Research Subjects: Biographies


A Guide to the French Marshals: General Information

By Alexandre Mikaberidze, FINS

Marshal
Date and Place of Birth 
Origins
Date of 
Nomination

 (# Refers to Age) 

 
Number of Years Held Title
 
Nicknames
Augereau, Pierre-Francois-Charles  21 October 1757 Faubourg St. Marceau, Paris Son of a grocer 19 May 1804 (43)
12
Le Brigand
Bernadotte, Jean-Baptiste-Jules 26 January 1763 Pau Son of an attorney 19 May 1804 (41)
39
Sergent Belle-Jambe; Napoleon called him "le Gascon" 
Berthier, Louis-Alexandre 20 November 1753 Versailles Son of the Coastal Surveyor to Louis XV and Louis XVI 19 May 1804 (50)
11

Napoleon once called him "Chief Clerk"
Bessieres, Jean-Baptiste 6 August 1768 Prayssac (Lot) Son of a surgeon 19 May 1804 (35) 
8
At. St. Helena Napoleon refer to him , "Il avait vecu comme Bayard; il mourut comme Turenne"
Brune, Guillaume-Marie-Anne 13 May 1763
Brive-la-Gaillarde
Son of a lawyer (substitut du procureur du roi" 19 May 1804 (41)
11
During the Revolution - "le Sauveur de la Republique Batave"; During Empire - ?
Davout, Louis-Nicolas 10 Mai 1770
Annoux (Burgundy)
Of noble origins: d'Avout 19 May 1804 (43)
19
"The Iron Marshal", "Davout the Prussian" after 1806 Campaign.
Gouvion Saint-Cyr, Laurent 13 April 1764
Toul
Son of a tanner 27 August 1812 (48)
17
"Le hibou","le mavais coucheur", "l'homme de glace",:"Le Spartiate de l'armee du Rhin"
Grouchy, Emmanuel 23 October 1766 Paris Of noble origins 15 April 1815 (48)
32
?
Jourdan, Jean-Baptiste 29 April, 1762 Limoges Son of a surgeon 19 May 1804 (42)
29
"Le vainqueur de Fleurus"
Kellermann, Francois-Etienne-Christophe 28 May 1735
Strasbourg
Son of a magistrate of Strasbourg  19 May 1804 (68)
16
"Le vainqueur de Valmy", "Nestor des armees"
Lannes, Jean

10 April 1769
Lectoure (Gers)

Son of a merchant 19 May 1804 (35)
5
"Le Roland de l'armee d'Italie", "l'Ajax francais", "l'Achille de la Grande Armee"
Lefebvre, Francois-Joseph 25 October 1755 Rouffach (Haut-Rhine) Of humblest origins; father was a wig maker and a miller 19 May 1804 (48)
16
?
Macdonald, Etienne-Jacques-Joseph-Alexandre 17 November 1765 Sedan Son of a Scotish immigrant, of the family of Clanronald; his father served in Royal Army ("regiment ecossais d'Ogilvy") 12 July 1809 (43)
31
?
Marmont,
Auguste-Frederic-Louis Viesse de
20 July 1774
Chatillon/Seine (Cote-d'Or)
Of noble origins; his father served in tribunal de baillage 12 July 1809 (34)
42
"Le Roi Marmont"
Massena, Andre 6 May 1758
Nice
Orphan; Son of a trader. 19 May 1804 (46)
12
"L'enfant cheri de la victoire" for Italian campaign; "l'enfant pourri de la victoire" for reputation of pillager.
Moncey, Bon-Adrien Jannot de 31 July 1754
Palise (Doubs)
Son of a lawyer of the local parliament 19 May 1804 (51)
37
Fabius
Mortier, Adolphe-Edouard-Casimir-Joseph 13 February 1768
Cateau-Cambresis (Nord)
Son of a farmer; his father also served in Royal Gendarmerie 19 May 1804 (36)
31
Napoleon called him "mon brave Morthier"
Murat, Joachim 25 March 1767
La Bastide-Fortuniere (Lot)
Son of an innkeeper 19 May 1804 (37)
11
le Roi Franconi
Ney, Michel 10 January 1769 Sarrelouis Son of a cooper 19 May 1804 (35)
11
L'Infatigable, le Brave des braves, le Rougeaud, Michel le Rouge, le Lion rouge, le Heros de la retraite, after the 1812 campaign.
Oudinot, Nicolas-Charles 25 April 1767
Bar-de-Duc (Meuse)
Son of a brewer 12 July 1809 (42)
38
"le Bayard de l'armee francaise", "le Marechal aux trente-cinq blessures"; His soldiers were called "les grenadiers d'Oudinot"
Perignon, Catherine-Dominique de 31 May 1754 Grenade (Haute-Garonne) Of noble origins 19 May 1804 (49)
14
?
Poniatowski, Joseph-Antoine 7 May 1763
Warsaw, Poland
Of noble origins; nephew to King of Poland 16 October 1813 (50)
3 days
Le Bayard Polonais
Serurier, Jean-Mathieu-Philibert 8 December 1742
Laon
19 May 1804 (61)
15
?
Soult, Nicolas-Jean de Dieu 29 March 1769
St.-Amans-la-Bastide (Tarn)
Son of a country notary  19 May 1804 (35)
47
?
Suchet, Louis-Gabriel 2 May 1770
Lyon
Son of a silk manufacturer 8 July 1811 (41)
14
?
Victor, Claude-Victor Perrin dit 7 December 1764 Lamarche (Vosges) Son of a bailiff 19 July 1807 (42)
33
"Beau-Soleil" for jis open  and friendly nature

 

 

 

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