Research Subjects: Biographies

Russian Generals of the Napoleonic Wars: Lieutenant General Adam Ivanovich Bistrom

By Alexander Mikaberidze, FINS

(3 November 1774, Estland gubernia - 27 October, 1828, Dresden)

General Adam Ivanovich  Bistrom

Lieutenant General Adam Bistrom

Adam Ivanovich Bistrom was born to a noble family in Estland gubernia; brother of Karl Bistrom. Adam Bistrom was enrolled as private in Life Guard Preobrazhensky Regiment in January 1782 and the next year was transferred to the Life Guard Semyeonovsky Regiment, where he served for next eight years. In 1791, he was a sergeant and two years later he was transferred as a captain to the Finland Jager Corps in January 1793. He fought in the Polish Campaign of 1794. In 1797, after Emperor Paulís military reorganization, Bistrom served at the 2nd Marine Regiment and then at Bolotnikov's Garrison Regiment (later known as the Kronstadt Regiment). In 1802, he was appointed to the Lithuania Musketeer Regiment and two years later was promoted to lieutenant colonel. In 1806-1807, Bistrom fought the French in Poland and distinguished himself at Pultusk and Eylau, where he was seriously wounded to the head. He was awarded the Order of St. Vladimir (4th Class) with ribbons. He took part in battles at Guttstadt, Heilsberg and Friedland, where he was wounded to the chest. For his actions, Bistrom was promoted to colonel (24 December 1807) and, on 18 March 1808, was appointed to command the Lithuania Musketeer Regiment. With this regiment, he participated in the Russo-Swedish War of 1808-1809 and distinguished himself in battle near Orovais on 14 September. He was awarded a gold sword with inscription "For Courage".† In 1810, the Lithuania Musketeer Regiment was reformed into the 33rd Jagers Regiment (31 October 1810), and Bistrom became chef of the regiment on 8 December 1810. The next year, he was given command of 3rd Brigade (1st and 33rd Jagers Regiments) of the 11th Division. During 1812 Campaign, he served in the 1st Western Army and fought at Ostrovno, Vitebsk, Smolensk, Borodino (awarded the Order of St. Vladimir 3rd Class) , Mozhaisk, Tarutino, and Maloyaroslavets. For his actions at Maloyaroslavets, Kutuzov recommended him for promotion. Bistrom was promoted on 10 May 1813, but it the rank was backdated to 24 october 1812. He received the Order of St. George (4th Class , 23 July 1813) for his action at Vyazma. During 1813-1814 Campaigns, he took part in battles at Labau, Ottendorf, Leipzig (received the Swedish Order of the Sword), Coblenz, Rheims (where he was wounded in the left shoulder) and Laon. For the battle at Laon, he was awarded the Order of St. Anne (1st Class) with diamond signs. For his actions at Paris, Bistrom was given the Order of St. George (3rd Class) on 30 March 1814. After the Treaty of Paris, Bistrom began marching to Russia, but was recalled in 1815, when Napoleon escaped from Elba, and besieged the fortress of Pfalzburg. On 28 December 1815, Bistrom was appointed commander of the Life Guard Pavlovsk Regiment, where he remained for next ten years. He also briefly commanded the 2nd Brigade of the 2nd Guard Infantry Division. In March 1825, he was appointed to the Imperial suite and, on 13 January 1826, he was promoted to lieutenant general. However, he soon resigned because of poor health and traveled to Dresden to recuperate. He died there on 27 October 1828 (excluded from the rosters on 21 November 1828).

Placed on the Napoleon Series: May 2003; updated November 2003.


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