The British Peerage in 1818: the Dukedoms
The title of duke ranks the highest in the British peerage, preceeding the titles of marquess, earl, viscount and baron. It is the least common title to be created by the monarch; the only non-Royal dukedom created by King George III during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Eras was the dukedom of Wellington (in the peerage of the United Kingdom and Ireland) on 11.05.1814.
During this period, however, five non-Royal ducal peerages became extinct - Chandos (29.09.1789), Montagu (23.05.1790), Bolton (25.12.1794), Bridgwater (08.03.1803), and Ancaster and Kesteven (08.02.1809).
The dukedom of Chandos was created by King George I on 29.04.1719 in the peerage of Great Britain. The title was last held by James Brydges, 3rd Duke of Chandos (16.12.1731-29.09.1789). He inheirited it from his father, Henry Brydges, 2nd Duke of Chandos (01.08.1708-28.11.1771). The dukedom of Buckingham and Chandos was created by King George IV for James Brydges' son-in-law, Richard Temple-Nugent-Brydges-Chandos-Grenville (20.03.1776-15.05.1836) in 1822.
Re-created by King George III on 05.11.1766 in the peerage of Great Britain, the dukedom of Montagu was given to George Brudenell, 4th Earl of Cardigan (26.07.1712-23.05.1790). Brudenell had married Lady Mary Montagu, the youngest daughter of John Montagu, 2nd Duke of Montagu, on 07.07.1730. The 2nd Duke died on 05.07.1749 with no male heirs; Brudenell legally changed his name to George Montagu ten days later. As his only son had died on 11.04.1770, the title created for George Montagu in 1766 became extinct at his death in 1790.
Created by King William III on 09.04.1689 in the peerage of England, the dukedom of Bolton was last held by Admiral Harry Paulet, 6th Duke of Bolton (06.11.1720-25.12.1794). He inheirited the title from his unmarried brother, Sir Charles Paulet, 5th Duke of Bolton (1718-05.07.1765), who committed suicide in London.
The dukedom of Bridgwater was created by King George I on 18.06.1720 in the peerage of Great Britain. The title was last held by Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgwater (21.05.1736-08.03.1803). He inheirited it from his unmarried brother, John Egerton, 2nd Duke of Bridgwater (29.04.1727-26.02.1747), who died of fever, aged 20.
The dukedom of Ancaster and Kesteven was created by King George I on 26.07.1715 in the peerage of Great Britain. The title was last held by Brownlow Bertie, 5th Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven (01.05.1729-08.02.1809). He inheirited the title from his unmarried nephew, Robert Bertie, 4th Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven (17.10.1756-08.07.1779), who had held the title for less than a year before dying of scarlet fever, aged 22.
In 1818, there were 28 non-Royal dukedoms; 11 in the peerage of England, 9 in the peerage of Scotland, 7 in the peerage of Great Britain and Ireland and 1 in the peerage of the United Kingdom and Ireland. There were three familes ¨C Lennox, Hamilton and Montagu-Scott ¨C holding ¡®double¡¯ dukedoms, thus making at total of only 25 ducal houses.
One creation by King Richard III of England (22.06.1483-22.08.1485):
1. Norfolk (created 28.06.1483; England)
Bernard Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 12th Duke of Norfolk (21.11.1765-16.03.1842), inheirited his title from his childless third cousin, Charles Howard, 11th Duke of Norfolk, on 16.12.1815.
One creation by King Edward VI of England (28.01.1547-06.07.1553):
2. Somerset (created 16.02.1547; England)
Edward Adolphus Seymour, 11th Duke of Somerset (24.02.1775-15.08.1855), inheirited his title from his father, Webb Seymour, 10th Duke of Somerset, on 15.12.1793.
Four creations by King Charles II of England (08.05.1660-06.02.1685):
3. Richmond (created 09.08.1675; England) and 14. Lennox (created 09.09.1675; Scotland)
Sir Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond and Lennox (09.12.1764-28.08.1819) inheirited his title from his uncle, Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond and Lennox, on 29.12.1806.
4. Grafton (created 11.09.1675; England)
George Henry Fitzroy, 4th Duke of Grafton (14.01.1760-28.09.1844), inheirited his title from his father, Augustus Henry Fitzroy, 3rd Duke of Grafton, on 14.03.1811.
5. Beaufort (created 02.12.1682; England)
Sir Henry Charles Somerset, 6th Duke of Beaufort (22.12.1766-23.11.1835) inheirited his title from his father, Sir Henry Somerset, 5th Duke of Beaufort, on 11.10.1803.
6. St. Albans (created 10.01.1684; England)
William Beauclerk, 8th Duke of St. Albans (18.12.1766-17.07.1825), inheirited his title from his 10-month-old nephew, Aubrey Beauclerk, 7th Duke of St. Albans, on 19.02.1816.
Three creations by King William III of England (13.02.1689-08.03.1702):
7. Leeds (created 04.05.1694; England)
George William Frederick Osborne, 6th Duke of Leeds (21.07.1775-10.07.1838) inheirited his title from his father, Francis Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds, on 31.01.1799.
8. Bedford (created 11.05.1694; England)
Sir John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford (06.07.1766-20.10.1839) inheirited his title from his older brother Francis Russell, 5th Duke of Bedford, on 02.03.1802. Their father had been killed by a fall from his horse on 22.03.1767, aged 27.
9. Devonshire (created 12.05.1694; England)
William George Spencer Cavendish, 6th Duke of Devonshire (21.05.1790-18.01.1858), inheirited his title from his father, William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire, on 29.07.1811.
Two creations by Queen Anne of Great Britain (08.03.1702-01.08.1714):
10. Marlborough (created 14.12.1702; England)
Sir George Spencer, 4th Duke of Marlborough (26.01.1739-29.01.1817) inheirited his title from his father, Sir Charles Spencer, 3rd Duke of Marlborough, on 20.10.1758.
11. Rutland (created 29.03.1703; England)
John Henry Manners, 5th Duke of Rutland (04.01.1778-20.01.1857), inheirited his title from his father, Charles Manners, 4th Duke of Rutland, on 24.10.1787.
One creation by King Charles I of England (27.03.1625-30.01.1649):
12. Hamilton (created 12.04.1643; Scotland) and 21. Brandon (10.09.1711; Great Britain)
Archibald Douglas-Hamilton, 9th Duke of Hamilton and 6th Duke of Brandon (15.07.1740-16.02.1819) inheirited his titles from his nephew, James George Douglas-Hamilton, 8th Duke of Hamilton and 5th Duke of Brandon, on 02.08.1799.
Four creations by King Charles II of England (08.05.1660-06.02.1685):
13. Buccleuch (created 20.04.1663; Scotland) and 16. Queensberry (created 03.11.1684; Scotland)
Sir Charles William Henry Montagu-Scott, 4th Duke of Buccleuch and 6th Duke of Queensberry (24.05.1772-20.04.1819) inheirited his titles from his father, Sir Henry Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch and 5th Duke of Queensberry, on 11.01.1812.
14. Lennox (created 09.09.1675; Scotland)
[see 3. Richmond above]
15. Gordon (created 03.11.1684; Scotland)
Sir Alexander Gordon, 4th Duke of Gordon (18.06.1743-17.06.1827), inheirited his title from his father, Sir Cosmo George Gordon, 3rd Duke of Gordon, on 05.08.1752.
16. Queensberry (created 03.11.1684; Scotland)
[see 13. Buccleuch above]
One creation by King William III of England (13.02.1689-08.03.1702):
17. Argyll (created 23.06.1701; Scotland)
Sir George William Campbell, 6th Duke of Argyll (22.09.1768-22.10.1839) inheirited his title from his father, Field-Marshal Sir John Campbell, 5th Duke of Argyll, on 24.05.1806.
Three creations by Queen Anne of Great Britain (08.03.1702-01.08.1714):
18. Atholl (created 30.06.1703; Scotland)
Sir John Murray, 4th Duke of Atholl (30.06.1755-29.09.1830) inheirited his title from his father, Sir John Murray, 3rd Duke of Atholl, on 05.11.1774.
19. Montrose (created 24.04.1707; Scotland)
James Graham, 3rd Duke of Montrose (08.09.1755-30.12.1836) inheirited his title from his father, William Graham, 2nd Duke of Montrose, on 23.09.1790.
20. Roxburghe (created 25.04.1707; Scotland)
After lying dormant for seven years after the 4th Duke of Roxburghe¡¯s death on 23.10.1805, the title was given to Sir James Innes (10.01.1736-19.07.1823), the great-grandson of a grand-daughter of the 1st Earl of Roxburghe.
Four creations by King George I of Great Britain and Ireland (01.08.1714-11.06.1727):
21. Brandon (10.09.1711; Great Britain)
[see 12. Hamilton above]
22. Portland (created 06.07.1716; Great Britain)
William Henry Cavendish-Scott-Bentinck, 4th Duke of Portland (24.06.1768-27.03.1854) inheirited his title from his father, William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland ¨C and former Prime Minister (02.04.1783-18.12.1783 and 31.03.1807-04.10.1809) ¨C on 30.10.1809.
23. Manchester (created 28.04.1719; Great Britain)
William Montagu, 5th Duke of Manchester (21.10.1771-18.03.1843), inheirited his title from his father, George Montagu, 4th Duke of Manchester, on 02.09.1788.
24. Dorset (created 17.06.1720; Great Britain)
Charles Sackville-Germain, 5th Duke of Dorset (27.08.1767-29.07.1843), inheirited his title from his cousin¡¯s son, George John Frederick Sackville, 4th Duke of Dorset, on 14.12.1815. Charles Sackville-Germain had succeeded his father as 2nd Viscount Sackville on 26.08.1785.
One creation by King George II of Great Britain and Ireland (11.06.1727-25.10.1760):
25. Newcastle-under-Lyme (created 17.11.1756; Great Britain)
Henry Pelham Pelham-Clinton, 4th Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme (30.01.1785-12.01.1851) inheirited his title from his father, Thomas Pelham-Clinton, 3rd Duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme, on 18.05.1795.
Two creations by King George III of Great Britain and Ireland (25.10.1760-29.01.1820):
26. Northumberland (created 22.10.1766; Great Britain)
Hugh Percy, 3rd Duke of Northumberland (20.04.1795-11.02.1847) inheirited his title from his father, General Hugh Percy, 2nd Duke of Northumberland, on 10.07.1817.
27. Leinster (created 26.11.1766; Ireland)
Augustus Frederick FitzGerald, 3rd Duke of Leinster (21.08.1791-10.08.1874) inheirited his title from his father, William Robert FitzGerald, 2nd Duke of Leinster, on 20.10.1804.
One creation by King George III of Great Britain and Ireland (25.10.1760-29.01.1820):
28. Wellington (created 11.05.1814; United Kingdom)
King George III created this dukedom for Field-Marshal Sir Arthur Wellesley, 1st Marquess of Wellington (01.05.1769-14.09.1852).
 The three "double" dukedoms in 1818 were: Richmond and Lennox; Hamilton and Brandon; Bucchleuch and Queensberry.
 Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond and Lennox (1672-1723), was the youngest illegitimate son of King Charles II of Great Britain.
 Henry Fitzroy, 1st Duke of Grafton (1663-1690) was the eldest illegitimate son of King Charles II of Great Britain.
 Charles Beauclerk, 1st Duke of St. Albans (1670-1726), was the second illegitimate son of King Charles II of Great Britain.
 The dukedom of Brandon was not an inheiritance; Lieutenant-General Sir James Hamilton, 4th Duke of Hamilton (11.04.1658-15.11.1712) was created 1st Duke of Brandon on 10.09.1711.
 When William Douglas, 4th Duke of Queensberry (1724-23.12.1810) died without a legitimate heir, Sir Henry Scott inheirited the dukedom through his grand-mother, Lady Jane Douglas (24.05.1701-31.08.1729). The daughter of the 2nd Duke of Queensberry, Douglas had married Sir Francis Scott, 2nd Duke of Buccleuch on 05.04.1720.
 The 6th Duke of Richmond and Lennox was created 1st Duke of Gordon (in the Peerage of the United Kingdom and Ireland) by Queen Victoria in 1876, thus giving the family three ducal titles.
 The Campbell family holds two dukedoms named Argyll; Queen Victoria created the second dukedom in the Peerage of the United Kingdom and Ireland on 07.08.1892.
 In 1812, Sir James Innes changed his surname to Innes-Ker and became the 5th Duke of Roxburghe.
 The family's other ducal title (Newcastle-upon-Tyne) became extinct on 17.11.1768.
Placed on the Napoleon Series: May 2006; updated July 2006
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