assault column at Rivoli again on 14-15 January 1797 in Alvinczy's final attempt to relieve Mantua. His column, and that of Köblös, was thrown off the plateau of Rivoli by the divisions of Joubert and Masséna, just after disaster had struck Quosdanovich's column, and lost 1,000 men captured. In the retreat out of Italy, he was attacked by Masséna's division at Casa Sola on the Fella river on 20 March and driven back with the loss of 500 men through Tarvis. Masséna now blocked the escape route of Erzherzog Carl and the left wing of the Austrian army. Ocskay retired in 1797 and died on 8 December 1805.

Printed Sources

Frank 4, p.4 | Hirtenfeld 1, p.260f. | MD 8, p.83 | MilSchem | Wurzbach 20, p.476f.

Internet Sources

Jewison/Steiner
Schmidt-Brentano, Generale


 
 O3 O’Donell von Tyrconell, Karl Graf
 
Personal Information
Born: Dublin / Ireland, 17551
Died: KIA Herbrechtingen / Swabia / Württemberg, 16.10.18052

Name Variants

also: O‘Donnell

Promotions

Major:
Oberstleutnant:
Oberst:
Generalmajor: 06.03.1800 (w.r.f. 02.04.1800)

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

– (?)

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)

– (?)

Printed Sources

Allmayer-Beck, p.76 | Duffy, p.382 | MilSchem | Schmidhofer, p.197

Internet Sources

Schmidt-Brentano, Generale

Notes

1) Schmidhofer, p.197: 1754 (?)
2) Schmidt-Brentano: 17.10.1805 (?)


 
 O4 O’Donell, Magnus Graf
 
Personal Information
Born: Dublin / Ireland, 17131
Died: Ireland, 21.12.1793

Name Variants
also: O‘Donnell

Promotions

Major: 1758
Oberstleutnant: 1758
Oberst: 1767
Generalmajor: 23.01.1773 (w.r.f. 10.07.1770)

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

– (?)

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)

– (?)

Printed Sources

MilSchem | Schmidhofer, p.198

Internet Sources

Schmidt-Brentano, Generale

Notes

1) Schmidhofer, p.198: 1724 (?)


 
 O5 Österreich, Anton Victor Erzherzog von
 
Personal Information
Born: Florence (Firenze) / Tuscany, 31.08.1779
Died: Vienna, 02.04.1835

Family Status
Son of Emperor Leopold II. (1747-1792)
Brother of O6, O8, O11, O13, O14, O15, O17
Nephew of O9
Cousin of O10, O12, O16
Uncle of O7
Unmarried

Promotions

Oberst: 1791
Generalmajor: –
Feldmarschalleutnant: –
Feldzeugmeister: 03.07.1804 (w.r.f. 30.06.1804)

Posts and Offices (Army, Politics, Court)

Viceroy of Lombardo-Venetia: 07.03.1816 – 18171

Chivalric Order

Coadjutor of the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order: 18.10.1803 – 30.06.1804
Grand Master of the Teutonic Order: 30.06.1804 – 02.04.1835

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

Order of the Golden Fleece: 21.11.1792 – 22.10.18032
Colonel-Proprietor of the Infantry Regiment N°52: 1791-1804
Colonel-Proprietor of the Infantry Regiment N°4: 30.06.1804 – 02.04.1835

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)



Printed Sources

Amon, IR4, p.379 | Hamann, p.60f. | MilSchem | ÖBL 1, p.25 | Täubl, p.191 | Vlies-Orden, p.186, N°833 | Wrede 1, pp.140, 478 | Wurzbach 6, p.154ff. | WZ, 16.03.1816 | Zivkovic, Generalität, p.37

Internet Sources

Marek (http://genealogy.euweb.cz/habsburg/habsburg5.html)
Schmidt-Brentano, Generale
Theroff (http://pages.prodigy.net/ptheroff/gotha/austria.html)

Notes

1) Never assumed office.
2) Had to relinquish the order when joining the Teutonic Order.


 
 O6 Österreich, Carl Ludwig Johann Erzherzog von
Österreich, Herzog von Teschen, Carl Ludwig Johann Erzherzog von
 
Personal Information
Born: Florence (Firenze) / Tuscany, 05.09.1771
Died: Vienna, 30.04.1847

Family Status
Son of Emperor Leopold II. (1747-1792)
Adopted Son of S8 (Sachsen-Teschen)
Brother of O5, O8, O11, O13, O14, O15, O17
Nephew of O9
Cousin of O10, O12, O16
Uncle of O7
Married: 1815 Henriette Prinzessin von Nassau-Weilburg (1797-1829)

Promotions

Oberst: 1780
Generalmajor: 05.09.1792 (w.r.f. 11.06.1791)
Feldmarschalleutnant: 29.12.1793
Feldzeugmeister: 22.04.1794
Feldmarschall: 07.01.1801
Generalissimus: 10.02.1806 – 29.07.1809
Holy Roman Empire:
Reichs-Generalfeldmarschalleutnant: 08.04.17931
Reichs-Generalfeldmarschall: 05.04.17962

Posts and Offices (Army, Politics, Court)

Governor-General in the Austrian Netherlands: 17.03.1793 – 07.1794
Governor and Captain General in Bohemia: 11.11.1797 – 30.04.18473
President of the Aulic War Council: 09.01.1801 – 03.1805
War and Navy Minister: 12.09.1801 – 02.1809
Fortress Governor of Mainz: 15.03.1815 – 10.1824

Field Service (1792-1815)

Commander of the Austrian forces at the combat of Gutzenhoven: 16.03.1793 (–)
Commander of the Army of the Lower Rhine: 10.02.1796 – 08.1796
Commander of the Austrian forces at the battle of Wetzlar: 15.06.1796 (+)
Commander of the Austrian forces at the battle of Malsch (Ettlingen): 09.07.1796 (–)
Commander of the Austrian forces at the battle of Neresheim: 11.08.1796 (–)
Commander of the Austrian forces at the battle of Amberg: 24.08.1796 (+)
Commander of the Army of the Rhine: 08.1796 – 02.1797 / 04.1797 – 11.1797
Commander of the Austrian forces at the battle of Würzburg: 03.09.1796 (+)
Commander of the Austrian forces at the battle of Emmendingen: 19.10.1796 (+)
Commander of the Austrian forces at the battle of Schliengen: 24.10.1796 (+)
Commander of the Austrian forces during the siege of Kehl: 10.11.1796 – 09.01.1797 (+)
Commander of the Army of Italy: 03.1797 – 04.1797
Commander of the Austrian forces at the combat of Valvassone: 16.03.1797 (–)
Commander of the Austrian forces at the combat of Tarvis: 22./23.03.1797 (–)
Commander of the Army of the Rhine: 04.1797 – 11.1797
Commander of the Army of Germany: 11.1798 – 17.03.1800
Commander of the Austrian forces at the battle of Ostrach: 21.03.1799 (+)
Commander of the Austrian forces at the battle of Stockach: 25./26.03.1799 (+)
Commander of the Austrian forces at the battle of Zürich: 04.06.1799 (+)
Commander of the Austrian forces at the combat of Mannheim: 18.09.1799 (+)
Commander of the Army of Germany: 19.12.1800 – 03.1801
Commander of the Army of Italy: 01.09.1805 – 12.1805
Commander of the Austrian forces at the battle of Caldiero: 29.-31.10.1805 (+)
Commander of the main army (= Army of Germany): 20.02.1809 – 30.(31?).07.1809
Commander of the Austrian forces at the combat of Hausen (Dinzling, Thann): 19.04.1809 (–)
Commander of the Austrian forces at the combat of Schierling: 21.04.1809 (–)
Commander of the Austrian forces at the battle of Eckmühl: 22.04.1809 (–)
Commander of the Austrian forces at the combat of Regensburg: 23.04.1809 (–)
Commander of the Austrian forces at the battle of Aspern: 21./22.05.1809 (+)
Commander of the Austrian forces at the battle of Wagram: 05./06.07.1809 (–)
Commander of the Austrian forces at the battle of Znaim: 10./11.07.1809 (–)

Change of Social Status
Herzog von Teschen (by succession to his adoptive father Herzog Albrecht von Sachsen-Teschen = S8): 10.02.1822

Chivalric Order

Coadjutor of the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order: 03.06.1801 – 27.07.1801
Grand Master of the Teutonic Order: 27.07.1801 – 30.06.1804

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

Order of the Golden Fleece: 23.11.1790
Military Maria Theresian Order – GC: 01.04.1793 / w.d.: 02.04.1843
Colonel-Proprietor of the Infantry Regiment N°3: 23.08.1780 – 30.04.1847
Colonel-Proprietor of the Infantry Regiment N°4: 05.08.18014 – 30.06.1804
Colonel-Proprietor of the Uhlan Regiment N°3: 23.04.1801 – 30.04.1847

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)

Bavaria:
Order of St. Hubert
Brasil:
Order of the Southern Cross – GC
France:
Order of the Légion d'Honneur – GC: 28.03.1810
Great Britain:
Order of the Bath – GC
Naples-Sicily:
Order of St. Januarius
Order of St. Ferdinand and of Merit – GC
Poland (Russia):
Order of the White Eagle
Prussia:
Order of the Black Eagle
Russia:
Order of St. Andrew
Order of St. Alexander Nevskij
Order of St. Anne 1st cl.
Tuscany:
Order of St. Joseph – GC

Biographical Essay (by Digby Smith)

Carl Erzherzog von Österreich, königlicher Prinz von Ungarn was born in 1771 in Florence as third son of Grossherzog Leopold von Toskana (the later emperor) and Grossherzogin Maria Ludovica. He suffered nervous disorders until manhood but always wanted to be a soldier. In 1780 he became Proprietor of Infantry Regiment N°3. The death of Emperor Joseph II in 1790 brought him to Vienna, where his father now became emperor (Leopold II). His military schooling entailed him attending meetings of the Hofkriegsrat.
In 1791 he moved to live in Brussels at the court of his aunt, Erzherzogin Maria Christine and her husband, Herzog Albert von Sachsen-Teschen, who had no children of their own and who adopted Carl.
In 1792 his father died and his elder brother became emperor (Franz II). In this year France declared war on Austria and several other European monarchies.
Carl's baptism of fire occurred at the victorious skirmish of La Grisnelle on 11 June 1792; he fought at the battle of Neerwinden on 18 March 1793 as major general and commander of the Avantgarde and was awarded the Grand Cross of the Military Maria Theresian Order, although the real credit lay with his troops. In June 1796 he was appointed C-in-C of the Army of the Lower Rhine (from August 1796: Army of the Rhine), when Wurmser was sent to Italy to take command there. He found the troops to be lacking in confidence, supplies, motivation and aim. His Aide, Graf Bellegarde, was more of a hindrance than a help to him.
Carl's victory in the clash at Wetzlar on 15 June, gave his men a confidence in him which was amply justified by his skilful conduct of the withdrawal in the face of the armies of Jourdan and Moreau. He managed to keep his enemies separated until he joined forces with the Army of the Lower Rhine under FZM Graf von Wartensleben. Following the junction of these two armies, Carl won the victories of Amberg, Würzburg, Emmendingen and Schliengen and drove the two French armies back over the Rhine. This successful campaign brought him the title: "Retter Germaniens" (Saver of Germany)
In 1797, after Alvinczy's defeat at Rivoli on 14-15 January, Carl was forced to take over command from him in Italy. The Austrian army there was now in very poor condition. Mantua surrendered on 2 February, and his only option now was to withdraw up into the Tyrol and Carinthia. He fought rearguard actions at Valvassone on 16 March, and just managed to avoid being cut off at Tarvis on 23 March.
French General Joubert had invaded the Tyrol on 20 March with 20,000 men in three divisions. Despite initial successes against the Austrian Generals Kerpen and Laudon, Joubert could not hold on in face of the general insurrection that broke out against him. By 8 April, he left the province again and moved to Villach.
Due to Carl's victories in southern Germany, the French armies there were unable to reopen hostilities to aid Napoleon in Italy. Napoleon was over-extended; on 31 April he opened negotiations with Carl for an armistice. There were two more minor clashes at Dirmstein on 2 April, and at Hundsmarkt next day. The armistice began on 8 April and peace talks started at Leoben on 17 April. Following the Peace of Campoformio on 17 October, which ended the unhappy campaign, Carl was removed from command of the army in Italy, and was appointed governor of Bohemia.
In 1799 Erzherzog Carl was appointed C-in-C of the army in Germany, but his efforts were severely hampered by the emperor's foreign minister, the Baron Thugut, who was almost openly hostile to him. Carl's plan of swift advances and decisive actions was disrupted and slowed down by Thugut's interference; the Austrian victories of Ostrach and Stockach went unexploited.
After Erzherzog Carl's victory in the 1st battle of Zürich, Thugut managed to paralyse his army for weeks because of his suspicions of Suvorov's victories in Italy. The potential fruits of the victory were squandered. This led to the allied evacuation of Switzerland and Russia's withdrawal from the coalition. Dispirited and frustrated, Carl resigned his command in early 1800.
The Holy Roman Empire collapsed after the defeat of their forces at the battle of Hohenlinden on 3 December 1800. This event caused Emperor Francis I to recall his younger brother to command. On 9 January 1801, Carl was appointed president of the Aulic War Council. On 12 September of that year he also became Minister for War and Minister for the Navy. Thugut was dismissed; but his successor, Graf Ludwig Cobenzl, was a willing tool of the incompetent Cabinet Minister Graf Colloredo and lacked any comprehension of the way to grapple with the problems facing the empire.
Erzherzog Carl did not shy away from war as is sometimes supposed; he was merely not happy at going to war with inadequate means. He urged a complete overhaul of the army and of the political machine by which it was controlled. His opponents in the political establishment succeeded in arousing the emperor's mistrust of his younger brother and the proposed reforms were blocked.
In 1805 the incompetent FML Mack was given command of the minor Austrian army on the Danube while Erzherzog Carl was sent off to Italy with the main force of 150,000 men to the supposed main scene of events, which turned out to be just a side show. Carl's victory over Massena at Caldiero on 29-31 October was nullified by the news of Mack's total defeat at Ulm on 15 October.
Carl wanted to use the opportunity of the peace which followed the war of 1805 to rebuild the army, but his plans were far from complete when the Austrian foreign minister, Philipp Graf Stadion, managed to antagonise Napoleon into a new war in 1809, convinced that all the German states would abandon Napoleon and rush into the combat at Austria's side.
The Austrian corps commanders of 1809 were mostly too old to comprehend or to manage the new corps system which Carl was trying to introduce. Despite this, Carl managed to inflict a rare defeat on Napoleon at Aspern on 20 and 21 May.
The failure of Carl's brother, Johann, to join him from Hungary to fight at Wagram on 5 and 6 July, sealed the fate of yet another campaign. After the final battle of the war at Znaim on 10 and 11 July, Carl again resigned command of the army. His military career was now over. His reforms had included the abolition of lifelong military service, the introduction of new regulations for the infantry and the cavalry, new conscription laws, the introduction of the Landwehr system and the improvement of the education of officers. In 1815 he married Princess Henriette von Nassau-Weilburg; he died on 30 April 1847.

Printed Sources

ADB 15, p.322ff. | Amon, IR4, p.378f. | Angeli, Moriz von: Erzherzog Carl von Österreich als Feldherr und Heeresorganisator, 5 vols, Vienna 1896/97 | Bodart, pp.272, 308, 310-312, 315, 317, 320, 321, 328, 329, 336, 367, 397, 399, 400, 405, 409, 410 | Criste, Oscar: Erzherzog Carl. Ein Lebensbild, 3 vols, Vienna-Leipzig 1912, esp. vol.1, pp.12, 60, 122, 130 and vol 3, p.569 (wrong: FML 11.04.1793) | Hamann, p.219ff. | Hirtenfeld 1, p.356ff. | Hirtenfeld 2, p.1341ff. | HKR-Präs, N°24 (p.37ff.) | Hollins, p.4ff. | Lombroso, p.1ff. | MilSchem | NDB 11, p.242f. | Neuhaus, pp.339, 344 | ÖBL 3, p.239f. | ÖMKL 3, p.463ff. | Riedl, UR3, pp.1ff., 21 | Täubl, p.191 | Vlies-Orden, p.186, N°818 | Wrede 1, pp.131, 140 | Wrede 3, p.330 | Wrede (6), pp.20, 29, 30, 31, 32 | Wurzbach 6, p.372ff. | WZ, 14.04.1810 | Zeissberg, Heinrich von: Erzherzog Carl und Prinz Hohenlohe-Kirchberg. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Feldzuges in die Champagne (1792), Vienna 1888 (= special issue from the Archiv für österreichische Geschichte 73, 1st half) | Zivkovic, Generalität, pp.13, 36 | Zivkovic, Heerführer, pp.51, 71

Internet Sources

Ebert (http://www.napoleon-online.de/AU_Generale/html/karl.html)
Jewison/Steiner
Marek (http://genealogy.euweb.cz/habsburg/habsburg5.html)
Schmidt-Brentano, Generale
Theroff (http://pages.prodigy.net/ptheroff/gotha/austria.html)

Notes

1) Date of the Imperial decree of ratification (Ratifikationsdekret)
2) Date of the Reichsgutachten
3) Zivkovic: only until 12.1800 (?)
4) Date of the supreme Imperial resolution


 
 O7 Österreich, Ferdinand Erzherzog-Kronprinz von
Österreich, Ferdinand I. Kaiser von
 
Personal Information
Born: Vienna, 19.04.1793
Died: Prague (Praha) / Bohemia, 29.06.1875

Family Status
Son of O11
Nephew of O5, O6, O8, O13, O14, O15, O17
Married: 1831 Maria Anna Prinzessin von Sardinien-Piemont (1803-1884)

Promotions

Oberst: 1798
Generalmajor: 1814
Feldmarschalleutnant: –
Feldzeugmeister / General der Kavallerie: –
Feldmarschall: 18.(28.)09.1830

Elevation of Social Status1

Apostolischer König von Ungarn (Apostolic King of Hungary): 28.09.1830
Kaiser von Österreich (Emperor of Austria): 02.03.1835 – 02.12.1848 (abdicated)

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

Order of the Golden Fleece: 20.04.17932 / Grand Master: 02.03.1835 – 02.12.1848
Military Maria Theresian Order – Grand Master: 02.03.1835 – 02.12.1848
Order of St. Stephen – GC: 1830 / Grand Master: 02.03.1835 – 02.12.1848
Order of Leopold – GC: 07.01.1809 / Grand Master: 02.03.1835 – 02.12.1848
Order of the Iron Crown I.Kl.: 12.02.1816 / Grand Master: 02.03.1835 – 02.12.1848
Colonel-Proprietor of the Dragoon Regiment N°2: 1798-1801/02 (disbanded)
Colonel-Proprietor of the Cuirassier Regiment N°12 / (since 1802:) N°4: 1801 – 02.03.1835 / 1848 – 29.06.1875
Colonel-Proprietor of the Infantry Regiment N°1: 02.03.1835 – 02.12.1848
Colonel-Proprietor of the Tyrolian Jäger Regiment: 02.03.1835 – 02.12.1848
Colonel-Proprietor of the Cuirassier Regiment N°1: 02.03.1835 – 02.12.1848
Colonel-Proprietor of the Chevauxleger-Regiment N°1: 02.03.1835 – 02.12.1848
Colonel-Proprietor of the Hussar Regiment N°1: 02.03.1835 – 02.12.1848
Colonel-Proprietor of the Uhlan Regiment N°4: 02.03.1835 – 02.12.1848

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)

Baden:
Order of Fidelity
Brasil:
Order of the Southern Cross – GC
France:
Order of the Holy Spirit
Orden of the Légion d'Honneur – GC
Hessen-Darmstadt:
Order of Ludwig – GC
Naples-Sicily:
Order of St. Januarius
Order of St. Ferdinand and of Merit – GC
Portugal:
Order of Christ – GC
Prussia:
Order of the Black Eagle
Saxony:
Order of the Rue Crown
Württemberg:
Order of the Golden Eagle – GC

Printed Sources

ADB 6, p.700ff. | Hamann, p.121ff. | Holler, Gerd: Gerechtigkeit für Ferdinand. Österreichs gütiger Kaiser, Vienna-Munich 1986 | MilSchem | NDB 5, p.92 | ÖBL 1, p.299f. | Reifenscheid, Richard: Die Habsburger. Von Rudolf I. bis Karl I., Vienna 1994, p.300ff. | Vlies-Orden, p.186, N°843 | Wrede 1, p.118 | Wrede 3, pp.128, 145, 232, 333, 339, 682 | Wurzbach 6, p.197ff. | WZ, 11.01.1809, 20.02.1816 | Zivkovic, Generalität, p.14

Internet Sources

Jewison/Steiner
Marek (http://genealogy.euweb.cz/habsburg/habsburg5.html)
Schmidt-Brentano, Generale
Szentváry-Lukács
Theroff (http://pages.prodigy.net/ptheroff/gotha/austria.html)

Notes

1) All other titles automatically by succession (i.e. with date of death of his father = 02.03.1835)
2) Received the chain on the day of his baptism.


 
 O8 Österreich, Ferdinand Joseph Johann Erzherzog von
Österreich
, Großherzog von Toskana, Ferdinand III. Erzherzog von
Österreich, Herzog / Kurfürst von Salzburg,
Ferdinand Erzherzog von
Österreich, Großherzog / Kurfürst von Würzburg,
Ferdinand Erzherzog von
Österreich, Großherzog von Toskana,
Ferdinand III. Erzherzog von
 
Personal Information
Born: Florence (Firenze) / Tuscany, 06.05.1769
Died: Florence (Firenze) / Tuscany, 18.06.1824

Family Status
Son of Emperor Leopold II. (1747-1792)
Brother of O5, O6, O11, O13, O14, O15, O17
Nephew of O9
Cousin of O10, O12, O16
Uncle of O7
Married (1): 1790 Maria Luise Prinzessin von Neapel-Sizilien (1773-1802)
Married (2): 1821 Maria Anna Prinzessin von Sachsen (1795-1865)

Promotions

Oberst: 15.12.1779
Generalmajor: –
Feldmarschalleutnant: –
Feldzeugmeister / General der Kavallerie: –
Feldmarschall: 04.06.17921

Elevation of Social Status / Change of Social Status

Großherzog von Toskana (Grand Duke of Tuscany): 22.02.17912 – 03.1799 / 17.07.1799 – 15.10.1800
Herzog / Kurfürst von Salzburg (Duke / Prince-Elector of Salzburg): 11.02.18033 – 01.03.18064
Kurfürst von Würzburg (Prince-Elector of Würzburg): 01.01.1806 – 30.09.1806
Großherzog von Würzburg (Grand Duke of Würzburg): 30.09.1806 – 03.06.1814
Großherzog von Toskana (Grand Duke of Tuscany): 30.05.1814 – 18.06.1824

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

Order of the Golden Fleece: 22.04.1771
Order of St. Stephen – GC: before 1805
Order of Leopold – GC
Order of the Iron Crown 1st cl.: 12.02.1816
Colonel-Proprietor of the Infantry Regiment N°23: 15.12.1779 – 18.11.1809 (08.03.1810) (disbanded)
Colonel-Proprietor of the Infantry Regiment N°7: 18.11.1809 (08.03.1810) – 16.06.1824

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)

France:
Order of the Légion d'Honneur – GC
Naples-Sicily:
Order of St. Januarius
Order of St. Ferdinand and of Merit – GC
Tuscany:
Order of St. Stephen – Grand Master: 02.07.1790
Order of St. Joseph5 – Grand Master: 19.03.1807
Saxony:
Order of the Rue Crown


Printed Sources

Buschek, IR23, I, pp.517, 783, 800f. | Emmer, Johannes: Erzherzog Ferdinand III., Großherzog von Toscana, als Kurfürst von Salzburg, Salzburg 1878 | Hamann, p.119f. (wrong: d. 16.06.1824) | MilSchem | NDB 5, p.96 | Nekrolog 1824/2, p.1158f. | ÖBL 1, p.300 | Schäfer, Dieter: Ferdinand von Österreich. Großherzog zu Würzburg, Kurfürst von Salzburg, Großherzog der Toskana, Cologne-Graz-Vienna 1988 | Vlies-Orden, p.185, N°787 | Wrede 1, p.156 | Wrede 2, p.233 | Wurzbach 6, p.195ff. and 46, p.172ff. | WZ, 20.02.1816 | Zivkovic, Generalität, p.13

Internet Sources

Marek (http://genealogy.euweb.cz/habsburg/habsburg5.html)
Schmidt-Brentano, Generale
Shamà
Theroff (http://pages.prodigy.net/ptheroff/gotha/austria.html)

Notes

1) Buschek, IR23, I, pp.556, 800 / Emmer: 07.06.1792 (?) / Zivkovic: 09.01.1792 (?)
2) Date of the document of seizure (Imperial deed of renunciation: 21.07.1790)
3) Date of the document of seizure (provisional entry into possession: 19.08.1802)
4) Date of the dismissal from subjecthood (Imperial Austrian document of seizure: 12.02.1806)
5) 19.03.1807 – 03.06.1814: Highest order of the Grand Duchy of Würzburg


 
 O9 Österreich-Este, Ferdinand Carl Anton Erzherzog von
 
Personal Information
Born: Vienna, 01.06.1754
Died: Vienna, 24.12.1806

Family Status
Brother of Emperor Leopold II. (1747-1792)  
Brother-in-law of S8 (Albrecht Sachsen-Teschen)
Son-in-law of M58 (Herkules III. Modena-Este)
Father of O10, O12, O16
Uncle of O5, O6, O8, O11, O13, O14, O15, O17
Married: 1771 Maria Beatrix von Este, Prinzessin von Modena, Massa und Carrara (1750-1829)

Promotions

Oberst: 1756
Generalmajor: –
Feldmarschalleutnant: –
Feldzeugmeister: 20.02.1766
Feldmarschall: 17.05.1772

Posts and Offices (Army, Politics, Court)

Governor-General of the Lombardy: 10.04.1764 – 05.1796

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

Order of the Golden Fleece: 04.04.1763
Order of St. Stephen  GC: 1765
Colonel-Proprietor of the Cuirassier Regiment "Erzherzog Ferdinand": 1756-1761
Colonel-Proprietor of the Infantry Regiment N°2: 1761 – 24.12.1806

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)

(?)

Printed Sources

Hamann, p.118f. | MilSchem | Vlies-Orden, p.184, N°758 | Wrede 1, p.126 | Wrede 3, p.175 | Wrede (6), pp.31, 32 | Zivkovic, Generalität, pp.12, 33

Internet Sources

Marek (http://genealogy.euweb.cz/habsburg/habsburg5.html)
Schmidt-Brentano, Generale
Szentváry-Lukács
Theroff (http://pages.prodigy.net/ptheroff/gotha/austria.html)


 
 O10 Österreich-Este, Ferdinand Carl Joseph Erzherzog von
 
Personal Information
Born: Milan (Milano) / Lombardy, 25.04.1781
Died: Ebenzweier / Upper Austria, 05.11.1850

Family Status
Son of O9
Brother of O12, O16
Cousin of O5, O6, O8, O11, O13, O14, O15, O17
Unmarried

Promotions

Oberst: 1793
Generalmajor: 21.02.1800
Feldmarschalleutnant: 04.01.1801 (w.r.f. 22.01.1801)
General der Kavallerie: 01.09.1805
Feldmarschall: 17.09.1836

Posts and Offices (Army, Politics, Court)

Commanding General in Moravia and Silesia: 01.1806 – 10.1813
Commanding General in Hungary: 22.05.1816 – 08.1832
Commanding General in Galicia: 08.1832 – 06.1835
Governor-General in Galicia: 08.1832 – 07.1846

Field Service (1792-1815)

Commander (nominal)1 of the Army of Germany: 09.1805 – 10.1805
Commander (nominal)1 of the Austrian forces at the combat of Günzburg: 09.10.1805
Commander of the Austrian forces at the combat of Eschenau: 20.10.1805 (–)
Commander of the (autonomous) Corps in Bohemia: 11.-12.1805
Commander of the Austrian forces at the combat of Stecken: 05.12.1805 (+)
Commander of the 7th Army Corps: 02.-07.1809
Commander of the Austrian forces at the combat of Raszyn: 19.04.1809 (+)
Commander of the Austrian forces during the siege of Sandomierž: 26.05.-18.06.1809 (+)
Commander of the Army of Bohemia (= Army in Poland): 07.1809 – 12.1809
Commander of the Reserve Corps of the Army of the Upper Rhine: 04.-10.1815

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

Order of the Golden Fleece: 06.01.1808
Military Maria Theresian Order – KC: 18.08.1801
Order of St. Stephen – GC: 1815
Colonel-Proprietor of the Hussar Regiment N°32 / (since 1798:) N°3: 1793 – 05.11.1850

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)

Hannover:
Guelphic Order – GC
Naples-Sicily:
Order of St. Ferdinand and of Merit – GC
Poland (Russia):
Order of the White Eagle
Prussia:
Order of the Black Eagle: 1841
Order of the Red Eagle 1st cl.
Russia:
Order of St. Andrew: 1826
Order of St. Alexander Nevskij
Order of St. Anne 1st cl.
Chef of the Hussar Regiment "Erzherzog Ferdinand von Österreich": 16.[04.]02.1826 – 05.11.1850

Biographical Essay (by Digby Smith)

Born in Milan on 25 April 1781 Erzherzog Ferdinand Carl von Österreich-Este accompanied his elder brother, Carl, on the campaign of 1799 and was given command of a light brigade. In 1800 he was Generalmajor and commanded a division in the Centre at the defeat in the battle of Hohenlinden on 3 December. From 1793 he was Proprietor of Hussar Regiment N°32.
In 1805 he was titular C-in-C of the subsidiary Austrian army in the Danube valley, but real power rested in his "advisor", FML Mack. Ferdinand was defeated by Ney at Günzburg on 9 October. When Mack allowed himself to be shut up in Ulm despite Ferdinand's protests, Ferdinand broke out of the tightening grasp of the French corps and fled to Bohemia with twelve squadrons of cavalry.
He failed to join up with the Russians for the battle of Austerlitz on 2 December, but was at the successful clash against the Bavarians at Stecken three days later in his defence of Bohemia.
In 1808 Ferdinand was Commanding General in Moravia and Bohemia and supervised the raising and equipping of the new Landwehr in these provinces.
In 1809 he was appointed GOC of the VII Corps in Galicia. He beat the Polish forces in a series of minor actions, occupied Warsaw and advanced to Thorn before the failure of the campaign in the Danube valley – and mounting pressure from Poniatowsky – forced him to withdraw.
In 1815 he was GOC of the Reserve Army which went into France. From 1816 he was Governor-General in Hungary. He suppressed a rebellion in Hungary by peaceful means in 1835 and dealt with another in Galicia in 1846, where he – since 1832 – was also governor-general. Ferdinand died in Ebenzweier, Upper Austria, in 1850.

Printed Sources

Bodart, pp.363, 366, 370, 397, 408 | Hamann, p.120f. | Hirtenfeld 1, p.681ff. | MilSchem (wrong: d. 06.11.1850) | ÖBL 1, p.300 | ÖMKL 2, p.350ff. | Soldatenfreund, year 1850, N°141 (from 23.11.1850), p.627f. | Vlies-Orden, p.187, N°875 | Wrede 3, p.243 | Wurzbach 4, p.86f. | WZ, 09.01.1808, 09.06.1816 | Zivkovic, Generalität, pp.14, 37 | Zivkovic, Heerführer, pp.53, 56, 64, 129, 130, 133

Internet Sources

Ebert (http://www.napoleon-online.de/AU_Generale/html/ferdinand.html)
Jewison/Steiner
Marek (http://genealogy.euweb.cz/habsburg/habsburg5.html)
Schmidt-Brentano, Generale
Szentváry-Lukács
Theroff (http://pages.prodigy.net/ptheroff/gotha/austria.html)

Notes

1) See: M2 (Mack)


 
 O11 Österreich, Franz Joseph Carl Erzherzog von
Heiligen Römischen Reiches Deutscher Nation,
Franz II. Kaiser des
Österreich, Franz I. Kaiser von
 
Personal Information
Born: Florence (Firenze) / Tuscany, 12.02.1768
Died: Vienna, 02.03.1835

Family Status

Son of Emperor Leopold II. (1747-1792)
Brother of O5, O6, O8, O13, O14, O15, O17
Nephew of O9
Cousin of O10, O12, O16
Father of O7
Married (1): 1788 Elisabeth Wilhelmine Prinzessin von Württemberg (1767-1790)
Married (2): 1790 Maria Theresia Prinzessin beider Sizilien (1772-1807)
Married (3): 1808 Maria Ludovika Erzherzogin von Österreich-Este (1787-1816)
Married (4): 1816 Karoline Auguste Charlotte Prinzessin von Bayern (1792-1873)

Promotions

Oberst: 1770
Generalmajor: –
Feldmarschalleutnant: –
Feldzeugmeister / General der Kavallerie: –
Feldmarschall: –

Elevation of Social Status

Apostolischer König von Ungarn (Apostolic King of Hungary): 06.06.1792
Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches Deutscher Nation (Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation): 14.07.1792 – 06.08.1806
König von Böhmen (King of Bohemia): 09.08.1792
Kaiser von Österreich (Emperor of Austria): 11.08.1804

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

Order of the Golden Fleece: 26.02.1768 / Grand Master: 14.07.1792
Military Maria Theresian Order – Grand Master: 14.07.1792
Order of St. Stephen – Grand Master: 14.07.1792
Order of Leopold – Grand Master: 08.01.1808
Order of the Iron Crown – Grand Master: 01.01.1816
Military Honor Cross 1813/14 (Army Cross 1813/14): ~ 1814
Colonel-Proprietor of the 2nd Carabinier Regiment N°15 / (since 1798:) Cuirassier Regiment N°1: 1770 – 02.03.1835
Colonel-Proprietor of the Infantry Regiment N°1: 01.03.1792 – 02.03.1835
Colonel-Proprietor of the Chevauxleger Regiment N°1 / (since 1798:) Dragoon Regiment N°1 / (since 1802:) Chevauxleger Regiment N°1: 01.03.1792 - 02.03.1835
Colonel-Proprietor of the Hussar Regiment N°1: 01.03.1792 – 02.03.1835
Colonel-Proprietor of the Uhlan Regiment N°4: 1813 – 02.03.1835
Colonel-Proprietor of the Tyrolian Jäger Regiment: 1816 – 02.03.1835

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)

Great Britain:
Order of the Garter: 08.1814
Russia:
Chef of the Grenadier Regiment "Emperor of Austria": 07.[19.]10.1814

Printed Sources

Bibl, Viktor: Kaiser Franz. Der letzte Römisch-deutsche Kaiser, Leipzig-Vienna 1937 | Drimmel, Heinrich: Kaiser Franz. Ein Wiener übersteht Napoleon, Vienna-Munich 1981 | Drimmel, Heinrich: Franz von Österreich. Kaiser des Biedermeier, Vienna-Munich 1982 | MilSchem | Reifenscheid, Richard: Die Habsburger. Von Rudolf I. bis Karl I., Vienna 1994, p.274ff. | Sapper, Christian: General der Kavallerie Maximilian Graf Merveldt 1764-1815, Diss. Univ. Vienna 1974, p.404 | Vlies-Orden, p.185, N°784

Internet Sources

Marek (http://genealogy.euweb.cz/habsburg/habsburg5.html)
Theroff (http://pages.prodigy.net/ptheroff/gotha/austria.html)


 
O12 Österreich-Este, Franz Joseph Erzherzog von
Österreich-Este,
Herzog von Modena, Massa und Carrara, Franz IV. Erzherzog von
 
Personal Information
Born: Milan (Milano) / Lombardy, 06.10.1779
Died: Modena, 21.01.1846

Family Status
Son of O9
Brother of O10, O16
Cousin of O5, O6, O8, O11, O13, O14, O15, O17
Married: 1812 Marie Beatrix Prinzessin von Sardinien-Piemont (1792-1840)

Promotions

Oberst: 1789
Generalmajor: –
Feldmarschalleutnant: –
General der Kavallerie: 05.01.1808

Change of Social Status

Herzog von Modena, Massa und Carrara (Duke of Modena, Massa and Carrara): (1806) / 16.07.1814 – 21.01.1846

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

Order of the Golden Fleece: 23.11.1790
Order of St. Stephen – GC: 1821
Colonel-Proprietor of the Cuirassier Regiment N°29 / (since 1798:) N°2: 1789 – 21.01.1846

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)

Bavaria:
Order of St. Hubert
Naples-Sicily:
Order of St. Ferdinand and of Merit – GC
Poland (Russia):
Order of the White Eagle
Russia:
Order of St. Andrew
Order of St. Alexander Nevskij
Order of St. Anne 1st cl.

Printed Sources

Hamann, p.135f. | MilSchem | ÖBL 1, p.349f. | Vlies-Orden, p.186, N°821 | Wurzbach 6, p.225ff. | WZ, 23.01.1808 | Zivkovic, Generalität, p.38

Internet Sources

Marek (http://genealogy.euweb.cz/habsburg/habsburg5.html)
Schmidt-Brentano, Generale
Szentváry-Lukács
Theroff (http://pages.prodigy.net/ptheroff/gotha/austria.html)


 
 O13 Österreich, Johann Baptist Joseph Erzherzog von
 
Personal Information
Born: Florence (Firenze) / Tuscany, 20.01.1782
Died: Graz / Styria, 10.05.1859

Family Status
Son of Emperor Leopold II. (1747-1792)
Brother of O5, O6, O8, O11, O14, O15, O17
Nephew of O9
Cousin of O10, O12, O16
Uncle of O7
Married (morganatic): 1823 Anna Plochl, (since 1834:) Freiin von Brandhof(en), (since 1844:) Gräfin Meran (1804-1885)

Promotions

Oberst: 1795
Generalmajor: 22.07.1795 (w.r.f. 21.07.1795)
Feldmarschalleutnant: 30.03.1801
General der Kavallerie: 01.09.1805 (w.r.f. 05.09.1805)
Feldmarschall: 17.09.1836

Posts and Offices (Army, Politics, Court)

Director-General of Engineering and Fortifications: 12.02.1801 – 04.12.1849
Director1 of the Academy of Engineers: 12.02.1801 – 04.12.1849
Director1 of the Wiener Neustadt Military Academy: 20.06.1805 – 04.12.1849
Adlatus of the War and Navy Minister: 1805-1809
Regent of the German Realm (Deutscher Reichsverweser): 29.06.1848 – 20.12.1849

Field Command (1792-1815)

Commander (nominal)2 of the Army of Germany: 08.1800 – 12.1800
Commander (nominal) of the Austrian forces at the combat of Ampfing (Haun): 01.12.1800 (+)
Commander (nominal) of the Austrian forces at the battle of Hohenlinden: 03.12.1800 (–)
Commander (nominal) of the Austrian forces at the combat of Salzburg: 14.12.1800: (+/–)
Commander of the Corps in the Northern Tyrol: 10.-11.1805
Commander of the Army of the Tyrol: 11.1805
Commander ad interim of the Army of Italy: 12.1805 – 01.1806
Commander of the Army of Inner Austria: 02.1809 – 12.1809
Commander of the Austrian forces at the combat of Pordenone: 15.04.1809 (+)
Commander of the Austrian forces at the battle of Sacile: 16.04.1809 (+)
Commander of the Austrian forces at the combat of Caldiero (Soave, San Bonifacio): 29./30.04.1809 (+)
Commander of the Austrian forces at the battle of Ponte della Priula (at the Piave): 08.05.1809 (–)
Commander of the Austrian forces at the combat of San Daniele: 11.05.1809 (–)
Commander of the Austrian forces at the battle of Raab: 14.06.1809 (–)
Commander of the Blockade Corps of the Army of the Upper Rhine: 06.-09.1815
Commander of the Austrian forces during the siege of Hüningen: 25.06.-26.08.1815 (+)

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

Order of the Golden Fleece: 21.11.1792
Military Maria Theresian Order – CC: 22.01.1806 / GC: 05.1809
Order of Leopold – GC: 07.01.1809
Colonel-Proprietor of the Dragoon Regiment N°26 / (since 1798:) N°3 / (since 1802:) N°1: 1795 – 10.05.1859

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)

Baden:
Order of Fidelity: 1842
Bavaria:
Order of St. Hubert
Belgium:
Order of Leopold – GC: 1845
Greece:
Order of the Redeemer – GC
Hessen-Darmstadt:
Order of Ludwig – GC: 1842
Netherlands:
Civil Merit Order of the Netherland Lion – GC: 1842
Oldenburg:
House Order of Merit of Duke Peter Frederick Ludwig – GC
Poland (Russia):
Order of the White Eagle
Prussia:
Order of the Black Eagle: 1835
Order of the Red Eagle 1st cl.
Chef of the Infantry Regiment N°16: 1842 – 10.05.1859
Russia:
Order of St. Andreas
Order of St. Alexander Nevskij
Order of St. Anne 1st cl.
Chef of the Genie Sappeur Battalion: ? – 10.05.1859
Saxony:
Order of the Rue Crown
Combined Saxonian Duchies:
Ernestine House Order – GC
Württemberg:
Order of Military Merit – GC

Biographical Essay (by Digby Smith)

Born on 20 January 1782 in Florence as the 9th son of the later Emperor Leopold II. the archduke was made Colonel-Proprietor of Dragoon Regiment N°26 in 1795.
In 1800 he entered Austrian military service and was appointed titular C-in-C of the Austrian army in southern Germany, his Aide (FML Lauer) exercised the real power. After the disastrous defeat at Hohenlinden on 3 December of that year, he resigned his command.
In 1801 prince Johann was appointed General Director of Engineering and Fortifications; in 1805 he organized the Tyrolean Landwehr and was C-in-C there briefly before the end of the campaign. Johann assisted Erzherzog Carl with his military reforms, fortified Komorn and drew up plans to fortify the Alps. For the 1809 campaign, Johann was C-in-C of the VIII and IX Corps in their advance into northern Italy. He defeated Prince Eugene at Pordenone and Sacile, but was then forced to withdraw to Carinthia due to the defeats suffered by the main Austrian army in the Danube valley. His much-reduced army (the IX Corps had been detached to cover Slovenia) was "bolstered" by thousands of half-trained Landwehr troops, whose combat value was extremely low. This army was decisively beaten at Raab on 14 June. Johann fell back to the east on Komorn. On the morning of 5 July he received orders from Erzherzog Carl to join him at Wagram for that fateful battle. These orders had been delayed, as the courier tried to cross a river where the vital bridge had been destroyed. Johann reached the field only at 6 pm on 6 July after the Austrian army had already begun its withdrawal.
In 1815 Johann commanded the successful siege of Hüningen fortress on the upper Rhine. He morganatically married the daughter of the Postmaster in Aussee, Anna Postl. Their descendants received name and title "Counts of Meran". The prince died in Graz on 10 May 1859.

Printed Sources

ADB 14, p.281ff. | Amon, DR9, pp.187, 327ff., 385 | Blasek/Rieger 1, p.78f., 342f. | Bodart, pp.357, 396, 397, 401, 402, 407, 490 | Gatti, IngAk, p.407f. | Hamann, p.175ff. | Hirtenfeld 2, p.839ff. | Leitner 1, p.307ff. | Leitner, Wilhelm: Erzherzog Johann. Generaldirektor des Genie- und Fortifikationswesens 1801-1849, Ph.D. thesis, Graz 1949 | Liwa, Margot: Erzherzog Johann als Oberdirektor der Wiener Neustädter Militärakademie 1805-1849, Phil.D. thesis, Vienna 1984 | MilSchem | NDB 10, p.505ff. | ÖBL 3, p.122f. | ÖMKL 3, p.356ff. | Schlossar, Anton: Erzherzog Johann von Österreich. Sein edles Leben und segensreiches Wirken. Mit Benutzung des handschriftlichen und künstlerischen Nachlasses des Erzherzogs (= Illustrierte Geschichtsbibliothek für jung und alt), Graz-Vienna 1908 | Stolzer-Steeb, p.138f. | Vlies-Orden, p.186, N°834 | Wrede 3, p.183 | Wrede (6), p.32 | Wurzbach 6, p.280ff. | WZ, 09.01.1808 | Zivkovic, Generalität, pp.14, 38 | Zivkovic, Heerführer, pp.13, 35, 129, 134

Internet Sources

Ebert (http://www.napoleon-online.de/AU_Generale/html/johann.html)
Jewison/Steiner
Marek (http://genealogy.euweb.cz/habsburg/habsburg5.html)
Schmidt-Brentano, Generale
Theroff (http://pages.prodigy.net/ptheroff/gotha/austria.html)

Notes

1) Both titles also combined as: Director General of the Wiener Neustadt Military Academy and the Academy of Engineers ("General-Direktor der Wiener Neustädter Militär-Akademie und der Ingenieur-Akademie")
2) See: L16 (Lauer)


 
 O14 Österreich, Joseph Anton Erzherzog von
Österreich, Palatin von Ungarn, Joseph Anton Erzherzog von
 
Personal Information
Born: Florence (Firenze) / Tuscany, 09.03.1776
Died: Ofen (Buda) / Hungary, 13.01.1847

Family Status
Son of Emperor Leopold II. (1747-1792)
Brother of O5, O6, O8, O11, O13, O15, O17
Nephew of O9
Cousin of O10, O12, O16
Uncle of O7
Married (1): 1799 Alexandra Pavlovna Großfürstin von Rußland (1783-1801)
Married (2): 1815 Hermine Prinzessin von Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym (1797-1817)

Promotions

Oberst: – (?)
Generalmajor: –
Feldmarschalleutnant: 23.05.1785
General der Kavallerie: 09.03.1801
Feldmarschall: 12.02.1808

Posts and Offices (Army, Politics, Court)

Palatin (= Viceroy) and Captain General of Hungary: 05.09. / 12.11.17951 – 13.01.1847

Field Command (1792-1815)

Commander of the Hungarian Insurrection Army: 04.1797 – 11.1797
Commander of the Hungarian Insurrection Army: 09.1800 – 03.1801
Commander of the Hungarian Insurrection Army: 10.1805 – 01.1806
Commander of the Hungarian Insurrection Army: 04.1809 – 11.1809
Commander of the 2nd Reserve Corps: 08.-11.1809

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

Order of the Golden Fleece: 23.11.1790
Order of St. Stephen – GC: 1795 / w.d.: 1845
Golden Civil Honor Cross 1813/14: 26.05.1815
Colonel-Proprietor of the Dragoon Regiment N°26: 25.05.1785 – 1795
Colonel-Proprietor of the Hussar Regiment N°17 / (since 1798:) N°2: 1795 – 13.01.1847
Colonel-Proprietor of the Hussar Regiment "Palatinal" / (since 1802:) "Palatinal" N°12: 1800 – 13.01.1847

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)

Brasil:
Order of the Southern Cross – GC
Prussia:
Order of the Black Eagle: 1844

Printed Sources

ADB 50, p.703ff. | Amon, DR9, pp.160f., 187, 385 | Hamann, p.190ff. | Megerle, p.185 | MilSchem | NDB 10, p.623 | ÖBL 3, p.134f. | ÖMKL 3, p.370f. | Vlies-Orden, p.186, N°820 | Wrede 3, pp.183, 238, 297 | Wrede (6), pp.30, 31, 32 | Wurzbach 6, p.328ff. | WZ, 09.03.1808, 28.05.1815 | Zivkovic, Generalität, pp.13, 37 | Zivkovic, Heerführer, p.131

Internet Sources

Marek (http://genealogy.euweb.cz/habsburg/habsburg5.html)
Schmidt-Brentano, Generale
Szentváry-Lukács
Theroff (http://pages.prodigy.net/ptheroff/gotha/austria.html)

Notes

1) Date of the appointment by the King of Hungary / Date of the confirmation by the Hungarian Diet


 
 O15 Österreich, Ludwig Joseph Anton Erzherzog von
 
Personal Information
Born: Florence (Firenze) / Tuscany, 13.12.1784
Died: Vienna, 21.12.1864

Family Status

Son of Emperor Leopold II. (1747-1792)
Brother of O5, O6, O8, O11, O13, O14, O17
Nephew of O9
Cousin of O10, O12, O16
Uncle of O7
Unmarried

Promotions

Oberst: 1801
Generalmajor: 01.09.1805 (w.r.f. 03.10.1805)
Feldmarschalleutnant: 02.04.1807
Feldzeugmeister: 18.11.1818

Posts and Offices (Army, Politics, Court)

Director-General of the Military Border: 2nd H. 18021 – 08.18092
Director-General of the Artillery: 11.1818 – 12.1849
Member of the State Council: ~ 1822
Head of the State Council: 04.03.1835 – 1848/49 (?)

Field Command (1792-1815)

Commander of the 5th Army Corps: 02.-05.1809

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

Order of the Golden Fleece: 31.03.1805
Order of St. Stephen – GC: 1823
Colonel-Proprietor of the Infantry Regiment N°8: 1801 – 21.12.1864
Colonel-Proprietor of the Artillery Regiment N°2: 1854 – 21.12.1864

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)

Bavaria:
Order of St. Hubert: 1852/53
Hessen:
Order of Ludwig – GC
Poland (Russia):
Order of the White Eagle
Prussia:
Order of the Black Eagle: 1844
Order of the Red Eagle – GC
Russia:
Order of St. Andrew
Order of St. Alexander Nevskij
Order of St. Anne 1st cl.

Printed Sources

ADB 19, p.568f. | Hamann, p.266ff. | MilSchem | NDB 15, p.405f. | ÖBL 5, p.349 | Rothenberg, Militärgrenze, p.149 and p.268, note 18 (= Rothenberg, Military Border, p.89f., note 43) | Vlies-Orden, p.187, N°855 | Wrede 1, p.165 | Wrede 5, p.231 (wrong: Director General of Miltary Border in 1805) | Wurzbach 6, p.447ff. | Zivkovic, Generalität, p.40 | Zivkovic, Heerführer, pp.12 (wrong: Director General of Miltary Border in 02.1806), 14, 130

Internet Sources

Marek (http://genealogy.euweb.cz/habsburg/habsburg5.html)
Schmidt-Brentano, Generale
Szentváry-Lukács
Theroff (http://pages.prodigy.net/ptheroff/gotha/austria.html)

Notes

1) According to Rothenberg, Militärgrenze, p.149 and p.268, note 43: "Wrede, Bd.V, S.231, erwähnt, daß Ludwig 1805 ernannt wurde. Viele frühere Dokumente bezeichnen ihn jedoch schon als General-Direkteur." (Wrede, V, 231, maintains that Ludwig was appointed in 1805. Many of the documents before this date, however, refer to him as Director General).
2) Date uncertain


 
 O16 Österreich-Este, Maximilian Joseph Johann Erzherzog von
 
Personal Information
Born: Milan (Milano) / Lombardy, 14.07.1782
Died: Ebenzweier / Upper Austria, 01.06.1863

Family Status
Son of O9
Brother of O10, O12
Cousin of O5, O6, O8, O11, O13, O14, O15, O17
Unmarried

Promotions

Oberst: 1803
Generalmajor: 01.09.1805 (w.r.f. 05.10.1805)
Feldmarschalleutnant: 02.04.1807
Feldzeugmeister: 18.11.1818

Chivalric Order

Knight of the Teutonic Order: 07.03.1803
Coadjutor of the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order: 22.12.1803
Province Commander (Landkomtur) of the Bailiwick Franken: 1805-1806
Grand Master of the Teutonic Order: 22.04.1835

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

Colonel-Proprietor of the Infantry Regiment N°35: 1803 – (01.04.)1807
Colonel-Proprietor of the Artillery Regiment N°2: 1807-1835
Colonel-Proprietor of the Infantry Regiment N°4: 22.04.1835 – 01.06.1863

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)



Printed Sources

ADB 52, p.270f. | Hamann, p.370ff. | May, IR35, pp.141, 144 | MilSchem | MZ, year 1863, N°42 (from 03.06.1863), p.519 and N°44 (from 10.06.1863), p.534 | ÖBL 6, p.168f. | Täubl, pp.74, 82, 190 | Wrede 1, pp.140, 367 | (Wrede) 4, p.471 | Wurzbach 4, p.88f. | Zivkovic, Generalität, p.40

Internet Sources

Marek (http://genealogy.euweb.cz/habsburg/habsburg5.html)
Schmidt-Brentano, Generale
Theroff (http://pages.prodigy.net/ptheroff/gotha/austria.html)


 
 O17 Österreich, Rainer Joseph Erzherzog von
Österreich, Vizekönig von Lombardo-Venetien, Rainer Joseph Erzherzog von
Österreich, Rainer Joseph Erzherzog von
 
Personal Information
Born: Pisa / Tuscany, 30.09.1783
Died: Bozen / Tyrol, 16.01.1853

Family Status
Son of Emperor Leopold II. (1747-1792)
Brother of O5, O6, O8, O11, O13, O14, O15
Nephew of O9
Cousin of O10, O12, O16
Uncle of O7
Married: 1820 Elisabeth Prinzessin von Savoyen-Carignan (1800-1856)

Promotions

Oberst: 1801
Generalmajor: –
Feldmarschalleutnant: –
Feldzeugmeister: 05.01.1808

Posts and Offices (Army, Politics, Court)

Viceroy of Lombardo-Venetia: 03.01.1818 – 1848

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

Order of the Golden Fleece: 31.03.1805
Order of St. Stephen – GC: 1817
Order of Leopold – GC: 07.01.1809
Order of the Iron Crown 1st cl. (w.d.): 1838
Colonel-Proprietor of the Infantry Regiment N°11: 1801 – 16.01.1853

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)

Poland (Russia):
Order of the White Eagle
Prussia:
Order of the Black Eagle: 1847
Order of the Red Eagle 1st cl.
Russia:
Order of St. Andrew: 1845
Order of St. Alexander Nevskij
Order of St. Anne 1st cl.
Sardinia-Piedmont:
Order of the Annunziata: 1842

Printed Sources

ADB 27, p.181ff. | Hamann, p.398ff. | MilSchem | ÖBL 8, p.396 | Stolzer-Steeb, p.138f. | Vlies-Orden, p.187, N°854 | Wrede 1, p.189 | Wurzbach 7, p.125ff. | WZ, 09.01.1808, 23.01.1808, 11.01.1809 | Zivkovic, Generalität, p.38

Internet Sources

Marek (http://genealogy.euweb.cz/habsburg/habsburg5.html)
Schmidt-Brentano, Generale
Szentváry-Lukács
Theroff (http://pages.prodigy.net/ptheroff/gotha/austria.html)


 
 O18 O’Ferrall, Jakob Ritter
 
Personal Information
Born: Dublin / Ireland, 23.12.1753
Died: (Bath / England ?), 04.12.1828

Name Variants
also: O‘Ferral

Promotions

Major: 1798
Oberstleutnant: 1799
Oberst: 01.01.1807
Generalmajor: 15.02.1809
Retired: 15.02.1809

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

– (?)

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)

– (?)

Printed Sources

Duffy, p.385 | MilSchem | Schmidhofer, p.199 | Tomaschek, DR8, pp.291, 686, 718

Internet Sources

Schmidt-Brentano, Generale


 
 O19 Ollenhausen, (Johann) Wenzel Freiherr von
 
Personal Information
Born: Kanitz (Kounice) / Moravia, 19.02.1765
Died: Ofen (Buda) / Hungary, 22.12.1810

Name Variants

also: Olnhausen, Ollnhausen, Olenhausen, Ohlenhausen

Promotions

Major: 21.03.1797
Oberstleutnant: 01.06.18011
Oberst: 01.09.1805
Generalmajor: 09.02.18102
Retired: 09.02.1810

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

I.R. Chamberlain: 1806

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)

– (?)

Printed Sources

Dedekind, DR11, p.372, 323, 664, 756 | Leitner 2, p.130 | MilSchem | Svoboda 1, col.129

Internet Sources

Schmidt-Brentano, Generale

Notes

1) Svoboda: 02.02.1800 (?)
2) Dedekind, DR11, pp.756, 372 / Svoboda: 28.02.1810 "mit General-Majors-Charakter pensionirt" (retired with rank of major general) (?)


 
 O20 Oppeln, Kaspar Christian Freiherr von
 
Personal Information
Born: 17.01.1739
Died: 31.12.1798

Name Variants

also: Oppell

Promotions

Major: 1787
Oberstleutnant: 07.1790
Oberst: 06.03.17931
Generalmajor: 01.03.1797 (w.r.f. 20.01.1797)

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

– (?)

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)

– (?)

Printed Sources

MilSchem | Tomaschek, DR8, pp.251, 255, 270 (wrong: GM on 10.03.1797), 686, 692, 709 (wrong: GM on 28.04.1797) [sic]

Internet Sources

Schmidt-Brentano, Generale

Notes

1) Tomaschek, DR8, p.709: 17.03.1793 (?)


 
 O21 Oranien-Nassau, (Wilhelm Georg) Friedrich Prinz von
 
Personal Information
Born: Den Haag / Netherlands, 15.02.1774
Died: Padua / Venetia, 06.01.1799

Family Status
Brother of O22
Unmarried

Promotions

Netherlands:
Captain General:
Into Austrian service: 01.04.1796
Generalmajor: 17.04.1796 (w.r.f. 19.05.1796)
Feldmarschalleutnant: 30.10.1797 (w.r.f. 29.10.1797)
Feldzeugmeister: 15.11.1798 (w.r.f. 14.11.1798)

Posts and Offices (Army, Politics, Court)

Commanding General in Venetia: 11.1798 – 06.01.1799

Field Command (1792-1815)

Commander of the Netherlands forces at the battle of Werwick: 13.09.1793 (–)
Commander of the allied forces at the battle of Landrécies: 19.04.1794 (+)
Commander of the allied forces during the siege of Landrécies: 21.04. – 30.04.1794 (+)
Commander of the allied forces at the battle of Charleroi (Gosselies): 03.06.1794 (+)
Commander of the allied forces at the battle of Lambusart (Fleurus): 16.06.1794 (+)
Commander of the Army of Italy: 11.1798 – 06.01.1799

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

Military Maria Theresian Order – KC: 20.01.1797
Colonel-Proprietor of the Infantry Regiment N°15: 1797 – 06.01.1799

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)

Prussia:
Order of the Black Eagle: before 1796

Biographical Essay (by Digby Smith)

Friedrich Wilhelm Georg Prinz von Oranien was born in Den Haag on 15 February 1774 as youngest son of the Governor, William V. After the loss of his homeland to the Revolution in 1795, he initially fled to his family in England, then on to Nienberg, in Hannover. Here, he tried to form a corps of loyalist ex-Dutch soldiers in that area. The Peace of Basle in 1795 put an end to this scheme. The prince then approached the Austrian ambassador, Graf Ludwig Starhemberg, to try to obtain a commission as a colonel in the Austrian army. On 17 April 1796, he was commissioned as a major general and joined FZM von Wartensleben's Army of the Lower Rhine, in central Germany, as a brigade commander. He fought at Würzburg (2 September), Emmendingen (19 October) and Schliengen (24 October) before the end of the year. On 5 January 1797, he won distinction at the storming of the Swabian Redoubt at the siege of Kehl. On 20 January, he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Military Maria Theresian Order. He was given command of a division in April 1797 and sent down to Italy. On 30 October of that year, he was promoted to Feldmarschalleutnant. Only one year later (15 November 1798) he received his promotion to Feldzeugmeister and – at the age of 24 – was given command of the Austrian army in Italy. His career was cut short by sickness; he died on 6 January 1799.

Printed Sources

Bodart, pp.279, 286, 288, 291, 293 | Hirtenfeld 1, p.508ff. | Hollins, p.11f. | Megerle, p.302f. | MilSchem | Oranien. 500 Jahre Bildnisse einer Dynastie. Ed. by the Austrian National Library and the Ambassy of Netherlands in Vienna, Vienna 2002, p.105 | Wrede 1, p.218 | Wrede (6), p.31 | Wurzbach 21, p.80ff. | Zivkovic, Generalität, p.37 | Zivkovic, Heerführer, p.60

Internet Sources

Ebert (http://www.napoleon-online.de/AU_Generale/html/oranien.html)
Jewison/Steiner
Marek (http://genealogy.euweb.cz/nassau/nassau11.html)
Schmidt-Brentano, Generale
Theroff (http://pages.prodigy.net/ptheroff/gotha/netherlands.html)


 
 O22 Oranien-Nassau, Wilhelm Friedrich Prinz von
Niederlande, Großherzog von Luxemburg, Wilhelm I. König der
Nassau, Wilhelm Friedrich Graf von
 
Personal Information
Born: Den Haag / Netherlands, 24.08.1772
Died: Berlin / Prussia, 12.12.1843

Family Status

Brother of O21
Married (1): 1791 (Friederike Luise) Wilhelmine Prinzessin von Preußen (1774-1837)
Married (2): 1841 (morganatic) Henriette Gräfin d’Oultremont de Wegimont (1792-1864)

Promotions

Netherlands:
General of Infantry: 1792
Prussia:
Generalleutnant: 03.01.1798
Austria:
Feldmarschalleutnant: 01.06.1809
Feldzeugmeister: 02.11.18091
Feldmarschall: 15.12.1814

Change of Social Status

Sovereign of the Netherlands: 01.12.1813
King of the Netherlands: 16.03.1815 – 07.10.1840 (abdication)
Grand Duke of Luxemburg: 09.06.1815 – 07.10.1840 (abdication)
Count of Nassau: 1840

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

Order of St. Stephen – GC: 1837
Colonel-Proprietor of the Infantry Regiment N°26: 1814 – 12.12.1843

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)

Netherlands:
Military Order of William – Grand Master: 30.04.1815
Great Britain:
Order of the Garter: 10.08.1814
(Order of the Bath – GC: 1814 ?)
Spain:
Order of the Golden Fleece: 23.11.1816

Printed Sources

ADB 43, p.163ff. | ADB 55, p.894 (corrections) | MilSchem | Oranien. 500 Jahre Bildnisse einer Dynastie. Ed. by the Austrian National Library and the Ambassy of Netherlands in Vienna, Vienna 2002, p.106f. | Townsend, pp.140, 170 | Wrede 1, p.300 | WZ, 25.11.1809, 13.12.1816 | Zivkovic, Generalität, pp.14, 39

Internet Sources

Boettger (http://www.antiquesatoz.com/sgfleece/knights6.htm)
Marek (http://genealogy.euweb.cz/nassau/nassau11.html)
Rayment
Schmidt-Brentano, Generale
Szentváry-Lukács
Theroff (http://pages.prodigy.net/ptheroff/gotha/netherlands.html)
Uythoven

Notes

1) Zivkovic, p.14: 29.10.1810 (?)


 
 O23 O’Reilly von Ballinlough, Andreas
O’Reilly von Ballinlough, Andreas Graf
 
Personal Information
Born: Ballinlough / Ireland, 03.08.1742
Died: Vienna-Penzing, 05.07.1832

Family Status

Married: 1784 (Maria) Barbara Gräfin von Sweerts und Sporck (1760-1834)

Promotions

Major:
Oberstleutnant: 1784
Oberst: 1790
Generalmajor: 22.07.1794 (w.r.f. 16.04.1794)
Feldmarschalleutnant: 06.03.1800 (w.r.f. 08.09.1799)
General der Kavallerie: 07.01.1810
Retired: 07.01.1810

Posts and Offices (Army, Politics, Court)

Adlatus of the Commanding General in East Galicia: before 1801 – 1804/05
Adlatus of the Commanding General in Upper and Lower Austria and Salzburg: 02.-05.1809

Elevation of Social Status

Graf: 08.10.1787

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

Military Maria Theresian Order – KC: 18.08.1801 / CC: 28.05.1806
Colonel-Proprietor of the Chevauxleger-Regiment N°3: 1803 – 05.07.1832
I.R. Chamberlain

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)



Biographical Essay (by Digby Smith)

Born on 3 August 1742 Andreas O'Reilly von Ballinlough entered the Austrian army as a volunteer in 1756 and fought in the Seven Years War. In 1784, he married into Bohemian aristocracy and became count. In the War of the Bavarian Succession, he rose to the rank of major and in the wars against the Turks (1787-92), to Oberstleutnant. In 1790, O'Reilly was promoted to Oberst and given command of Chevauxleger Regiment "Modena" N°13. He commanded the regiment at the successful siege of Belgrade in late 1789.
In 1794, he was promoted to Generalmajor. In the campaign of 1796, on 24 August, he was distinguished in action at Amberg. He was again distinguished in the 1st battle of Zürich on 4 June 1799.
In 1800 O'Reilly commanded an infantry column in Melas' army. He was then promoted Feldmarschalleutnant on 6 March 1800 and commanded the Right Column at Marengo on 14 June. For bravery in this battle, he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Military Maria Theresian Order on 18 August 1800.
In 1803, he was appointed Proprietor of the newly-raised Chevauxleger Regiment N°3. In 1805, he again served in Italy commanding a cavalry division in Bellegarde's right wing. He was distinguished at the battle of Caldiero (29-31 October) for which he received the Commander's Cross of the MMTO on 28 May 1806. In 1809, O'Reilly was commander of the garrison of Vienna; he surrendered the city to the French on 13 May. On 7 January 1810, he was promoted to General der Kavallerie upon retirement. He died one month before his 90th birthday on 5 July 1832.

Printed Sources

ADB 24, p.409ff. | Doerr, p.264 | Duffy, p.389 | Hirtenfeld 2, p.765ff. | MD 8, p.87 | MilSchem | Schmidhofer, p.202f. (wrong: GM in 1790) | Wenzlik-Ebert p.23f. | Wrede 3, p.353 | Wurzbach 21, p.86ff. | Zivkovic, Generalität, p.39 | Zivkovic, Heerführer, p.49

Internet Sources

Ebert (http://www.napoleon-online.de/AU_Generale/html/oreilly.html)
Jewison/Steiner
Schmidt-Brentano, Generale


 
 O24 Oreskovics, Daniel von
 
Personal Information
Born: Pereusič (n.l.) / Croatia, 1747
Died: 20.02.1806

Name Variants

also: Oreskovich

Promotions

Major: 1788
Oberstleutnant:
Oberst:
Generalmajor (title a.h.): 06.08.1805 (w.r.f. 31.12.1802)
Retired: 06.08.1805

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

– (?)

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)

– (?)

Printed Sources

Gatti, IngAk, p.216f. | MilSchem

Internet Sources

Schmidt-Brentano, Generale


 
 O25 Orosz de Balázsfalva, Paul Freiherr von
 
Personal Information
Born: around 1723
Died: Preßburg (Pozsony, Bratislava) / Hungary, 10.02.1804

Promotions

Major:
Oberstleutnant:
Oberst:
Generalmajor: 10.04.1783 (w.r.f. 05.04.1783)
Feldmarschalleutnant: 16.01.1790 (w.r.f. 25.01.1790)

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

– (?)

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)

– (?)

Printed Sources

MilSchem

Internet Sources

Schmidt-Brentano, Generale


 
 O26 Orosz de Csicsér-Balázsfalva, Joseph Freiherr
 
Personal Information
Born: Raab (Györ) / Hungary, around 1713
Died: Kaschau (Košice, Kassa) / Com. Abaúj-Torna / Hungary, 11.05.1792

Promotions

Major: 1757
Oberstleutnant: 1758
Oberst: ~ 1760
Generalmajor: 19.11.1771 (w.r.f. 12.04.1764)
Feldmarschalleutnant: 09.04.17831 (w.r.f. 28.03.1783)

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

Colonel-Proprietor of the Infantry Regiment N°31: 20.09.1780 – 11.05.1792

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)



Printed Sources

Blažekovič, IR31, I, pp.111f., 146 | MilSchem | Wrede 1, p.338

Internet Sources

Schmidt-Brentano, Generale

Notes

1) Blažekovič, IR31, I, p.112: 03.04.1783 (?)
 

 
 O27 Orsini und Rosenberg, Franz Seraph Vincenz Ferrer Graf von
Orsini und Rosenberg, Franz Seraph Vincenz Ferrer Fürst von
 
Personal Information
Born: Graz / Styria, 18.10.1761
Died: Vienna, 04.08.1832

Name Variants

also: Rosenberg-Orsini

Family Status

Married: 1786 Marie Caroline Gräfin von Khevenhüller-Metsch (1767-1811)

Promotions

Major: 14.07.1789
Oberstleutnant: 28.07.1790
Oberst: 14.(27.?)05.1794
Generalmajor: 18.09.1796 (w.r.f. 28.09.1796)
Feldmarschalleutnant: 03.01.1801 (w.r.f. 07.01.1801)
General der Kavallerie: 29.04.1814
Retired: 30.08.1830

Field Command (1792-1815)

Commander of the 4th Army Corps: 02.-11.1809

Elevation of Social Status

Fürst (by succession): 28.11.1796

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

Order of the Golden Fleece: 06.01.1808
Military Maria Theresian Order – KC: 19.12.1790 / CC: 18.08.1801
Colonel-Proprietor of the Dragoon Regiment N°13 / (since 1802:) Chevauxleger Regiment N°6: 04.1801 – 04.08.1832
I.R. Privy Councillor: 1813
I.R. Chamberlain: 1778

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)



Biographical Essay (by Digby Smith)

Born on 18 October 1761, in Graz, Franz Seraph Graf von Orsini-Rosenberg (since 1796) came from an old Bohemian-Italian family. In 1780 he entered the Carabinier Regiment "Toscana" as a lieutenant. By 1785 he was a captain. In 1787, at the start of the wars against the Turks, he transferred to Chevauxleger Regiment "Kinsky" N°7. At this time, a squadron of the regiment was equipped with lances (like those carried by the Turkish Spahis), as an experiment; Orsini commanded this squadron. On 22 July 1788, they received their baptism of fire at the Bazanja dam on the River Save. Here, on Orsini's initiative, they charged to the aid of the hard-pressed Infantry Regiment "Pellegrini" N°49. There was an intense melee, but the Austrians, although heavily outnumbered, won the day. For this, he was promoted to Oberstleutnant in Cuirassier Regiment "Mack" N°20 and awarded the Military Maria Theresian Order (KC) on 19 December 1790.
In 1792, his regiment was sent to the upper Rhine, where it was distinguished in the clash at Bergzabern in 1793. By 1794, Orsini was Oberst and commander of his regiment. In 1795, he served in the Army of the Upper Rhine, under GdK Graf von Wurmser; he was distinguished in the victory in the siege of Mannheim (19 October-22 November) and in the clash at Frankenthal on 12 November. In 1796 he fought in the battle of Malsch (9 July), in FZM Graf Baillet de Latour's column against Desaix's corps. After the battle of Neresheim (11 August), he moved north, with Erzherzog Carl's army, to go to the aid of FZM Graf von Wartensleben's army in the Oberpfalz. In the clash at Amberg (24 August), he destroyed a square of three battalions in Jourdan's rearguard (23e Demi-Brigade ?) and took two colours. He was again distinguished in the battle of Würzburg on 2 September. On 18 September 1796, Orsini was promoted to Generalmajor and put in command of a cavalry brigade in Hotze's division in Latour's Right Wing of Wurmser's Army of the Upper Rhine.
In 1799, he commanded part of Erzherzog Carl's advance guard in Swabia and fought at Ostrach (21 March), Stockach (25 March) and at Frauenfeld (Switzerland) on 25 May, where he was wounded by a sabre cut to the head. He also fought in the 1st battle of Zürich on 4 June. The army now returned to Swabia; on 18 September, Orsini was again distinguished at the storming of the Neckarau redoubts at Mannheim, where he took seveal hundred prisoners and opened the way to the capture of the city.
The next year, he again served in Swabia, under FML Graf von Nauendorf; he fought at Engen (3 May), Mösskirch (5 May) and Biberach on 9 May. Shortly after this, he was sacked for being "too critical of his superiors and colleagues". He was soon reinstated however, and on 3 January 1801, he was promoted to Feldmarschalleutnant and made Proprietor of the newly-raised Dragoon Regiment N°13. On 18 August of that year, he was awarded the Commander's Cross of the MMTO.
In 1805 the prince commanded a division in Davidovich's corps on the left wing of the army in Italy but did not fight at Caldiero on 29-31 October, being sent to Colognola Alta, to act as right flank guard for the army. In 1808 he became a knight in the Order of the Golden Fleece.
During the campaign of 1809 he commanded the IV Army Corps. He fought at Teugn-Hausen on 19 April, Eggmühl (22 April), at Aspern (21-22 April) and at Wagram (5-6 May), where his corps held the left wing key position of Markgrafneusiedel, on which point Napoleon forced the Austrians to retreat. Following this campaign, he seems to have fallen into disfavour. He was appointed General Inspector of Cavalry in Austria and in 1811 was appointed a member of the Aulic War Council. Two years later Orsini was made Privy Councillor followed by his promotion to General der Kavallerie the next year. He retired on 30 August 1830 and he died on 4 August 1832 in Vienna.

Printed Sources

Hirtenfeld 1, p.583ff. | MilSchem | ÖBL 7, p.252 | Ogris, Irmtraut: Franz Seraphin Fürst Orsini-Rosenberg. 1761-1832, Ph.D. thesis, Vienna 1941 | Vlies-Orden, p.187, N°871 | Wrede, DR6, pp.648f. (wrong: b. 1765), 669 (wrong: Oberstleutnant in 1789), 928f. | Wrede 3, p.312 | Wurzbach 27, p.1ff. | WZ, 09.(/13.)01.1808, 11.05.1814, 25.07.1814 | Zivkovic, Generalität, p.39 | Zivkovic, Heerführer, p.130

Internet Sources

Ebert (http://www.napoleon-online.de/AU_Generale/html/rosenberg.html)
Jewison/Steiner
Orsini-Rosenberg, Helge: Die Familie Orsini-Rosenberg (http://orsini-rosenberg.at)
Schmidt-Brentano, Generale
Theroff (http://pages.prodigy.net/ptheroff/gotha/orsini.html)


 
 O28 Ott, Peter Karl von
Ott von Bátorkés, Peter Karl Freiherr
 
Personal Information
Born: Gran (Esztergom) / Hungary, 1738
Died: Ofen (Buda) / Hungary, 10.05.1809

Name Variants

also: Bátorkéz

Promotions

Major:
Oberstleutnant:
Oberst: 1789
Generalmajor: 01.01.1794 (w.r.f. 20.12.1791)
Feldmarschalleutnant: 01.03.1797 (w.r.f. 04.02.1797)
Retired: 1805

Posts and Offices (Army, Politics, Court)

Adlatus of the Commanding General in Hungary: 1800/01 – 1805

Field Command (1792-1815)

Commander of the Austrian forces at the combat of Monte Fascia: 07.04.1800 (–)
Commander of the Austrian forces at the combat of San Martino d’Albaro: 30.04.1800 (–)
Commander of the Austrian forces during the siege of Genua: 19.04.-04.06.1800 (+)
Commander of the Austrian forces at the battle of Montebello (Casteggio): 09.06.1800 (–)

Elevation of Social Status

Freiherr: 16.05.1791 (with predicate: "von Bátorkés")

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

Military Maria Theresian Order – KC: 19.12.1790 / CC: 13.10.1799
Colonel-Proprietor of the Hussar Regiment N°5: 1801 – 10.05.1809

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)

– (?)

Biographical Essay (by Digby Smith)

Born in 1738 in Gran (Esztergom) Peter Karl von Ott (Freiherr von Bátorkés since 1791) entered a military engineering academy and graduated as Fähnrich, into Infantry Regiment "Andlau" N°57, in August 1757. He fought in the Seven Years War and was several times distinguished, particulary at Landshut (23 June 1760) and at Liegnitz (15 August 1760), where he received a head wound. As a reward for his conduct, he was promoted to Lieutenant in Hussar Regiment "Pálffy" N°7. In the War of the Bavarian Succession, he was a major in Hussar Regiment "Kálnoky" N°17, and served with his regiment. In the wars against the Turks (1787-92) he was Oberstleutnant, still in this regiment. On 19 June 1788, he was at Valje Muliere, near the castle of Törzburg in Rumania (seat of the notorious Graf Vlad Dracula). His post was attacked by over 2,000 Turkish soldiers, but he held it against all their efforts. Shortly after this, he was promoted to Oberst and given command of his regiment. In 1789, he fought at Kimpolung, Rimnik and Porceny. On 26 June, he stormed the defences of Calafat. For this, he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Military Maria Theresian Order on 19 December 1790.
In 1793, he served in the Army of the Upper Rhine and was distinguished at Offenbach on 17 May, where he took 4 guns and several ammunition wagons. He later came to prominence in the defence of Schaid (18-19 September), the assault on Brumath (18 October) and in various other actions. On 1 January 1794, he was promoted to Generalmajor. In the years 1794-95, he again fought on the upper Rhine.
In 1796 Ott served under Wurmser, and accompanied him down to Italy, in the attempted relief of Mantua. On 12 September, he and GM Funk were involved in an ambush on the 12e Demi-Briagde Léger under GdB Charles-François Charton at Castellaro, near Mantua. General Charton was killed, Chef-de-Brigade Dugoulot, 8 officers and 400 men were captured. Wurmser was informed of these events as he was advancing down the Brenta valley on Bassano; he decided to continue in the hope of causing Napoleon to chase him down onto the Italian plains. Napoleon concurred, and sent Augereau's division from Trient down the Brenta towards Bassano. On 7 September, Augereau crushed three battalions of Grenzers (Wurmser's rearguard) at Primolano, causing 1,500 casualties and taking five guns. Napoleon's speed was such that he caught up with Wurmser's main body at Bassano on 8 September and won a convincing victory. The Austrians lost 2,600 casualties, 30 guns and much of their baggage including two pontoon trains. Wurmser withdrew south down the left bank of the River Brenta via Fontaniva to Vicenza, but Quosdanovich's division was cut off and fell back east into the Friaul. Sebottendorf joined Wurmser in Vicenza on 8 September; Wurmser now had 16,000 men together. He decided to run for Mantua and next day picked up Meszaros' division at Montebello on the River Alpone. As soon as Napoleon heard this, he rushed after him, hoping to catch the Austrians in the open; he sent Augereau south to Padua to ensure that his prey did not double back into the Friaul. Masséna chased after Wurmser at great speed, crossing the Etsch at Ronco on 10 September. Wurmser crossed that river at Legnano, to the south of Ronco, on the same day. He left a rearguard brigade there and on 11 September went on for Mantua. That day, GM Ott, commanding his Avantgarde, collided with Murat and Pijon (Massena's Avantgarde) at Ceria, where, after a hard fight, the French were defeated with a loss of 1,200 men and 6 guns. Wurmser marched on through the night; next day he clashed with some of GdD Jean-Joseph-François Sahuguet's men at Villa Impenta, brushed them aside and entered Mantua on 12 September. Ott's brigade was with them, and fought at La Favorita on 15 September against GdD Sahuguet's superior force, to cover Wurmser's entry into Mantua. The whole force was shut up in the place until it surrendered in February 1797. On 1 March 1797, Ott was promoted to Feldmarschalleutnant.
In the campaign of 1799, Ott again served in Italy; on 21 April he took Brescia and commanded in the battle of Cassano on 27-78 April. During the Austrian siege of Mantua, he commanded the covering force against Parma and Piacenza. His division decided the outcome of the three-day battle of the Trebbia River (17-20 June). On 9 July, he took Fort Urban and again was distinguished in the battle of Novi on 15 August 1799. On 18 September, he was involved in a sharp clash with GdD Grenier's division at Savigliano. Despite being sick this day, he won the action and pushed Grenier back to Fort Domont, in the Val de Grana, causing him 2,000 casualties and taking two guns. On 13 October, he was awarded the Commander's Cross of the MMTO.
In early 1800, FML Ott commanded a division in northwestern Italy. He took part in the siege of Genoa and on 6 April fought at Mont Fascio, just outside the city, where he was defeated by Soult. Ott counter-attacked on 9 April at La Bochetta and avenged this defeat. On 13 May, he again defeated Soult at Monte Creto; Soult was wounded and taken prisoner. Massena capitulated on 4 June. Ott then raced to support Melas at Alessandria, where Napoleon was concentrating his army. On 9 June, Ott clashed with Bonaparte at Casteggio, was defeated and withdrew westwards on Alessandria. On 14 June, he commanded the Left Column at Marengo. In 1801 he was made Proprietor of Hussar Regiment N°5, and was posted to Budapest. He retired in 1805 and died in that city on 10 May 1809.

Printed Sources

ADB 24, p.553ff. | Bodart, pp.350, 352, 354, 355 | Borus, p.40f. | Frank 4, p.21 | Gatti, IngAk, p.197f. | Hirtenfeld 1, p.552f. | MD 8, p.89 | MilSchem | Wrede 3, p.255 | Wurzbach 21, p.125ff.

Internet Sources

Ebert (http://www.napoleon-online.de/AU_Generale/html/ott.html)
Jewison/Steiner
Schmidt-Brentano, Generale


 
 O29 Otto, Rudolf Ritter von
 
Personal Information
Born: St. Georgenberg near Weissenfels / Saxony, 28.05.1735
Died: St. Johannisberg (near Königgrätz) / Bohemia, 07.08.1811

Promotions
Major: 1777
Oberstleutnant: 1783
Oberst: 1784
Generalmajor: 03.11.1788 (w.r.f. 28.10.1788)
Feldmarschalleutnant: 01.01.1794 (w.r.f. 23.12.1793)
General der Kavallerie (a.h.): 28.02.1803
Retired: 1803

Field Service (1792-1815)

Commander of the allied forces at the combat of Villers-en-Cauchie: 24.04.1794 (+)

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

Military Maria Theresian Order – KC: 25.05.1794
2nd Colonel-Proprietor of the Hussar Regiment N°32 / (since 1798:) N°3: 1794 – 07.08.1811

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)

– (?)

Biographical Essay (by Digby Smith)

Rudolf Ritter von Otto – born in 1735, near Weissenfels in Saxony – entered the Saxon army as Fähnrich in 1753, in the Chevauxleger Regiment "Prinz Carl". In the Seven Years War, he fought in the battle of Kolin (18 June 1757), Breslau (22 November of that year and at Kuttenberg, Mosberg, Lissa and at the siege of Schweidnitz. In 1758 he was involved in the raid on the Prussian Dragoon Regiment N°5 at Hollitsch and the capture of the Prussian supply train at Domstadtl. In 1759 he fought at the siege of Neisse. His brother, Oberst Wilhelm Ludwig von Otto, was already in Austrian service; he had raised a Freikorps and now called for his brother to join him. The young Otto transferred into Austrian service as an Unterleutnant and was given command of 100 mounted Jägers. In the winter of 1760, he ambushed a detail of Prussian hussars at Havelbrücke in the Voigtland, commanded the advanced guard in the raid on Langensalza, Weissensee, Merseburg and Halle. In 1761, he was promoted to Oberleutnant. He then raised his own Chevauxleger squadron, with which, in 1762, he ambushed a Prussian Cuirassier regiment in Arnstadt, taking an officer and 80 troopers prisoner. At the end of the Seven Years War, he entered Austrian service as Oberleutnant in Dragoon Regiment "Hessen-Darmstadt" N°19 in Hungary. In 1769 he was promoted to captain and became famous for producing new cavalry training regulations. In 1777, he was promoted to Major, in Hussar Regiment "Graeven" N°34. In 1783, due to his success in improving this regiment's efficiency, the emperor promoted him to Oberstleutnant and regimental commander, and in 1784 to Oberst. In the wars against the Turks, Colonel Otto shone, particularly in 1788, where he fought in the Banat. He led his hussars through the mountains to attack the Turks in Csernetz, in Wallachia and saved the Austrian rearguard at Cornia. On 3 November 1788, he was promoted to Generalmajor. The next year, during the siege of Belgrade, FM Graf von Loudon ordered him to throw a bridge over the Danube between Pancsowa and Belgrade, to protect it and to patrol aggressively in the area. Otto accomplished not only these tasks, but also took the fort at Semendria, and forced the Sereskia, Abdi Pascha, at Csupria to withdraw, leaving 28 guns and three horse-tail banners in Otto's hands. At the end of the war, Otto was stationed in Ofen and Galicia.
In 1793, GM Otto was posted to the Austrian army of FM Prinz Friedrich Josias von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld in Flanders. He was given command of half the Avantgarde under Erzherzog Carl and fought at the sieges of Condé and Valenciennes; on 23 May he distinguished himself in the battle of Famars, where he took seven guns. On 7 August he was again distinguished at the battle of Caesar's Camp, the plan for which, he had drafted. On 12 September 1793, he commanded in the brilliant cavalry success at Avesnes-le-Sec and on 30 October, led the attack, which re-took the lost post of Marchiennes. On 1 January 1794, Otto was promoted to Feldmarschalleutnant and appointed 2nd Proprietor of Hussar Regiment N°32. He was then given command of the Austrian troops, attached to the Duke of York's British corps. He fought at the siege of Landrecies (21-30 April 1794). On 24 April of that year, FML Otto commanded the allied cavalry in the stunning victory of Villers-en-Cauchie. He was again victorious at Le Cateau two days later. After the allied defeat at Tourcoing on 17-18 May, Otto commanded the rearguard. On 25 May 1794, he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Military Maria Theresian Order. His involvement with the British now ended and he was given command of the Austrian Avantgarde. The tide of the war turned against the allies; after the battle of Fleurus (26 June 1794) he was ordered to withdraw. In 1795, Otto requested to be allowed to retire on grounds of health; this was not granted. In 1796, he was posted to Bohemia and in the next year, he was given command of a corps in Italy, which he had to decline, on health grounds. He received a post in Vienna, in the Aulic War Council. On 1 February 1803, Otto was promoted to General der Kavallerie upon retirement. He retired to Bohemia and died on 7 August 1811, on his estate of St. Johannisberg, near Königgrätz.

Printed Sources

ADB 24, p.761ff. | Bodart, p.287 | Hirtenfeld 1, p.397f. | MilSchem | ÖMZ, year 1842, vol.4, p.227ff.: Biographie des k.k. Generals der Kavallerie Rudolph von Otto. Nach einer von ihm hinterlassenen, im Jahre 1804 verfaßten biographischen Skizze | Wenzlik-Ebert, p.24ff. | Wrede 3, p.243 | Wurzbach 21, p.136ff. | Zivkovic, Generalität, p.37

Internet Sources

Ebert (http://www.napoleon-online.de/AU_Generale/html/otto.html)
Jewison/Steiner
Schmidt-Brentano, Generale


 
 O30 Otto von Le Grand, Franz
 
Personal Information
Born: around 1724
Died: 26.02.1812

Promotions

Major:
Oberstleutnant:
Oberst:
Generalmajor: 01.05.1803 (w.r.f. 09.12.1802)

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

– (?)

Orders, Awards, Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)

– (?)

Printed Sources

MilSchem

Internet Sources

Schmidt-Brentano, Generale
 



Placed on the Napoleon Series: July 2008

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