Research Subjects: Government & Politics


France and Russia

Secret Treaty

Prussia, 1807

Prussia, 1808


Documents upon the Peace of Tilsit

By the Peace of Tilsit France broke up the Fourth Coalition, leaving herself at peace save with England. The first three of these documents show the arrangements made at Tilsit as the basis for continental peace. Document D shows the manner in which certain of the provisions in document C were finally carried out. Among the numerous features which call for notice are: (1) the character of the alliance made hetween Russia and France; (2) the recent changes in Europe effected by Napoleon and sanctioned by these treaties; (3) the humiliation of Prussia through loss of territory, payment of indemnity, the stipulations as to its army, etc.

A. Treaty of Peace between France and Russia. July 7, 1807.

De Clercq, Traites, II, 207-213.

His Majesty the Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, being prompted by an equal desire to put an end to the calamities of war. . . .

. . . . .

  1. There shall be, dating from the day of the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty, perfect peace and amity between His Majesty the Emperor of the French, King of Italy, and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias.

    . . . . .

  1. His Majesty the Emperor Napoleon, out of regard for His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, and wishing to give a proof of his sincere desire to unite the two nations by the bonds of an unalterable confidence and friendship, consents to restore to His Majesty the King of Prussia, the ally of His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, all the conquered countries, cities and territories denominated hereinafter, to wit: . . . [The omitted passage is practically identical with article 2 of document C.]
  2. The provinces which on the 1st of January, 1772, made up part of the former Kingdom of Poland and which have since passed at different times under Prussian domination, with the exception of the countries that are named or designated in the preceding article and of those specified in article 9 hereinafter, shall be possessed in complete ownership and sovereignty by His Majesty the King of Saxony, under the title of the Duchy of Warsaw, and shall be governed by constitutions which, while assuring the liberties and privileges of the peoples of this Duchy, are consistent with the tranquility of the neighboring States.
  3. The city of Danzig, with a territory of two leagues radius from its circumference, shall be re-established in its independence, under the protection of His Majesty the King of Prussia and His Majesty the King of Saxony and shall be governed by the laws which governed it at the time when it ceased to govern itself.

    . . . . .

  1. Their Serene Highnesses the Dukes of Saxe-Coburg Oldenburg, and Mechlinburg-Schwerin shall each be replaced in the complete and peaceable possession of his States; but the ports of the Duchies of Oldenburg and Mechlinburg shall continue to be occupied by French garrisons until the exchange of the ratifications of the future definitive treaty of peace between France and England.
  2. His Majesty the Emperor Napoleon accepts the mediation of His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias for the purpose of negotiating and concluding a definitive treaty of peace between France and England, upon the supposition that this mediation will also be accepted by England, one month after the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty.
  3. On his side, His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, wishing to prove how much he desires to establish the most intimate and enduring relations between the two Empires, recognizes His Majesty the King of Naples, Joseph Napoleon, and His Majesty the King of Holland, Louis Napoleon.
  4. His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias likewise recognizes the Confederation of the Rhine, the actual state of possession of each of the Sovereigns who compose it, and the titles given to several of them, whether by the Act of Confederation or by the subsequent treaties of accession. His said Majesty promises to recognize, upon the notifications which shall be made to him on the part of His Majesty the Emperor Napoleon, the Sovereigns who shall subsequently become members of the Confederation, in the capacity which shall be given them in the documents which shall bring about their entrance to it.

    . . . . .

  1. The present treaty of peace and amity is declared common to their Majesties the Kings of Naples and of Holland, and to the Confederated Sovereigns of the Rhine, Allies of His Majesty the Emperor Napoleon.
  2. His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias also recognizes His Imperial Highness, Prince Jerome Bonaparte, as King of Westphalia.
  3. The Kingdom of Westphalia shall be composed of the provinces on the left of the Elbe ceded by His Majesty the King of Prussia and of other States actually possessed by His Majesty the Emperor Napoleon.
  4. His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias promises to recognize the arrangement which, in consequence of article 19 above and of the cessions of His Majesty the King of Prussia, shall be made by His Majesty the Emperor Napoleon (which shall be announced to His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias) and the resulting state of possession for the Sovereigns for whose profit it shall have been made.

    . . . . .

  1. The Russian troops shall retire from the provinces of Wallachia and Moldavia, but the said provinces can be occupied by the troops of His Highness until the exchange of the ratifications of the future definitive treaty of peace between Russia and the Ottoman Porte.
  2. His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias accepts the mediation of His Majesty the Emperor of the French, King of Italy, for the purpose of negotiating and concluding a peace advantageous and honorable to the two Empires. The respective Plenipotentiaries shall repair to the place which the interested parties shall have agreed upon in order to open and to pursue the negotiations.

    ...

  1. His Majesty the Emperor of the French, King of Italy, and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias mutually guarantee the integrity of their possessions and those of the Powers included in the present treaty of peace, such as they now are or shall be in consequence of the above stipulations.

    . . . . .

  1. The ceremonial of the two Courts of the Tuileries and of Saint Petersburg between themselves and with respect to the Ambassadors, Ministers and Envoys whom they shall accredit to each other shall be established upon the principle of a perfect reciprocity and equality.

 

SEPARATE AND SECRET ARTICLES.

. . . . .

  1. The Seven Islands shall be possessed in complete proprietorship and sovereignty by His Majesty the Emperor Napoleon.

    . . . . .

  1. His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias engages to recognize His Majesty the King of Naples Joseph Napoleon, as King of Sicily as soon as King Ferdinand IV shall have an indemnity such as the Balearic islands or the island of Candia, or any other of like value.
  2. If, at the time of the future peace with England, Hanover should come to be united with the Kingdom of Westphalia, a territory formed from the countries ceded by His Majesty the King of Prussia upon the left bank of the river Elbe, and having a population of from three to four hundred thousand souls, shall cease to make part of that Kingdom and shall be retroceded to Prussia.

 

B. Secret Treaty of Alliance between France and Russia, July 7, 1807.

Fournier's Napoleon I, II, 250-252 (German ed.).

His Majesty the Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine, and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, having particularly at heart to re-establish the general peace in Europe upon substantial and, if it be possible, immovable foundations, have for that purpose resolved to conclude an offensive and defensive alliance. . . .

. . . . .

  1. His Majesty the Emperor of the French, King of Italy, and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, undertake to make common cause, whether by land or by sea, or indeed by land and by sea, in every war which France or Russia may be under the necessity of undertaking against any European Power.
  2. The occasion for the alliance occurring, and each time that it shall occur, the High Contracting Parties shall regulate, by a special convention, the forces which each of them shall employ against the common enemy, and the points at which these forces shall act; but for the present they undertake to employ, if the circumstances require it, the totality of their land and sea forces.
  3. All the operations of the common wars shall be carried on in concert, and neither of the Contracting Parties in any case can treat for peace without the concurrence and consent of the other.
  4. If England does not accept the mediation of Russia or if having accepted it she does not by the first of November next consent to conclude peace, recognizing therein that the flags of all the Powers shall enjoy an equal and perfect independence upon the seas and restoring therein the conquests made by it from France and its Allies since the year eighteen hundred and five, when Russia made common cause with it, a note shall be sent to the cabinet of St. James in the course of the said month of November by the Ambassador of His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias. This note, expressing the interest that his said Imperial Majesty takes in the tranquility of the world and the purpose which he has of employing all the forces of his Empire to procure for humanity the blessing of peace, shall contain the positive and explicit declaration that, upon the refusal of England to conclude peace upon the aforesaid conditions, His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias will make common cause with France, and, in case the Cabinet of St. James shall not have given upon the 1st of December next a categorical and satisfactory reply, the Ambassador of Russia shall receive the contingent order to demand his passports on the said day and to leave England at once.
  5. If the case provided for by the preceding article occurs, the High Contracting Parties shall act in concert and at the same moment summon the three courts of Copenhagen, Stockholm and Lisbon to close their ports to the English to recall their Ambassadors from London, and to declare war upon England. That one of the three Courts which refuses this shall be treated as an enemy by the two High Contracting Parties, and, if Sweden refuses it, Denmark shall be constrained to declare war upon it.
  6. The two High Contracting Parties shall likewise act in concert and shall urge with force upon the Court of Vienna that it adopt the principles set forth in article four above, that it close its ports to the English, recall its Ambassador from London and declare war on England.
  7. If, on the contrary, within the period specified above, England makes peace upon the aforesaid conditions [and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias shall employ all his influence to bring it about], Hanover shall be restored to the King of England in compensation for the French, Spanish and Dutch colonies.
  8. Likewise, if in consequence of the changes which have just occurred at Constantinople, the Porte should not accept the mediation of France, or if after it has been accepted it should happen that, within the period of three months after the opening of the negotiations, they have not led to a satisfactory result, France will make common cause with Russia against the Ottoman Porte, and the two High Contracting Parties shall come to an agreement to remove all the provinces of the Ottoman Empire in Europe, the city of Constantinople and the Province of Roumalia excepted, from the yoke and the vexations of the Turks.
  9. The present treaty shall remain secret and shall not be made public nor communicated to any Cabinet by one of the two Contracting Parties without the consent of the other.
    It shall be ratified and the ratifications thereof exchanged at Tilsit within the space of four days.

Done at Tilsit, July 7, 1807 (June twenty-fifth, eighteen hundred seven [Russian style]).

 

C. Treaty of Peace between France and Prussia. July 9, 1807.

De Clercq, Traites, II, 217-223.

His Majesty the Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine, and His Majesty the King of Prussia, being prompted by an equal desire to put an end to the calamities of war. . . .

  1. There shall be, dating from the day of the exchange of the ratifications of the present Treaty, perfect peace and amity between His Majesty the Emperor of the French, King of Italy; and His Majesty the King of Prussia.
  2. The portion of the Duchy of Magdeburg situated to the right of the Elbe; the Mark of Prignitz, the Unker-Mark, the middle and the new Mark of Brandenburg, with the exception of the Cotbuser-Kreis or circle of Cotbus in lower Lusace; the duchy of Pomerania; upper, lower and middle Silesia, with the county of Glatz; the portion of the district of Netze situated to the north of the causeway running from Driesen to Schneidemühl and of a line running from Schneidemühl to the Vistula at Waldau, following the limits of the circle of Bromberg; Pommerellen; the island of Nogat; the countries to the right of Nogat and the Vistula, to the east of Old Prussia and to the north of the circle of KuIm; Ermeland; and, lastly, the Kingdom of Prussia, such as it was on January 1, 1772, shall be restored to His Majesty the King of Prussia, with the places of Spandau, Stettin, Küstrin, Glogau, Braslan, Schweidnitz, Neisse, Brieg, Kosel, and Glatz, and generally all the places, citadels, chateaux, and strongholds of the countries denominated above in the condition in which the said places, citadels, chateaux and strongholds now are. The cities and citadels of Graudenz, with the villages of Neudorf, Parschken and Swirkorzy, shall also be restored to His Majesty the King of Prussia.
  3. His Majesty the King of Prussia recognizes His Majesty the King of Naples, Joseph Napoleon; and His Majesty the King of Holland, Louis Napoleon.
  4. His Majesty the King of Prussia likewise recognizes the Confederation of the Rhine, the actual state of possession of each of the sovereigns who compose it, and the titles given to several of them, whether by the Act of Confederation or by the subsequent treaties of accession. His Majesty promises to recognize the Sovereigns who shall subsequently become members of the said Confederation, in the capacity which shall be given them by the documents which shall bring about their entrance to it.
  5. The present Treaty of peace and amity is declared common to His Majesty the King of Naples, Joseph Napoleon, to His Majesty the King of Holland, and the Confederated Sovereigns of the Rhine; allies of His Majesty the Emperor Napoleon.
  6. His Majesty the King of Prussia likewise recognizes His Imperial Highness Prince Jerome Napoleon as King of Westphalia.
  7. His Majesty the King of Prussia cedes in complete ownership and sovereignty to the Kings, Grand Dukes, Dukes or Princes who shall be designated by His Majesty the Emperor of the French, King of Italy, all the Duchies, Marquisdoms, Principalities, Counties, Lordships and generally all the territories or parts of any territories, as well as all the domains and landed estates of every nature which His Said Majesty the King of Prussia possessed by any title whatsoever between the Rhine and the Elbe at the commencement of the present war.
  8. The Kingdom of Westphalia shall be composed of provinces ceded by His Majesty the King of Prussia and of other States actually possessed by His Majesty the Emperor Napoleon.
  9. The disposition which shall be made by His Majesty the Emperor Napoleon of the countries designated in the two preceding articles and the state of possession resulting therefrom to the Sovereigns for whose profit it shall have been made, shall be recognized by His Majesty the King of Prussia, in the same manner as if it were already effected and were contained in the present Treaty.
  10. His Majesty the King of Prussia, for himself, his heirs and successors, renounces all present or contingent right which he can have or lay claim to: 1st. Upon all the territories, without exception, situated between the Rhine and the Elbe other than those designated in article 7; 2d. Upon those of the possessions of His Majesty the King of Saxony and of the House of Anhalt which are upon the right of the Elbe; reciprocally, every present or contingent right and every claim of the States included between the Elbe and the Rhine upon the possessions of His Majesty the King of Prussia, as they shall be in consequence of the present Treaty, are and shall remain forever extinguished.
  11. All Agreements, Conventions or Treaties of Alliance, open or secret, which may have been concluded between Prussia and any of the states situated to the left of the Elbe, and which the present war shall not have dissolved, shall remain without effect and shall be regarded as null and void.
  12. His Majesty the King of Prussia cedes in complete ownership and sovereignty to His Majesty the King of Saxony the Cotbuser-Kreis or Circle of Cotbus in lower Lusatia.
  13. His Majesty the King of Prussia renounces in perpetuity the possession of all the provinces which, having belonged to the Kingdom of Poland subsequent to the 1st of January, 1807, have passed at various times under the domination of Prussia, with the exception of Ermeland and the countries situated to the west of old Prussia, to the east of Pomerania and the new Mark, to the north of the circle of KuIm and of a line running from the Vistula to Schneidemühl through Waldau, following the limits of the circle of Bomberg and of the causeway running from Schneidemühl to Drisen, which, with the city and citadel of Graudenz and the villages of Neudorf, Parschken, and Swierkorzy, shall continue to be possessed in complete ownership and sovereignty by His Majesty the King of Prussia.
  14. His Majesty the King of Prussia likewise renounces in perpetuity the possession of Dantzig.
  15. The Provinces which His Majesty the King of Prussia renounces by article 13 above (with the exception of the territory specified in article 18 above) shall be possessed in complete ownership and sovereignty by His Majesty the King of Saxony, under the title of the Duchy of Warsaw, and shall be governed by constitutions which, while assuring the liberties and privileges of the peoples of this duchy, are consistent with the tranquility of the neighboring States.

    . . . . .

  1. The city of Dantzig, with a territory of two leagues radius from its circumference, shall be re-established in its independence, under the protection of His Majesty the King of Prussia and of His Majesty the King of Saxony and shall be governed by the laws which governed it at the time when it ceased to govern itself.

    . . . . .

  1. The city, port and territory of Dantzig, shall be closed during the continuance of the present maritime war to the commerce and navigation of the English.

    . . . . .

  1. Until the day of the exchange of the ratifications of the future definitive Treaty of peace between France and England, all the countries under the domination of His Majesty the King of Prussia, without exception, shall be closed to the navigation and commerce of the English. No shipment can be made from Prussian ports for the British islands, nor can any vessel coming from England or its colonies be received in the said ports.

    . . . . .

 

SECRET ARTICLES.

  1. . . . . .
  2. His Majesty the King of Prussia engages to make common cause with France against England, if, on the 1st of December, England has not consented to conclude a peace upon conditions reciprocally honorable to the two nations and con-formable to the true principles of maritime law; in such case, there shall be a special convention made to regulate the execution of the above stipulation.

 

D. Treaty between France and Prussia. September 8, 1808.

De Clercq, Traites, II, 270-272.

His Majesty the Emperor of the French, King of Italy, Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine and His Majesty the King of Prussia, wishing to remove the difficulties which have occurred in the execution of the treaty of Tilsit, . . .

  1. The amount of the sums due from the Prussian States to the French army, as well for extraordinary contribution as for arrears of revenues, is fixed at 140 million francs ; and by means of the payment of the said sum, every claim of France upon Prussia, on the ground of war contributions, shall be extinguished. This sum of 140 millions shall be deposited within twenty days from the exchange of the ratifications of the present Treaty in the counting house of the Receiver General of the army, to wit: half in ready money or in good and acceptable bills of exchange, payable at the rate of 6 millions per month dating from the day of the exchange of the ratifications and the payment of which shall be guaranteed by the Prussian treasury. The other half [shall be] in land notes of privileged mortgage upon the royal domains, which shall be reimbursable within the space of from one year to eighteen months after the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty.

    . . . . .

  2. >

  1. The places of Glogau, Stettin and Custrin shall remain in the power of the French army until the entire discharge of the hills of exchange and the land notes given in payment of the contribution mentioned in the first article. . . .

    . . . . .

  1. His Majesty the Emperor and King guarantees to His Majesty the King of Prussia the integrity of his territory, on condition that His Majesty the King of Prussia remains the faithful ally of France.
  2. His Majesty the King of Prussia recognizes as King of Spain and of the Indies His Majesty Joseph-Napoleon, and as King of the Two Sicilies His Majesty Joachim-Napoleon.

 

SEPARATE ARTICLES.

  1. His Majesty the King of Prussia, wishing to, avoid everything which can give umbrage to France, makes engagement to maintain for ten years, dating from January 1, 1809, only the number of troops specified below, to wit:

    10 Regiments of infantry, forming at most an effective of
    22,000 men.
    8 Regiments of cavalry or 32 squadrons forming at most an effective of
    8,000 men.
    A Corps of artillerymen, miners and sappers, at most of
    6,000 men.
    Not included the Guard of the King estimated, infantry and cavalry, at most
    6,000 men.



    Total
    42,000 men.


  2. At the expiration of the ten years, His Majesty the King of Prussia shall re-enter into the common right and shall maintain the number of troops which shall seem to him suit able, according to circumstances.
  3. During these ten years there shall not be any extraordinary levy of militia or of citizen guards, nor any mustering that tends to augment the forces above specified.

    . . . . .

  4. >

  1. In return for the guarantee stipulated in the Treaty of this day, and as security of the alliance contracted with France, His Majesty the King of Prussia promises to make common cause with His Majesty the Emperor of the French if war comes to be declared between him and Austria, and in that case, to place at his disposal a division of 16,000 men, infantry as well as cavalry and artillery.
  2. The present engagement shall continue for ten years. Nevertheless, the King of Prussia, not having been able yet to form his military establishment, shall not be held for any contingent during the present year, and shall be bound to furnish in the year 1809, if war should break out, which the present amicable relations between France and Austria in no wise give occasion to fear, only a contingent of 12,000 men, infantry as well as cavalry.

 

References

Fyffe, Modern Europe, I, 346-349 (Popular ed., 233-235); Fournier, Napoleon, 383-390; Rose, Napoleon, II, 115-128; Sloane, Napoleon, III, Chs. V-VI; Lanfrey, Napoleon, III 268-285; Lavisse and Rambaud, Histoire Generale, IX, 115-117.


 

Placed on the Napoleon Series: July 2000

 

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