Research Subjects: Government & Politics


 

 

Peers Removed from the Chamber on 24 July 1815 by King Louis XVIII 

By Stephen Millar

The Minister of the Interior announced the arrival of the Emperor; and that the Army of the North, after a victory, fell into disorders which His Majesty could not prevent; but it was rallying under the walls of Avesnes and Phillipeville; and His Majesty had returned to consult with Ministers on the means of replacing the material of the army.

-- newspaper account of the Chamber of Peers on Wednesday, 21 June 1815

On 04 April 1814, the newly-restored King Louis XVIII re-constituted France's upper-house - the Chamber of Peers. The Chamber consisted of 154 pre-Revolutionary nobles, high-ranking clergymen and select members of the recently-created Napoleonic nobility.

The ranking secular peer was Marie-Francois-Emmanuel de Crussol, duc d'Uzes (30 December 1756 - 06 August 1843); the ranking ecclesiastical peer was Alexandre-Angelique de Talleyrand-Perigord, archbishop of Rheims (1736-1821); the ranking Napoleonic-era peer was Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord, prince de Benevent (02 February 1754-17 May 1838).

Although Louis XVIII tried to attempt a conciliatory policy, there was constant friction between the 'ultra-royalists' - who wanted everything as it had been before the revolution - and the Napoleonic nobility (and officer corps). The real crisis came, however, during the Hundred Days, when Napoleon returned from exile on Elba. The royalists again fled into exile and new peers were announced by the Emperor on 02 June 1815.

With Napoleon's defeat at the Battle of Waterloo later in the same month, it was clear that a second Bourbon restoration was coming. Napoleon abdicated for the second time on 22 June and when Louis XVIII returned, retribution was dealt out to those peers who had supported the Emperor. In all, 29 peers who had been appointed in 1814 were removed from the Chamber (one of them, Marshal Michel Ney, prince de La Moskowa, was put on trial and subsequently executed by firing-squad) [1].

Louis XVIII added additional peers on 17 August 1815 and most of those individuals removed were reinstated fours years later - although many re-entered the Chamber with a lower rank than they had previously held.

The following list contains 27 of the 29 peers excluded after Louis XVIII's second restoration. No information was found about the final two unnamed individuals.

I. Ecclesiastical Peer

Removed 24 July 1815; died 06 June 1816:

1. Louis-Mathias, comte de Barral; Archbishop of Tours

Appointed as Archbishop of Tours on 30 January 1805, Louis-Mathias de Barral (20 April 1746 - 06 June 1816) was also almoner to Empress Josephine. Barral was later made a senator (1806) and comte de l'Empire (1808). During the Hundred Days, Barral retained his political connections with Napoleon.

II. Pre-Imperial nobility

Removed 24 July 1815; reinstated 05 March 1819:

2. Anne-Elisabeth-Pierre, comte de Montesquiou-Fezensac

A member of an old noble family from Armagnac, Anne-Elisabeth-Pierre, comte de Montesquiou-Fezensac (30 August 1764 - 04 August 1834) was president of the Legislative Corps from 24 January 1810 to 23 November 1813. He then served as Napoleon's Grand-Chamberlain during the later part of the Empire as well as during the Hundred Days. His wife, Louise-Charlotte-Francois Le Tellier de Courtanvaux, had been appointed as governess to the King of Rome in 1811.

Removed 24 July 1815; reinstated 21 November 1819:

3. Claude-Raynald-Laure-Felix de Choiseul, duc de Praslin

Claude-Raynald-Laure-Felix de Choiseul, duc de Praslin (24 March 1778 - 28 June 1841) inheirited his title - created by King Louis XV in 1762 - from his father on 28 January 1808. The duc de Praslin and the Archbishop of Tours [see above] were the two highest-ranking peers to be removed by Louis XVIII from the Chamber.

4. Louis-Philippe, comte de Segur

The son of Philippe-Henri, marquis de Segur and Marshal of France (20 January 1723 - 03 October 1801) Louis-Philippe, comte de Segur (10 August 1753-27 August 1830) was 'grand-officier du palais de l'Empereur' from 09 July 1804. Created a comte de l'Empire on 23 May 1808, Segur returned to his old position during the Hundred Days and was made a peer of France by Napoleon on 02 June 1815.

Removed 24 July 1815; reinstated 23 August 1820:

5. General de Division Marie-Charles-Cesar de Fay, comte de La Tour-Maubourg

Marie-Charles-Cesar de Fay, comte de La Tour-Maubourg (11 February 1756 - 28 May 1831) was one of Napoleon's experienced dragoon officers who fought at Jena, Eylau and Friedland. His brother, General de Brigade Marie-Victor-Nicolas de Fay, baron de La Tour-Maubourg - supported Louis XVIII during the Hundred Days and became Minister of War on 10 November 1819.

III. Imperial nobility

Removed 24 July 1815; executed for treason 07 December 1815:

6. Marshal Michel Ney, prince de La Moskowa

Michel Ney (10 January 1769 - 07 December 1815), nicknamed 'le brave des braves' by Napoleon, was perhaps the Emperor's most famous Marshal. Created duc d'Elchingen on XXXX, Ney's later performance in the Russian Campaign earned him the title of prince de La Moskowa. Instructed by Louis XVIII to stop Napoleon's advance through southern France during the Hundred Days, Ney deserted the Bourbons and joined the Emperor. Given command of the left wing during the Waterloo Campaign, Ney also assumed field command during the Battle of Waterloo. He failed to escape France after the second return of the Bourbons and was tried for treason in the Chamber of Peers (which resulted in his execution on 07 December 1815).

Removed 24 July 1815; reinstated 23 June 1817:

7. Charles-Marie, comte de Croix

Charles-Marie de Croix (1760 - 1832) was created comte de l'Empire on 24 February 1808. He was reinstated as a count-peer in 1819.

Removed 24 July 1815; reinstated 05 March 1819:

8. General de Division Augustin-Daniel, comte Belliard

A distinguished cavalry officer during the Empire, Augustin-Daniel Belliard (25 May 1769 - 28 January 1832) was a former chief-of-staff to Marshal Joachim Murat and colonel-general of cuirassiers. He was created comte de l'Empire on 09 March 1810 and later commanded XIV Corps at Metz during the Hundred Days. Belliard was briefly arrested in late 1815, but was later reinstated as a count-peer in 1819.

9. General de Division Raphael, comte Casabianca

Raphael Casabianca (1738-1825) was a Corsican officer who had been nominated to the Senate by Napoleon. He was created comte de l'Empire on 05 October 1808. Casabianca was reinstated in the Chamber of Peers in 1819 with the rank of baron-peer.

10. Jean-Victor, comte Colchen

Nominated as a peer of France by Napoleon on 02 June 1815, Jean-Victor Colchen (06 November 1751-1830) was a former diplomat and senator during the Empire. He was created comte de l'Empire on 26 April 1808 and reinstated in 1819 as a baron-peer.

11. Joseph, comte Cornudet

A former President of the Council of Ancients - later called the Senate - from 4 August 1799 to 23 October 1799, Joseph Cornudet (15 August 1755 - 1854) was created a comte de l'Empire on 28 May 1810.

12. General de Division Jean-Francois-Aime, comte Dejean

A former Inspector-General of Engineers, Jean-Francois-Aime Dejean (06 October 1749-12 May 1824) was made a comte de l'Empire on 01 June 1808. He was Napoleon's Minister for the Administration of the War from 12 March 1803 to 03 January 1810 and was named a senator on 05 February 1810.

13. Bernard-Germain-Etienne de La Ville-sur-Illon, comte de Lacepede

A composer and scientist turned politician, Bernard-Germain-Etienne de La Ville-sur-Illon (26 December 1756 - 06 October 1825) became president of the Senate (1801) grand-chancellor of the Legion d'Honneur from 1803-14 and 1815) and a minister of State (1804). He was appointed a baron-peer by Louis XVIII.

14. Marshal Pierre-Francois-Joseph Lefebvre, duc de Danzig

Promoted to marechal de l'Empire on 19 May 1804, Pierre-Francois-Joseph Lefebvre (25 October 1755 -14 August 1820) was made a duke-peer by Louis XVIII in 1814. He was created duc de Danzig on 10 August 1808.

15. Marshal Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey, duc de Conegliano

Promoted to marechal de l'Empire on 19 May 1804, Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey (31 July 1754 - 02 April 1842) was created duc de Conigliano on 02 July 1808. He served in Spain and held the post of Inspector-General of the Gendarmes until 1815. Jeannot de Moncey was jailed by Louis XVIII for three months in 1815 for refusing to head Marshal Ney's court-marshal.

16. Marshal Edouard-Adolphe-Casimir-Joseph Mortier, duc de Trevise

Edouard-Adolphe-Casimir-Joseph Mortier (13 February 1768 - 28 July 1836) was one of the 18 generals Napoleon promoted to marechal de l'Empire on 19 May 1804. A veteran of the Prussian, Spanish and Russian Campaigns, Mortier was given command of the Imperial Guard during the Hundred Days (but was absent from the Battle of  Waterloo because of illness).

17. Jean-Baptist Nompere de Champagny, duc de Cadore

Appointed by Napoleon to the Council of State in 1799, Jean-Baptist Nompere de Champagny (04 August 1756 - 03 July 1834) was made Ambassador to Vienna in 1801. He later held the posts of Minister of the Interior (07 August 1804-09 August 1807) and Minister of Foreign Affairs (09 August 1807 - 17 April 1811). Nompere de Champagny was created duc de Cadore on 15 August 1809.

18. Charles-Francois Lebrun, duc de Plaisance

The former Third Consul and Arch-treasurer of the Empire, Charles-Francois Lebrun (19 March 1739 - 16 October 1824) had been created a baron-peer by Louis XVIII. During the Hundred Days, Lebrun supported Napoleon's return and was appointed as grand master of the University of Paris. Lebrun was created duc de Plaisance on 24 April 1808.

19. Louis-Gustave Le Doulcet, comte de Pontecoulant

A former president of the Convention, Louis-Gustave Le Doulcet (05 November 1764 - 03 April 1853) was made a senator in 1805 and a comte de l'Empire in 1808. In 1814, he was created a baron-peer.

20. General de Division Antoine-Guillaume, comte Rampon

A veteran of the Egyptian Campaign, Antoine-Guillaume Rampon (16 March 1759 -0 2 March 1842) had later been made a senator and a comte de l'Empire (26 April 1808).

21. Marshal Louis-Gabriel Suchet, duc d'Albufera

Regarded as one of Napoleon's most capable officers, Louis-Gabriel Suchet (02 March 1770 - 03 January 1826) was promoted to marechal de l'Empire on 08 July 1811. After his conquest of Valencia in Spain in 1812, Suchet was created duc d'Albufera; he later took part in the defensive campaign in France. During the Hundred Days, Suchet rallied to Napoleon and was given the command of an army on France's Alpine frontier.

Removed 24 July 1815; reinstated 17 August 1819:

22. Francois-Antoine, comte Boissy d'Anglas

Francois-Antoine Boissy d'Anglas (1756 - 20 October 1826) was made a senator by Napoleon in 1805. Created comte de l'Empire on 26 April 1808, Boissy d'Anglas voted for the Emperor's abdication in 1814, but later served Napoleon during the Hundred Days. He was reinstated in 1819 as a count-peer.

Removed 24 July 1815; reinstated 19 November 1819:

23. General de Division Jean-Jacques-Basilien, comte Gassendi

Jean-Jacques-Basilien Gassendi (08 December 1748 - 1828) had been an inspector-general of the artillery under General de Division Charles-Louis Didier, comte Songis. A member of the Council of Sate (1806 - 1813), Gassendi was created comte de l'Empire on 09 December 1809. He was later nominated to the Senate.

24. Jean-Pierre Fabre, baron de l'Aude

Jean-Pierre Fabre (1755 - 1832) was made a senator by Napoleon. Fabre was created a comte de l'Empire on 26 April 1808; he was reinstated in the Chamber of Peers in 1819 with the rank of baron-peer.

Removed 24 July 1815; reinstated 21 November 1819:

25. Dominique Clement de Ris, comte de Mony

Dominique Clement de Ris (01 February 1759 - 22 October 1827) was made a senator by Napoleon. Clement de Ris was created a comte de l'Empire on 26 April 1808; he was reinstated in the Chamber of Peers in 1819 with the rank of baron-peer.

26. Claude-Pierre, comte Dedelay d'Agier

A former president of the Council of Ancients - later called the Senate - from 20 April 1799 to 20 May 1799, Claude-Pierre Dedelay d'Agier (1750 - 04 August 1827) was made a comte de l'Empire on 15 June 1808. In 1819, he was reinstated as a baron-peer.

27. Jean-Baptiste-Cyrus-Marie de Timbrune-Thiembrone, comte de Valence

Jean-Baptiste-Cyrus-Marie de Timbrune-Thiembrone (22 August 1757 - 1822) was made a senator by Napoleon in 1807.

Not known:

28.

29.

Notes:

[1] An attempt was made to court-martial Marshal Emmanuel, marquis de Grouchy - the other high-ranking field-officer during the Waterloo Campaign - but it failed. Grouchy, however, was exiled from France until 1821.

Sources:

http://www.heraldica.org/topics/france/peerage19.htm

http://thierry.pouliquen.free.fr/LeshommesdenapoleonIer.htm

http://www.napoleonbonaparte.nl/newspaper/palladium/

http://www.medarus.org/Ardeche/07celebr/07celTex/rampona.html

http://www.catholic-hierarchy.org/bishop/bbarral.html

http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02307c.htm

http://web.genealogie.free.fr/

http://www.archivesnationales.culture.gouv.fr/

http://www.rulers.org/frgovt1.html

http://web.genealogie.free.fr/Les_titres_de_noblesse/France/Comtes_France.htm

http://rives.revues.org/document144.html

http://www.napoleon.org/

http://worldroots.com/cgi-bin/gasteldb?@I36418@

http://louis-gabriel-suchet.biography.ms/

http://www.historydata.com/biographies/belliard.html

http://www.archontology.org/

http://www.napoleonica.org/ce/ce_memb_cons.html

http://www.medarus.org/Ardeche/07celebr/07celTex/rampona.html

http://www.catholic-hierarchy.org/bishop/bbarral.html

http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02307c.htm

http://web.genealogie.free.fr/

http://www.archivesnationales.culture.gouv.fr/

http://www.rulers.org/frgovt1.html

http://web.genealogie.free.fr/Les_titres_de_noblesse/France/Comtes_France.htm

http://rives.revues.org/document144.html

http://www.napoleon.org/

http://worldroots.com/cgi-bin/gasteldb?@I36418@

http://louis-gabriel-suchet.biography.ms/

http://www.historydata.com/biographies/belliard.html

http://www.archontology.org/

http://www.napoleonica.org/ce/ce_memb_cons.html

 

Placed on the Napoleon Series: February 2006

 

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