General-major Pjotr Ivanovich Prince Bagration (former Avantgarde commander,
now escorting Suvorov)
6th Don Cossacks Regiment Pasdejev
8th Don Cossacks Regiment Grekov
K.K. 4th Light Dragoons
Regiment: GM Andreas Frh. von Karacsaj de Vale-Sakam 6 Squadrons.
The first reinforcements which tried to stop the French advance were the grenadiers
of the Battalion Wouwermann, attached to the Austrian rapid deployment force
from the Bellegarde Corps. This battalion was charged, near the Sarmato slope,
by the 19th Dragoons of Chef Poitou, who died in the action. In order to avenge
their colonel, the French dragoons pursued the grenadiers through the vineyards,
killing with their sabres all they could. At this time Victor gave orders to
shift the march by the right, pointing directly towards San Giovanni and to
attack the town walls. Ott, not at all demoralized, resisted strongly,
from 11.30 a.m. till 2 p.m. In the afternoon the battle was fought with
high levels of violence. The Austrians, although very inferior in numbers,
fought bravely, approximately for three hours from their positions of Castel
S. Giovanni, but, around 2 p.m., they became fatigued and, under
the threat of an encirclement, began to withdraw, in disorder, towards Stradella. At
that time Chasteler arrived with the long waited reinforcements. After a short
time Melas also arrived, rallying the troops near Sarmato and reforming the
lines. His arrival stopped the fugitives and revived the confused souls.
The Austrians rallied and re-entered the battle, now with better support by
the troops of Generals Chasteler, Melas, and Bagration. Suvorov, galloping,
entered the battle at the head of the cossacks around 3 p.m.. The Russians
launched 9 cavalry charges against the French, who did resist. But when Chasteler
ordered the Rozenberg reserve to enter the battle, for the French, no more
hope of victory remained.
Chasteler, arriving at “pas de course” from Stradella, reinforced
the left, while Melas, acting as a simple colonel, directed his troops against
Rusca, along with Ott’s reserve. Immediately after them came Bagration,
who led a charge on the right, against the Poles. The Cossacks attacked with
violence, shouting “Death to the Polish slaves!”. The 17th Demi-brigade,
coming out from Agazzino, charged with bayonets the Russians against
their flank and pursued them. They stopped their advance engaging an overwhelming
force of 4 grenadier battalions with a Cossack regiment. The 17th was forced
to withdraw and to cross back the Tidone. To the extreme left, the Poles became
disordered and went back, some being taken prisoners.
Melas now directed his troops against the French right wing. Rozenberg forced
the center with six battalions (4 Russian and the two of IR Mittrowsky). Victor,
fearing an encirclement, recalled his reserve (5 grenadiers companies detached
at Ponte Tidone, now led by Gauthrin), They crossed the river and advanced
on the right side of the road, until Castel-Bosco. Despite the violent musketry
they gave time to the isolated group to gather with the rearguard.
 The Russian Julian
calendar had a difference of - 11 days (minus) with regard to the traditional
Christian calendar. So, for the Russians, the first day of the battle was June,
the IR Fröhlich btn.
 Baron d’Asper, Constant
Ghilain Charles van Hoobrouck (written d’Asper but
pronounced d’Aspre –also written in the second manner from the Austrians) was
born in 1754 at Gand. Son of one of the richest families, studied in a college
of British Jesuites at Bruges. In 1770 he had a flag in the regiment De Ligne,
where he became Captain. Since the early days of his career he showed a gentle
and generous personality, a true Lord of noble manners. During the Belgian
revolution he sided for the Austrian Emperor Joseph II, becoming Major by
fighting the Jacobins. During those days he was awarded with the Maria-Theresia
Cross. With the rank of Lieutenant Colonel he organized a volunteers Corps
named Laudon Chasseurs (Jägern or Light infantry). In 1794 he was named
Colonel, continuing to fight in the Austrian vanguards on the German fronts.
At the end of the 1796 campaign he was hardly wounded at Neusiedl and was
saved thanks to the intervention of the personal surgeons of the Archduke
Charles, who had sent them by him. After that he was named Generalmajor and
continue to command his Chasseurs. In 1799 he was at Magnano, Adda, Modena,
at the Trebbia battle and then in the Emilia’s occupation campaign.
He ended the year helping the Tuscany’s insurgents, captured Florence,
Livorno and other garrisons. In 1800, during the Genoa siege days, he was
attacked at La Bocchetta and captured on the Monte Fascio. He was a prisoner
until the truce period, which followed the battle of Marengo. He returned
on duty in the combats between the Chiese and the Mincio, distinguishing
himself at the Ceresara assault, under general Vogelsang. After the Luneville
treaty he returned in Belgium, doing several voyages at Paris. The war resume
in 1805, when d’Aspre was charged to command general Mack’s vanguard.
He attacked the French rearguard at Wertingen but, after an initial advantage,
he was encircled and captured by the Savary’s troops. He was emprisoned
at Auxerre and released after the peace. He reached Vienna where the Emperor
left him to decide a retirement, thus only provisional, with the rank of
Fieldmarshal Lieutn. In 1809 he was recalled in service and led 16000 grenadiers
at Essling. For this he obtained the rank of Feldzeugmeister with the ownership
of a regiment. At Wagram, during the assault of Aderklaa, he was hit by a
bullet, which wounded his belly and fractured his arm. In the attempt to
mount his horse, he fainted and was carried in a camp hospital into a castle.
As was likewise happening for the opposite “brave des braves”,
general Jean Lannes, (d’Aspre had this surname, “brave entre
les braves”, from the archduke Charles in 1794), his arm was amputated.
Like Lannes he did not survive the intervention and died. He was buried at
Brünn, near Austerlitz. His age was 54.
 Oberst Johann
Nepomuk Apfaltern or Abfaltern was born at Ljubliana (Krain -Slovenia)
in 1743 (died on February 3, 1817). Soldier from the age of 15 and Captain
at the age of 25, in the Grenzregiment VIII, he fought the Turkish wars.
In 1789 he became Major and in 1795 Oberst Lieut. After Loano he distinguished
in the assault of Madonna del Monte near Genoa. In 1797 he was promoted Oberst
and then commander of the IR 39, with which he fought the 1799 campaign.
He was at Magnano, at the capture of Brescia, on the Adda, and at Trebbia.
He suffered many wounds during the campaign and his health worsened. In 1800
he retired with the Generalmajor rank in his city, Ljubliana.
 comte Henri-François-Marie
Charpentier (1769-1831): Born at Soissons
(Aisne), June 23, 1769. In 1792 he enlisted in the 1st battalion of
Aisne volunteers and, as Captain, was with the armée du Nord, becoming
an aide-de-camp of général Hatry. In 1793 he was named adjudant-général
chef de bataillon. In the following years he was named chef de bataillon
of the 94th line demi-brigade, fighting in Italy. He was at la Trebbia, Novi.
At La Trebbia he was wounded in the belly and had two horses dead under him.
In 1800 he participated at the Marengo campaign, after which he was named
général de brigade, becomin a “chef d'état-major” under
Moncey and Jourdan. In 1804 the Emperor named him général de
division and awarded Charpentier with the Membership Cross of the Légion-d'Honneur.
He was then in Spain, at Burgos, and, on the following year he led a division
of the Naples army (being also chef d’état-major of the Masséna
army). In 1809, he took part to the Austrian campaign, distinguishing himself
at Wagram, after which he was named count of the Empire. In 1812, he was
the Chief of the general Staff of the Eugene Corps in Russia, and, after
Smolensk, Napoleon named him Governor of the conquered provinces. After the
Beresina retreat he was Chief of Staff under Davout. Leading a division,
during the campaign in Saxony, he controlled the right wing of the 11th Corps
at Lutzen, capturing Ersdorf, on May 2. In the same month he crossed the
Elbe, captured the enemy lines of Fischbach and Bischofswerda. On February
15, 1814, he commanded, at Essonne, a new formed Young Garde division. Fought
at Craonne, on March 7, The comte Charpentier ended the campaign of France
by defending Paris and, on April 8, he followed the new government but, in
1815, he returned with the Emperor, leading the 12th territorial division
of Nantes. This fact caused the royal reprisal. The king ordered his forced
retirement and he got Switzerland, on exile. Then he returned in France and
was readmitted on duty. Died at Orgny, near Villers-Cotterets, on October
Antoine-Louis-Popon Maucune, baron. Born on February 21, 1772
at Brives (Corrèze), was second Lieutenant in the Pioneers on February
1, 1786, first Lieutenant and was reformed in 1789. With the outbreak of
the Revolution he enrolled as Grenadier in the 4th Paris Volunteers battalion
(1791) ; the authorities gave him bach his rank (First Lieutenant in
the 23e régiment d'infanterie) in 1792. He was in campaign in the
armée du Nord during the same year, where he was wounded by a shot
in the left thig, at the seize of Melun. In 1793 he was transferred to the
Armée des Alpes fighting in Piedmont as a Partisan Chief; was wounded
again by a bayonet cut in the right arm at Bardenèche in August.
In 1794, promoted as Captain, he was in all campaigns of the armée
d'Italie, until 1801, obtaining the rank of chef de bataillon from
Bonaparte at the Arcole battle (1796). In 1799, during the first Taufers
assault, he received two fire wounds (right thig and left shoulder), being
promoted as Chef-de-brigade of the 39e demi-brigade de ligne on the battlefield.
In August, at Novi, he distinguished himself for bravery and was shot in
the right foot. His rank was confirmed by a First Consul Act in 1801 when,
after the peace, returned to Paris garrison before being sent to the Montreuil
camp. He was there until 1805, member and Officer of the Légion-d'Honneur
from 1804, attached to the Corrèze electoral District. With the 2nd
division of the VI Corps (Grande Armée) he was in the 1806-1807 campaigns.
On March 10, 1807, he was promoted to Général de brigade. After
the Tilsit treaty he returned in France becoming baron of the Empire in 1808.
From that year until 1813 he was in the Peninsular War and in Portugal. He
captured a bridge at Alba de Torres, was wounded at Bussaco, and wounded
again at Fuentes de Onoro. On October 18, 1812, the armée de Portugal
Avantgarde, under his orders, captured Castilho de Peones, Quintanavides
and Santa Olalla. During that month he advanced, fighting, from Monasterio,
through Burgos, until Valladolid. Fought at Tamamès and Villa-Muriel
and was mentioned by general Souham. Transferred to the armée d'Italie
he spent there last Service years retiring before the Bourbons return. After
the 100s Days (charged with the command of the Lille Nationa Guards division,
but never arrived there) he definitevely retired on October 21, 1818. He
died on February 18, 1824.
Duplouy chef of the 92nd demi-brigade of the armée d'Italie,
was awarded with an Honour Sabre and a Praise Letter after the battle at
Pastrengo: 4 floréal an VII.
 General Jean
Baptiste Nicolas Laurent Salme, was born at Grand, on January 20, 1733. Having many brothers
and sisters he had to go to work being very young. Worker in 1766, merchant
in 1774, finally wood dealer in 1784. Jean Baptiste Salme, in 1791, enlisted
in the 1st bataillon des Vosges, where he became second lieutenant,
in 1792. He was at the siege of Longwy and was wounded ta Rulzheim. Under
Custine, he fought in Germany at Spira, Worms and Mainz. On September 14,
1793, Salme was wounded again at Nothweiler, after which he was named lieutenant
colonel of the 15th bataillon des Vosges. On October 28. 1793, he took
the command of the 3rd demi brigade, vanguard of the Armée du Rhin.
On March 30, 1794, Salme was promoted général de brigade.
Pichegru, who was a great friend of him, emplyed Salme in the vanguard
of the Armée du Nord, being successively in the divisions Bonnaud
and Despeaux. He was at Tourcoing, at Pont de Chin, Hooglède and
was severely wounded by a cannonball at Malines.Recovered, he had the command
of the 4th division du Nord (September 20) with which he fought in Belgium.
In January 1795 he participated in the Holland’s surrender, occupying
Utrecht. He after followed Moreau in the Rhine army, fighting at Altenkirchen ;
there he entered the friendship of Kleber.
In June 1796 he was again in Belgium, with a cavalry corps, to control some
riots. There he had troubles with the civic Commissaries and was dismissed
by Directory. Nevertheless he reached general Hoche in the Sambre et Meuse
army, who gave him the command of a Dragoons’
brigade at Klein (April 1797), obtaining his total reinstatement. This lasted
few time, and Salme was again dismissed after the 18 fructidor’s “golpe”.
Finally he was in a definitive reinstatement on November 9, 1798, and assigned
at theArmée d’Egypte. After that, having reached Ancona and having
not found a ship to embark himself, he served with the Armée de
Rome, under Championnet, and then the Armée de Naples, under Macdonald.
In April 1799 he had the command of a light infantry brigade forming the vanguard
at Castel-San Giovanni (Tidone battle), where he was wounded and then at the
bloody battle of the Trebbia, after which he was made prisoner at Piacenza
(June 20). He was emprisoned in Austria, returning after the Luneville treaty,
on March 1801. Being without commands he reached Moreau, who was in troubles
with Bonaparte. Salme followed his fate and was assigned to the Santo Domingo
expedition. Embarked in Toulon, he arrived to the Antilles, on February
5, 1802, leading a brigade of the 13th division Hardy. After his good behaviour
there, general Leclerc, close to Napoleon, named him général
de division à titre provisoire on May 15, 1802. He returned in France,
ill, and went again into disgrace, probably because of not lawful businesses.
On October 16, 1802, he was without commands , but with a pension of 5000 Francs
per year. Finally, on August 26, 1803, Salme was forced to retire, aged 37,
with a lesser wage of only 2500 Francs. He reached Drusenheim (lower Rhine),
in a family estate. He was recalled on duty in 1809, then again in 1810, when
he was sent to Spain (April 16). With the 7th and 16th line regiments he led
a brigade fighting at Molino del Rey, col d’Ordal and Villafranca. In
May 1811, Salme marched with Suchet’s army towards Tarragona, where,
during the night of May 27-28, he was killed by a bullet in the head. At his
funeral, Napoleon agreed to award him with the patent of général
de division, baron of the Empire and Knight of the Légion d’Honneur.
Louis-Joseph Lahure - Born: 29 December 1767. Chef-de-Brigade:
5 July 1795 (1er demi-brigade provisoire de tirailleurs). Chef-de-Brigade:
30 March 1796 (15e demi-brigade d'Infanterie Legere). General-de-Brigade:
21 July 1799. Commander of the Legion d'Honneur: 14 June 1804.. Baron
of the Empire: 10 April 1811. Died: 24 October 1854. He was substituted by
Chef-de-bataillon Desailly, promoted colonel by Macdonald on June 24.
 Chef de Brigade François
Guerin d'Etoquigny Born: April 28, 1762 - Chef de Brigade: February
1, 1795 (13e Regiment de Hussards)- Chef de Brigade: October 14,
1796 (10e Regiment de Chasseurs a Cheval)- Chef de Brigade: January
7, 1797 (25e Regiment de Chasseurs a Cheval) -General de Brigade:
June 30, 1799 -Commander of the Legion d’Honneur: June 14, 1804 -Died:
April 28, 1831
Pastrengo the Chef-de-Brigade was Louis Lepic - (Lepic Louis,
future général, chef d'escadron promoted chef de brigade after
the battle of Pastrengo, in the place of Rouzon, retired: 4 floréal
an VII) - Lepic was born on September 20, 1765. In 1781
he was with the Dragoons of the regiment Lescure and in 1792 he was a brigadier
in the Constitutional Guard of the King. In March 1793 he was transferred to
the 21st regiment of Chasseurs a cheval as chef-d’escadron With
the same rank he was again transferred to the 15th Chasseurs a cheval, with
which he was in the armée de l’Ouest, from 1793 till 1796 and
then in Italy, from 1796 till 1801. He was promoted Chef-de-Brigade on March
26, 1799 (15th Regiment of Chasseurs a Cheval), a rank which was awarded to
him after having received seven sabre wounds at Pastrengo. On March 21, 1805,
he was Colonel-major (Guard Grenadiers a Cheval), he became Colonel on April
8, 1813 (2nd Regiment of the Garde d’Honneur), was promoted to General-de-Brigade
on February 13, 1807, General-de-Division on February 9, 1813. His awards were:
Commander of the Legion d’Honneur on June 26, 1809, Baron of the Empire
on May 3, 1809. He died on January 7, 1827. The regimental flag of the 15e
Chasseurs had written: Verone 1799, Friedland 1807, and Alba-de-Tormes 1809.
Poitou was killed during a charge against the Wouvermanns grenadiers
at the Tidone battle. He was replaced by Chef-de-Brigade Pierre Geraud.
(Andrè) Carvin surnamed Calvin (Feb. 19,
1767 – Jan. 21,1801), dead for the wounds suffered at the Pozzolo battle
(December 25, 1800). From 1792 till 1796 he was at the Armée d’Italie.
In 1796 he was promoted chef-de-brigade in the 103rd (future 11th – second
chef-de-brigade) line demi-brigade (March 15). In 1798 he was with the armée
de Naples where he was named provisional général-de-brigade
(January 20, 1799), directly by Championnet. The nomination was confirned
on February 15, 1799 under the Rome army. In 1800 he was with the armée
de Reserve in Italy, was severely wounded at the Mincio (Pozzolo) battle
on the Christmas day and soon transferred to the Volta camp hospital, where
he died a month after.
Ivanovich Gorchakov (or Gortchakoff, from a noble Russian family,
descended from Michael Vsevolodovich, prince of Chernigov, who, in 1246,
was assassinated by the Mongols), (1779-1855)
Andrey Ivanovich Gorcahkov had the brilliant begining of his military
career: he was a Colonel in the age of 19. He was a nephew of Suvorov, and
was sent by Pavel I to Konchanskoe village, where the Field-Marshal lived in
exile, when the Emperor called Suvorov to St.Petersburg. In the rank of General-Major
Gorchakov took part in the well-known Italian campaign of Suvorov. And there,
in the battle at Tidone the General in the age of 20 got his baptism of fire.
After he served under the command of Bagration, fought at Novy and distinguished
himself in the capture of the Saint-Gotard pass. In the campaign of 1807 General-Lieutenant
Gorchakov commanded a Division and then all Russian Forces instead of Bennigsen,
who had fallen ill. He distinguished himself at Fridland. In 1812 he served
under the command of his friend P.I.Bagration. On September, 5, 1812 he had
a very important mission: he had to defend the Shevardino redoubt, the advanced
Russian fortification in the Borodino field. All the day the detachment of
Gorchakov 11,000 in number repulsed the attack of the enemy forces that were
near four times as many (35 - 40 thousands). The battle at Shevardino gave
the Russian troops the opportunity to fortify their positions before the main
battle and it's became clear Napoleon will direct his main attack on the left
flank of the Russian positions. In the Borodino battle Gorchakov was wounded
very serioulsy and left the Army till January, 1813.
Placed on the Napoleon Series: May 2008
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