Research Subjects: Eyewitness Accounts

British Memoirs of the Napoleonic Wars: the Artillery

By Robert Burnham

 

Adye, Stephen G. "Waterloo Letter # 94, 6 December 1834" in Waterloo Letters. Herbert T. Siborne (ed.). London: Greenhill, 1993. Page 226

Notes: was a lieutenant colonel and commanded the 1st British Division's artillery at Waterloo.

Anderson, William. "Letter # 83, dated 10 June 1838" in Letters from the Battle of Waterloo: Unpublished Correspondence by Allied Officers from the Siborne Papers. Gareth Glover (ed.). London: Greenhill, 2004. Pages 142

Notes: was a 1st lieutenant in Captain Samuel Bolton's Royal Artillery Brigade at Waterloo.

Aynge, George A. In Wellington's Support Services:  the Memories of Conductor of Stores George Augustus Aynge, in the Peninsular War, with further References to His Father Master Gunner George Aynge, Royal Horse Artillery. Godmanchester: Ken Trotman, 2013.

Notes: written in verse!

Baynes, Henry. "Letter # 69, dated 21 December 1834" in Letters from the Battle of Waterloo: Unpublished Correspondence by Allied Officers from the Siborne Papers. Gareth Glover (ed.). London: Greenhill, 2004. Pages 129

Notes: was a captain and the brigade major for the Royal Artillery at Waterloo, where he was wounded.

Braun, William. "Report of the Hanoverian 1st 9-pounder Battery Braun" in in Gareth Glover (ed.). The Waterloo Archive Volume II: German Sources. Barnsley: Frontline, 2010. Pages 50 - 51

Notes: was a captain and commanded the battery.

Bruce, James R. "Letter # 82, dated 24 April and 10 December 1834" in Letters from the Battle of Waterloo: Unpublished Correspondence by Allied Officers from the Siborne Papers. Gareth Glover (ed.). London: Greenhill, 2004. Page 141

Notes: was a 1st lieutenant in Captain George Beane's Royal Horse Artillery Troop.

Bull, Robert "Waterloo Letter # 78, to Lieutenant Colonel Augustus Fraser, 24 June 1815 " in Waterloo Letters. Herbert T. Siborne (ed.). London: Greenhill, 1993. Pages 188 - 191

Notes: was a captain and commanded a 5.5" howitzer troop of Royal Horse Artillery at Waterloo.

Cleeves, Andrew. "Report of the 4th Battery of the German Legion, dated 15 November 1824" in in Gareth Glover (ed.). The Waterloo Archive Volume II: German Sources. Barnsley: Frontline, 2010. Pages 52 - 57

Notes: was a captain.

Dansey, Charles C. The Peninsular Letters of 2nd Captain Charles Dansey Royal Artillery. Godmanchester: Ken Trotman, 2006. 50 pages.

Notes: 1806 – 1813; Greek islands and the Peninsula.

Dansey, Charles C. "Waterloo Letters # 87 and 87, dated 2 February and 23 February 1843" in Waterloo Letters. Herbert T. Siborne (ed.). London: Greenhill, 1993. Pages 210 - 213

Notes: was a lieutenant in Captain Whyngates' Rocket Troop at Waterloo.

Dickson, Alexander. The Dickson Manuscripts: Being Diaries, Letters, Maps, Account Books, with Various Other Papers of the Late Major-General Sir Alexander Dickson. Leslie, John H. (ed.). 5 vols.; Cambridge: Ken Trotman, 1987.  1190 pages total

Notes: Years 1809 - 1813. Served with Portuguese Artillery before becoming chief of Wellington's siege trains. These five volumes contain not just his correspondence, but letters and diaries of numerous other artillery officers.

Dickson, Alexander. "Letter to Lieutenant Colonel Chapman, dated 23 June 1815" in Gareth Glover (ed.). The Waterloo Archive Volume IV: British Sources. Barnsley: Frontline, 2012. Pages 127 - 128.

Notes: was a lieutenant colonel and commanded the siege train at Waterloo.

Dickson, John. "Letters # 78 and 79, dated 24 April and 2 May 1843" in Letters from the Battle of Waterloo: Unpublished Correspondence by Allied Officers from the Siborne Papers. Gareth Glover (ed.). London: Greenhill, 2004. Pages 138 - 139

Notes: was a sergeant in Captain Edward Whinyate's Royal Horse Artillery Rocket Troop at Waterloo; possibly a driver.

Dunnett, Daniel. "Letter # 77, dated 1 May 1843" in Letters from the Battle of Waterloo: Unpublished Correspondence by Allied Officers from the Siborne Papers. Gareth Glover (ed.). London: Greenhill, 2004. Page 137

Notes: was a sergeant in Captain Edward Whinyate's Royal Horse Artillery Rocket Troop at Waterloo

Dunnicliffe, Henry. "Letter # 86, dated 21 November 1834" in Letters from the Battle of Waterloo: Unpublished Correspondence by Allied Officers from the Siborne Papers. Gareth Glover (ed.). London: Greenhill, 2004. Pages 144 - 145

Notes: was a 2nd lieutenant in Captain Thomas Roget's Royal Artillery Brigade at Waterloo.

Dyneley, Thomas. Letters Written by Lieut.-General Thomas Dyneley While on Active Service Between the Years 1806 and 1815. London: Ken Trotman, 1984. PB; 68 pages; ISBN: 0-946879-04-4

Notes: was at Maida and the siege of Scylla; served in Peninsula with "E" Troop RHA as 2nd Captain from 1811-1813; was at Quatre Bras and Waterloo.

Edwards, John. "Letter to His Brother, dated 14 July 1815" in Gareth Glover (ed.). The Waterloo Archive Volume I: British Sources. Barnsley: Frontline, 2010. Pages 102 - 103

Notes: was a gunner in Ross's RHA Troop.

Erythropel, Frederick. "Letter # 87, dated 15 February 1835" in Letters from the Battle of Waterloo: Unpublished Correspondence by Allied Officers from the Siborne Papers. Gareth Glover (ed.). London: Greenhill, 2004. Pages 145 - 146

Notes: was a 2nd captain in Captain Augustus Sympher's King's German Horse Artillery Troop.

Frazer, Augustus S. Letters of Colonel Sir Augustus Simon Frazer Commanding the Royal Horse Artillery in Army under the Duke of Wellington. Uckfield: Naval and Military Press; 2001. 664 pages. .

Notes: One hundred and eighty-one letters covering from November 1812 - July 1815; Peninsula and at Waterloo.

Frazer, Augustus S. "Letter to Lieutenant Colonel Robe, dated 19 June 1815" in Gareth Glover (ed.). The Waterloo Archive Volume IV: British Sources. Barnsley: Frontline, 2012. Pages 121 - 125

Notes: was a lieutenant colonel and commander of the Royal Horse Artillery at Waterloo.

Frazer, August S. "Letter dated 25 August 1815" in Gareth Glover (ed.). The Waterloo Archive Volume VI: British Sources. Barnsley: Frontline, 2014. Pages 95 - 97

Notes: was a lieutenant colonel and commander of the Royal Horse Artillery at Waterloo.

Gardiner, Robert. "Letter to General Thomas Graham, dated July 1815" in Gareth Glover (ed.). The Waterloo Archive Volume III: British Sources. Barnsley: Frontline, 2011. Pages 84 - 88

Notes: was a lieutenant colonel, commanded a Royal Horse Artillery Troop.

Goeben, William von. "Letter # 89, dated 7 February 1835" in Letters from the Battle of Waterloo: Unpublished Correspondence by Allied Officers from the Siborne Papers. Gareth Glover (ed.). London: Greenhill, 2004. Pages 147 - 148

Notes: was a 1st lieutenant in Captain Andrew Cleeve's 4th Company King's German Artillery.

Greene, Edward. "Diary or Journal of Marches 1815" in Gareth Glover (ed.). The Waterloo Archive Volume I: British Sources. Barnsley: Frontline, 2010. Pages 197 - 213.

Notes: was a 2nd Lieutenant in Carmichael's Company 8th Battalion, part of the battering train..

Hall, Adam. Diary of the Operations in Spain under Sir John Moore. Godmanchester: Ken Trotman, 2005. 18 pages.

Notes: Commanded 4th Company 7th Battalion; diary covers 5 November 1808 - 18 January 1809.

Harding, Robert. "Letter # 71, dated 10 December 1834" in Letters from the Battle of Waterloo: Unpublished Correspondence by Allied Officers from the Siborne Papers. Gareth Glover (ed.). London: Greenhill, 2004. Page 130

Notes: was a 1st lieutenant in Captain Robert Gardiner's Royal Horse Artillery Troop at Waterloo.

Hayter, Alethea (ed.).The Backbone: Diaries of a Military Family in the Napoleonic Wars Edinburgh: Pentland Press; 1993. 343 pages.

Notes: Diary was kept by John Henry Slessor, who eventually made Major-General. was a Lieutenant-Colonel in 1814. Served in Ireland with the Royal Irish Artillery, joins 35th Foot in 1806; serves at Gibraltar, Sicily, Egypt, as governor of the island of Zante, the Campaigns in the Adriatic, Northern Italy; participated in the Waterloo Campaign, but was in the 4th Division which saw no action. Book also includes mother's diary. She lived in Oporto during the French occupation of Portugal.

Henegan, Richard.  Seven Years Campaigning  in the Peninsula and the Netherlands, from 1808-1815. 2 vols. Stroud: Nonsuch, 2005. 376 pages.

Notes: was a Military Commissary in the Field Train, in the Peninsula from August 1808 - January 1809, April 1809 - summer 1809; served in the Walcheren Expedition in 1809; Peninsula May 1810 - April 1814; was the Ordnance Commissary for the campaigns of 1813 and 1814, making him responsible for all ammunition and stores for the artillery.

Hough, Henry. "The Journal of Second Lieutenant Henry Hourgh, Royal Artillery, 1812-3". The Journal of the Royal United Service Institution. vol. . 61, November, 1961. pages  840-81.

Notes: In Captain Baynes Brigade until August1812 when he joined Captain Douglas's Brigade. Good description of the siege of Burgos.

Ilbert, Courtenay. "Letter to His Wife, written between 7 April - 15 July 1815" in Gareth Glover (ed.). The Waterloo Archive Volume III: British Sources. Barnsley: Frontline, 2011. Pages 142 - 214

Notes: was a captain and commanded the a brigade of 18-pounders; was at Brussels on 17 & 18 June, but his brigade was not engaged.

Ingilby, William B. The Peninsular and Waterloo Journals of Lieutenant William Ingilby Royal Horse Artillery, 1810 - 15. Godmancherster: Ken Trotman, 2016.

Notes: In Captain Lawson's Battery July 1810 - January 1813. Was at Busaco, Miranda do Corvo, Foz d'Arounce, Sabugal, Fuentes d'Onoro, CIudad Rodrigo,wounded at the siege of the Salamanca Forts, Salamanca, Burgos, Canizal, Llerena, and Cabecon. Joined Gardiner's RHA Troop in May 1815 and served with it at Waterloo.

Ingilby, William B. "Diary of Lieutenant Ingilby, R.A., in the Peninsular War". Minutes of the Proceedings of the Royal Artillery Institution. vol.  20; 1893. Pp 241- 62, 315 - 23

Notes: In Captain Lawson's Battery July 1810 - January 1813. Joined Gardiner's RHA Troop in May 1815 and served with it at Waterloo.

Ingilby, William B. "Excerpts from His Diary" in Gareth Glover (ed.). The Waterloo Archive Volume VI: British Sources. Barnsley: Frontline, 2014. Pages 97 - 105

Notes: was a 1st Lieutenant in Captain Gardiner's Troop at Waterloo.

Ingilby, William. "Letter to His Brother, Ensign Robert Ingilby, dated 10 August 1815" in Gareth Glover (ed.). The Waterloo Archive Volume I: British Sources. Barnsley: Frontline, 2010. Pages 103 - 105

Notes: was a lieutenant in Captain Gardiner's Royal Horse Artillery Troop.

Ingilby, William B. "Waterloo Letters # 81 and 82, 25 April 1838 and 20 November 1834" in Waterloo Letters. Herbert T. Siborne (ed.). London: Greenhill, 1993. Pages 194 - 203

Notes: was a lieutenant in Captain Gardiner's Royal Horse Artillery Troop.

Kuhlmann, Henry. "Report of the 2nd Horse Artillery Battery at Quatre Bras and Waterloo, dated 1 December 1824" in in Gareth Glover (ed.). The Waterloo Archive Volume II: German Sources. Barnsley: Frontline, 2010. Pages 42 - 45

Notes: was Major A. Sympher's Troop, who was absent; Brevet Major Kuhlmann commanded it.

Lawson, Robert. "Diary of Captain Robert Lawson" in Dickson, Alexander. The Dickson Manuscripts: Being Diaries, Letters, Maps, Account Books, with Various Other Papers of the Late Major-General Sir Alexander Dickson. Leslie, John H. (ed.). Volume 4; Cambridge: Ken Trotman, 1987.  Pages 698 - 727 .

Notes: Commanded 7th Company 8th Battalion; diary covers Penisnular service from 14 May 1812 - 26 August 1813.

Light, Henry. The Expedition to Walcheren 1809. Huntingdon: Ken Trotman, 2005. 

Notes: Light was in the Royal Horse Artillery.

Mackay, Robert. "Letter # 84, dated 31 July 1836" in Letters from the Battle of Waterloo: Unpublished Correspondence by Allied Officers from the Siborne Papers. Gareth Glover (ed.). London: Greenhill, 2004. Pages 143

Notes: was a gunner in Captain Samuel Bolton's Royal Artillery Brigade at Waterloo.

Maunsell, John E. "Waterloo Letter # 93, 30 November 1834" in Waterloo Letters. Herbert T. Siborne (ed.). London: Greenhill, 1993. Pages 225 - 226

Notes: was a lieutenant in Captain George Bean's Royal Horse Artillery Troop; took command of it when Captain Bean was killed at Waterloo.

Maule, George S. "Extract from His Journal" in Gareth Glover (ed.). The Waterloo Archive Volume I: British Sources. Barnsley: Frontline, 2010. Pages 129 - 131.

Notes: was a 1st Lieutenant attached to Captain Rogers' Foot Artillery Brigade at Waterloo.

Maule, George S. "Waterloo Letter # 103, dated 30 December 1834" in Waterloo Letters. Herbert T. Siborne (ed.). London: Greenhill, 1993. Pages 239 - 240

Notes: was a 1st Lieutenant attached to Captain Rogers' Foot Artillery Brigade at Waterloo.

May, John. "Waterloo Letter to Unidentified Colonel, dated 23 June 1815" in Gareth Glover (ed.). The Waterloo Archive Volume I: British Sources. Barnsley: Frontline, 2010. Pages 99-101

Notes: was a lieutenant colonel and assistant adjutant general on the artillery staff at Waterloo. This letter is also in The Waterloo Archive Volume IV: British Sources, Pages 125 - 127.

May, John. "Waterloo Letter # 77, dated 24 December 1834" in Waterloo Letters. Herbert T. Siborne (ed.). London: Greenhill, 1993. Pages 187 - 188

Notes: was a lieutenant colonel and assistant adjutant general on the artillery staff at Waterloo.

Mercer, Alexander C. Journal of the Waterloo Campaign Kept Throughout the Campaign of 1815 by the Late General Cavalie Mercer New York: Praeger; 1970. 402 pages.

Notes: was a captain and commanded a troop of Royal Horse Artillery.

Mercer, Alexander C. Reminiscences of Waterloo: Correspondence between Henry Leathes and  Alexander Mercer of G Troop RHA. Cambridge: Ken Trotman, 2004. 36 pages. 

Notes also in Glover, Gareth (ed.). The Waterloo Archive Volume I: British Sources. Barnsley: Frontline, 2010. Pages 106 - 117.

Mercer, Alexander C. "Waterloo Letter # 89, 26 December 1834" in Waterloo Letters. Herbert T. Siborne (ed.). London: Greenhill, 1993. Pages 214 - 222

Notes: was a captain and commanded a troop of Royal Horse Artillery.

Miller, Benjamin. The Adventures of Serjeant Benjamin Miller Whilst Serving in the 4th Battalion of the Royal Regiment of Artillery 1796 - 1815. Dallington: Naval & Military Press; 1999. 43 pages.

Notes: Served in Egypt and in the Corunna Campaign.

Parker, John B. "Letter # 81, dated 24 April and 14 May 1835" in Letters from the Battle of Waterloo: Unpublished Correspondence by Allied Officers from the Siborne Papers. Gareth Glover (ed.). London: Greenhill, 2004. Page 140

Notes: was a second captain in Captain Hew Ross' Royal Horse Artillery Troop at Waterloo

Phelps, Samuel. "Letter to his Brother, dated 18 July 1815" in Gareth Glover (ed.). The Waterloo Archive Volume IV: British Sources. Barnsley: Frontline, 2012. Pages 128 - 130

Notes: was a lieutenant in Major Lloyd's Brigade.

Poole, William. "Letter # 85, dated 27 November 1834" in Letters from the Battle of Waterloo: Unpublished Correspondence by Allied Officers from the Siborne Papers. Gareth Glover (ed.). London: Greenhill, 2004. Page 144

Notes: was a 1st lieutenant in Captain James Sinclair's Royal Artillery Brigade at Waterloo, where he was wounded.

Pringle, George. "Waterloo Letter # 96, 26 December 1834" in Waterloo Letters. Herbert T. Siborne (ed.). London: Greenhill, 1993. Pages 227 - 228

Notes: was a lieutenant in Captain Samuel Bolton's 9-pounder Royal Artillery Brigade at Waterloo.

Reed, Adam. Seven Years on the Peninsula. The memoirs of Private Adam Reed, 47th (Lancashire) Foot 1806-17. Godmanchester: Ken Trotman, 2012. 100 pages.

Notes: was originally in the Corps of Royal Artillery Drivers but deserted and enlisted in the 2nd Battalion 47th Foot.

Rettberg, Charles von. "Report of the Hanoverian 2nd 9-pounder Battery" in in Gareth Glover (ed.). The Waterloo Archive Volume II: German Sources. Barnsley: Frontline, 2010. Pages 45 - 50

Notes: was a brevet major.

Rogers, Thomas. Waterloo Letters # 101 and 102, dated 25 February and 9 February 1837" in Waterloo Letters. Herbert T. Siborne (ed.). London: Greenhill, 1993. Page 235 - 238

Notes: was a captain and commanded 9-pounder Royal Artillery Brigade at Waterloo.

Ross, Hew D. Memoir of Field-Marshal Sir Hew Dalrymple Ross, G.C.B., Royal Firled Artillery with a New Introduction by Howie Muir. Godmanchester: Ken Trotman, 2008. 152 pages.

Notes: Commanded A Troop Royal Horse Artillery in the Peninsula from June 1809 to April 1814; fought at Waterloo; Memoir is a combination of extracts from his private journal and letters.

Ross, Hew D. "Waterloo Letter # 91, dated 27 January 1837 " in Waterloo Letters. Herbert T. Siborne (ed.). London: Greenhill, 1993. Pages 223 - 225

Notes: was a captain and commanded a 9-pounder Royal Horse Artillery Troop at Waterloo.

Rudyerd, Samuel. "Waterloo Letters # 98 and 99, dated 6 May 1838 and 6 January 1835 " in Waterloo Letters. Herbert T. Siborne (ed.). London: Greenhill, 1993. Pages 230 - 234

Notes: Siborne spells his name as Rudyard; was a second captain in Captain Lloyd's 9-pounder Royal Artillery Battery.

Sandham, Charles F. "Waterloo Letter # 95, 19 May 1835" in Waterloo Letters. Herbert T. Siborne (ed.). London: Greenhill, 1993. Page 227

Notes: was a captain and commanded 9-pounder Royal Artillery Brigade at Waterloo.

Sandilands, Philip. "Waterloo Letter #90, 15 December 1834" in Waterloo Letters. Herbert T. Siborne (ed.). London: Greenhill, 1993. Page 223

Notes: was a lieutenant and commanded Captain Norman Ramsay's 9-pounder Royal Horse Artillery after he was killed at Waterloo.

Sharpin, William. "Waterloo Letter # 97, 6 December 1834" in Waterloo Letters. Herbert T. Siborne (ed.). London: Greenhill, 1993. Pages 228 - 23o

Notes: was a lieutenant in Captain Samuel Bolton's 9-pounder Royal Artillery Brigade at Waterloo.

Strangways, Thomas F. "Letters # 74, 75, and 76" in Letters from the Battle of Waterloo: Unpublished Correspondence by Allied Officers from the Siborne Papers. Gareth Glover (ed.). London: Greenhill, 2004. Pages 134 - 136

Notes: was a 1st lieutenant in Captain Edward Whinyate's Royal Horse Artillery Rocket Troop at Waterloo; where he was seriously wounded.

Swabey, William. Diary of Campaigns in the Peninsula for the Years 1811, 12 and 13. London: Ken Trotman, 1984. 217 pages.

Notes: was a lieutenant in Captain Robert MacDonald's E Troop Royal Horse Artillery.

Taylor, Michael. "Letter # 80" in Letters from the Battle of Waterloo: Unpublished Correspondence by Allied Officers from the Siborne Papers. Gareth Glover (ed.). London: Greenhill, 2004. Pages 139

Notes: was a sergeant in Captain Edward Whinyate's Royal Horse Artillery Rocket Troop at Waterloo.

Walcott, Edmund Y. "Waterloo Letter # 80, 18 January 1835" in Waterloo Letters. Herbert T. Siborne (ed.). London: Greenhill, 1993. Pages 192 - 194

Notes: was a second captain in Captain Webber-Smith's Troop of Royal Horse Artillery at Waterloo.

Wall, Adam. Diary of the Operations in Spain under Sir John Moore. Godmanchester: Ken Trotman, 2005. 18 pages.

Note: Commanded a brigade of six pounders.

Warde, Francis. "Waterloo Letter # 86, dated 27 May 1840" in Waterloo Letters. Herbert T. Siborne (ed.). London: Greenhill, 1993. Pages 209 - 210

Notes: was a lieutenant in Captain Hew Ross' Royal Horse Artillery Troop; letter is about the rocket troop.

Webber, William. With the Guns in the Peninsula: the Peninsula War Journal of Captain William Webber, Royal Artillery. Richard Wollocombe (ed.). London: Greenhill, 1991. 196 pages.

Notes: 2nd Captain in Captain Maxwell's 9 pounder battery; August 1812 - June 1813.

Webber Smith, James. "Letter # 70, dated 21 May 1840 (?)" in Letters from the Battle of Waterloo: Unpublished Correspondence by Allied Officers from the Siborne Papers. Gareth Glover (ed.). London: Greenhill, 2004. Page 130

Notes: was a captain and commanded a Royal Artillery Troop at Waterloo.

Webber-Smith, James. "Waterloo Letter # 79, 29 August 1835" in Waterloo Letters. Herbert T. Siborne (ed.). London: Greenhill, 1993. Page 191

Notes: was a captain and commanded a Royal Horse Artillery troop of light 6-pounders at Waterloo.

Wells, Fortescue. "Waterloo Letter # 100, dated 13 March 1837" in Waterloo Letters. Herbert T. Siborne (ed.). London: Greenhill, 1993. Pages 234 - 235

Notes: was a lieutenant in Captain Lloyd's 9-pounder Royal Artillery Brigade.

Whinyate, Edward C. "Letters # 72 and 73, dated 17 August 1840 and 20 November 1842" in Letters from the Battle of Waterloo: Unpublished Correspondence by Allied Officers from the Siborne Papers. Gareth Glover (ed.). London: Greenhill, 2004. Pages 131 - 134

Notes: was a captain and commanded the Royal Horse Artillery Rocket Troop at Waterloo.

Whinyates, Edward C. "Waterloo Letter # 83 - 85, various dates" in Waterloo Letters. Herbert T. Siborne (ed.). London: Greenhill, 1993. Pages 203 - 209

Notes: was a captain and commanded the Royal Horse Artillery Rocket Troop at Waterloo.

Wilson, John A. "Waterloo Letter # 104, dated 27 November 1834" in Waterloo Letters. Herbert T. Siborne (ed.). London: Greenhill, 1993. Pages 240 - 241

Notes: was a lieutenant in Captain James Sinclair 9-pounder Royal Artillery Battery at Waterloo.

Wissell, Lewis von. "Letter # 88, dated 24 February 1835" in Letters from the Battle of Waterloo: Unpublished Correspondence by Allied Officers from the Siborne Papers. Gareth Glover (ed.). London: Greenhill, 2004. Pages 146 - 147

Notes: was a 2nd lieutenant in Captain Henry Kuhlmann's 2nd Troop King's German Horse Artillery.

Wood, George. "Letter to Mr. Mudford" in Gareth Glover (ed.). The Waterloo Archive Volume I: British Sources. Barnsley: Frontline, 2010. Pages 98 - 99

Notes: was a Colonel; commanded British artillery at Waterloo.

 

Placed on the Napoleon Series: September 2013; last updated June 2016.

 

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