A Strategic Syllogism of the 1810 Portuguese Campaign: a Day of Wrath, A Day of Death: Tojal, 20 September 1810 – Chronology
By Roberto A. Scattolin, Italy
1810, 19 February: Portugal and England sign a further Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Trade.
June: Third invasion of the French army this time led by Maréchal Massena.
English reinforcements arrive by boat from England.
24 July: Battle of Bridge of Côa. The English forces under General Robert Craufurd create severe casualties and delay the advance of the French troops led by Marshal Michael Ney.
1 August: Declaration by Marshal Massena that a large French army was invading Portugal from Ciudade Rodrigo, in Spain, to fight the English army and not the Portuguese.
15 August: Siege of Almeida – English forces forced to surrender on the 18th of August after heavy bombardment from French forces.
10 September: Fifty leading Portuguese liberals are exiled to the Island of Terceira, in Azores, for promoting the policies.
18 September: The French army occupies Viseu.
27 September: Battle of Buçaco – The French army led by Marshal Masséna suffers a serious defeat against an inferior number of English and Portuguese troops.
1 October: The French army occupies Coimbra and sacks the town.
7 October: Portuguese troops led by Coronel Trant retake Coimbra.
Wellesley awarded title of Marquês de Torres Vedras.
14 October: The French army led by Masséna tries to penetrate without success the Linhas de Torres fortifications at Sobral – the foreign troops also attempt to cross the river by boat but the Chamusca boatmen burn many of their boats.
29 October: General Francisco da Silveira Pinto da Fonseca Teixeira, Conde de Amarante encircles the Fort of Almeida; he retreats on the 13th as superior French reinforcements arrive.
15 November: The French army short of supplies withdraws to Santarém.
30 December: Battle of Bridge of Abade – General Silveira engages with the French army led by General Clarapède near Lamego.
Placed on the Napoleon Series: November 2011
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