Research Subjects: Government & Politics


 

 

 

Napoleonic Titles in Italy: 1806-1813

By Stephen Millar

“La principauté de Guastalla étant à notre disposition nous en avons disposé comme nous en disposons par les présentes, en faveur de la princesse Pauline, notre bien-aimée soeur pour en jouir en toute propriété et souveraineté sous le titre de princesse et duchesse de Guastalla.

Nous entendons que le prince Borghèse, son époux, porte le titre de prince et de duc de Guastalla ; que cette principauté soit transmise, par ordre de primogéniture, à la descendance masculine, légitime et naturelle de notre soeur Pauline; et, à défaut de ladite descendance masculine, légitime et naturelle, nous nous réservons die disposer de la principauté de Guastalla, à notre choix, et ainsi que nous le jugerons convenable pour le bien de nos peuples et pour l'intérêt de notre couronne.

Nous entendons toutefois que, le cas arrivant où ledit prince Borghèse survivrait à son épouse, notre soeur la princesse Pauline, il ne cesse pas de jouir personnellement, et sa vie durant, de ladite principauté.”

Emperor Napoleon’s decree of 30.03.1806

When Napoleon made himself King of Italy in 1805, his new kingdom already had an ancient history of nobility. Families of aristocrats like Francesco Barbiano, conte di Belgioioso (04.10.1748-15.02.1829) and Gian Giacomo Medici, marchese di Marignano (04.09.1775-25.02.1843) held titles dating from before the Renaissance.

As both Emperor of the French and King of Italy, Napoleon granted titles based on secular territories, former Papal possessions or victories from his Italian Campaigns (1796-1800). The highest grades of nobility went to the Imperial family and their relatives – with the exceptions of Louis, Jerome and Lucien Bonaparte (Louis [02.09.1779-25.07.1844] was made King of Holland in 1806; Jerome [15.11.1784-24.06.1860] was made King of Westphalia in 1807; Lucien [21.03.1775-29.06.1840] received the Papal title ‘prince of Canino’ in 1814) [Note 1]. Jean-Thomas Arrighi de Casanova (Madame Mere’s cousin) was made a duke in 1808.

Marshal Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte and Foreign Minister Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord both received the title of ‘prince’ with territories in Italy.

Ten ducal ‘grands-fief’ titles and four ‘victory’ titles were granted to various Marshals of the Empire (one title going to the widow of General de Division Duroc in 1813). These titles, along with the duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Massa e Carrera, were referred to as ‘of the Empire’; Napoleon also created three dukes in the Italian nobility (referred to as ‘of the Crown’).

1. Titles held 1806-1815 by the Bonaparte family and relatives

1. King of Italy (1805-1814)

Napoleon Bonaparte was King of Italy from 06.03.1805. The heir to the Empire of France (the ‘Prince-Imperial’) was known as the ‘King of Rome’.

2. King of the Two Sicilies/Naples (1806-1815)

a) Joseph Bonaparte (07.01.1768-28.07.1844) ruled the Two Sicilies from 30.03.1806 to 05.07.1808.

b) Joachim Murat ruled Naples from 15.07.1808 to 20.05.1815. He was married to Napoleon’s sister Maria-Annunziata-Carolina (24.03.1782-18.05.1839) and held the rank of Marshal of the Empire (1804).

3. Viceroy of Italy (1805) and 4. Venice (1807)

Eugene de Beauharnais (03.09.1781-21.02.1824) was made Viceroy of Italy on 05.01.1805 and was created prince de Venice on 20.12.1807. He was the heir to the Kingdom of Italy [Note 2].

5. Piombino and 6. Lucca (1805)

Felix Pasquale Bachiocchi (18.05.1762-28.04.1841) was created prince di Piombino on 18.03.1805 and duca di Lucca on  23.06.1805. He married Napoleon’s sister Maria-Anna-Elisa [see below] on 05.05.1797.

7. Guastalla (1806)

Marie-Pauline Bonaparte (20.10.1780-09.06.1825) was created Duchess of Guastalla on 30.03.1806. She married Camillo-Filippo-Ludovico Borghese (08.08.1775-09.05.1832) on 28.03.1803 [Note 3]

8. San Germano (created 03.0.03.1806 in the Two Sicilies; title extinct 25.02.1809)

Charles, baron Saligny, duca di San Germano (12.09.1772-25.02.1809) was promoted to General de Division on 01.02.1805. Saligny was married to Rosine-Antoine de Saint-Joseph (a relative of Joseph’s wife Juliet-Marie). He fought at Austerlitz and was killed in Spain in 1809.

9. Padoua (24.04.1808, title extinct 1888)

General de Brigade Jean-Thomas Arrighi de Casanova, duc de Padue (07.01.1778-22.03.1853) was a cousin of Madame Mere (Napoleon’s mother). He held a ducal ‘grands-fief’ title.

10. Tuscany (1809)

Maria-Anna-Elisa Bonaparte (03.01.1777-07.08.1820) was Grand-Duchess of Tuscany from 03.03.1809 to 01.02.1814.

2. Titles created 1806-1813 in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

Two princely titles created by Napoleon as Emperor of France from former Papal enclaves:

11. Benevento (05.06.1806-1815; title replaced with ‘duc de Dino’)

Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord, prince de Benevent (02.02.1754-17.05.1838) was Minister of Foreign Affairs (15.07.1797-20.07.1799 and 22.11.1799-09.08.1807). He later held the same portfolio under King Louis XVIII.

12. Ponte Corvo (created 05.06.1806; transferred 1812; princely line continues)

a) 05.06.1806-21.08.1810:

Jean-Baptist Bernadotte, Marshal of the Empire and prince de Ponte Corvo (26.01.1763-08.03.1844) later became Karl XIV Johan, King of Sweden

b) 1812-20.05.1815:

Lucien Murat, prince de Ponte Corvo (06.05.1803-04.10.1878) was the second son of the future King Joachim Murat [see below].

Four duchies (‘grands-fief’) created by Napoleon in 1809-1810 as Emperor of France:

13. Gaeta (created 1809; title extinct 05.11.1841)

Martin-Michel-Charles Gudin, duc de Gaete (19.01.1756-05.11.1841) was Napoleon’s Minister of Finance (10.11.1799-01.04.1814 and 20.03.1815-07.07.1815).

14. Otranto (created 1809; ducal line continues)

Joseph Fouche, duc d’Otrante (21.05.1758-25.12.1820) was Minister of Police (20.07.1799-03.06.1810 and 20.03.1815-22.06.1815).

15. Taranto (created 1809; title extinct 1912)

Jacques-Etienne-Joseph-Alexandre Macdonald, duc de Tarante (17.11.1765-25.09.1840) held the rank of Marshal of the Empire.

16. Reggio (created 1810; ducal line continues)

Nicolas-Charles Oudinot, duc de Reggio (25.04.1767-13.09.1847) held the rank of Marshal of the Empire.

One ducal title created by Joachim Murat as King of Naples (15.07.1808-20.05.1815):

17. Gallo (created 19.02.1813; title extinct 1932)

Marzio Mastrilli, duca di Gallo (15.09.1753-04.02.1833) was Minister of Foreign Affairs for King Joachim Murat. His older brother Giovanni Mastrilli (17.09.1742-13.04.1824) held the title of marchese di Gallo.

3. Ducal titles created 1807-1813 in the Kingdom of Italy

Three ducal titles ‘of the Crown’ created by Napoleon as King of Italy:

18. Lodi (latters patent 20.12.1807; extinct 16.01.1816)

Francesco Melzi d’Eril, conte di Magenta, duca di Lodi (06.10.1753-16.01.1816) was appointed Chancellor of the Kingdom of Italy in 1805. He inheirited the title of conte di Magenta from his father Gaspare on 06.12.1777.

19. Litta Visconti Arese (created 28.02.1810; letters patent 05.01.1812; extinct 24.08.1820)

Antonio Litta Visconti Arese, marchese di Gambolo, duca di Litta Visconti Arese (02.05.1748-24.08.1820) was appointed Grand Chamberlain of the Kingdom of Italy in 1805. He inheirited the title of marchese di Gambolo from his father on 16.03.1797.

20. Visconti di Modrone (created 1813; extinct 29.12.2001)

Gaetano Visconti di Modrone, conte di Lonate Pozzolo, duca di Visconti di Modrone (1731-26.09.1813). He inheirited the title conte di Lonate Pozzolo from his brother Niccolo on 05.04.1808.

4. Duchies (‘grands-fief’) created 24.04.1808 in Parma

21. Parma (title extinct 08.03.1824)

Jean-Jacques-Regis de Cambaceres, duc de Parme (18.10.1753-08.03.1824) was Arch-Chancellor of the Empire and President of the Senate.

22. Piacenza (title extinct 1926)

Charles-Francois Lebrun, duc de Plaisance (19.03.1739-16.06.1824) Arch-Treasurer of the Empire (1804) and Governor-General of the Netherlands (1811-1813).

5. Duchies (‘grands-fief’) created 1808-1813 in the Kingdom of Italy

23. Belluno (created 1808; title extinct 1853)

Claude-Victor Perrin (dit Victor), duc de Bellune (07.12.1764-01.03.1841) held the rank of Marshal of the Empire (1807).

24. Conegliano (created 02.07.1808; title extinct 1842)

Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey, duc de Conegliano (31.07.1754-02.04.1842) held the rank of Marshal of the Empire (1804).

25. Treviso (created 1808; title extinct 1912)

Edouard-Adolphe-Casimir-Joseph Mortier, duc de Trevise (13.02.1768-28.07.1835) held the rank of Marshal of the Empire (1804).

26. Dalmatia (created 1808; title extinct 1857)

Nicolas-Jean de Dieu Soult, duc de Dalmatie (29.03.1769-03.01.1851) held the rank of Marshal of the Empire (1804).

27. Rovigo (created 1808; title extinct 1872)

General de Division Anne-Jean-Marie-Rene Savary (26.04.1774-02.06.1833) was Minister of Police from 03.06.1810 to 01.04.1814.

28. Vicenza (created 1808; title extinct 1896)

General de Division Armand-Louis-Augustin de Caulaincourt, duc de Vicence (09.12.1772-19.02.1827) was Minister of Foreign Affairs from 20.11.1813 to 01.04.1813 and 20.03.1815 to 22.06.1815.

29. Istria (created 1809; title extinct 1856)

Jean-Baptiste Bessieres, duc d’Istrie (06.08.1768-01.05.1813) held the rank of Marshal of the Empire (1804).

30. Cadore (created 1809; title extinct 1893)

Jean-Baptiste Nompere de Champagny, duc de Cadore (1756-1834) was Minister of Foreign Affairs from 09.08.1807 to 17.04.1811.

 31. Feltre (created 1809; extinct 1852; extended 1864)

General de Division Henri-Jacques-Guillaume Clarke, duc de Feltre (17.10.1765-28.10.1818) was Minister of War from 19.08.1807 to 01.04.1814 and 11.03.1815 to 20.03.1815.

 32. Bassano (created 1809; title extinct 1906)

Hugues-Bernard Maret, duc de Bassano (1763-1839) was Minister of Foreign Affairs from 17.04.1811 to 20.11.1813.

33. Friuli (created 1813; title extinct 1829)

a) General de Division Geraud-Christophe-Michel Duroc, Grand Marshal of the Palace and duc de Frioul (25.10.1772-23.05.1813) was killed at the Battle of Bautzen.

b) Duchesse de Frioul [widow of the above], daughter of Jose Martinez Hervas, marques de Almenara.

6. Imperial ‘victory’ titles created 1808

34. Castiglione (title extinct 1915)

Pierre-Francois-Charles Augureau, duc de Castiglione (21.10.1757-12.06.1816) held the rank of Marshal of the Empire (1804).

35. Montebello

Jean Lannes, duc de Montebello (10.04.1769-31.05.1809) held the rank of Marshal of the Empire (1804).

36. Ragusa (title extinct 03.03.1852)

Auguste-Frederic-Louis Viesse de Marmont, duc de Raguse (20.07.1774-03.03.1852) held the rank of Marshal of the Empire (1809).

37. Rivoli

Andre Massena, duc de Rivoli (06.05.1758-04.08.1817) held the rank of Marshal of the Empire (1804).

7. Duchy (‘grand-fief’) created 1809 in the Principality of Lucca-Piombino

38. Massa e Carrera (created 29.09.1809; title extinct 1962)

Claude-Ambroise Regnier, duc de Massa et Carrera (06.04.1736-24.06.1814) was Minister of Justice from 14.09.1802 to 20.11.1813.

Notes:

[1] Madame Mere’s half-brother Joseph Fesch (03.01.1763-13.05.1839), also held a Papal title (Pope Pius VII made Fesch a cardinal in 1803).

[2] Eugene de Beauharnais was the son of Empress Josephine by her first husband, Alexandre-Francois-Marie, vicomte de Beauharnais (28.05.1760-23.07.1794).

[3] Borghese was probably the richest and most aristocratic member of the extended Bonaparte family. When he succeded his father Marcantonio III on 26.03.1800, Borghese inheirited six princely titles, two ducal titles, five titles of ‘marchese’, one title of count and one title of baron. Napoleon created Borghese ‘prince and duke’ of Guastalla on 30.03.1806.

Sources:

http://jomave.chez.tiscali.fr/picardie/prefet60.html

http://genealogie.pialat.com/marechaux.php

http://www.nalanda.nitc.ac.in/resources/english/etext-project/Biography/napolean/book2.chapter7.html

http://www.sardimpex.com/index.htm

http://users.skynet.be/ym04/generaux_g.htm

http://web.genealogie.free.fr/Les_militaires/1789-1815/

http://www.heraldica.org/topics/france/napoleon.htm#titles_italy

http://www.napoleon.org/

http://www.kittymunson.com/GEDbrows/g568.html

http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06050b.htm

http://www.napoleon-series.org/

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