The Austrian Imperial-Royal Army (Kaiserliche-Königliche Heer) 1805 – 1809:
By Enrico Acerbi
The Austrian Imperial-Royal Army
Kaiserliche-Königliche Heer 1805 – 1809
Regular Infantry Ordered by Recruitment District
Bohemia (Czech: Čechy; German: Böhmen) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands, currently the Czech Republic. In a broader meaning, it often refers to the entire Czech territory, including Moravia and Czech Silesia, especially in historical contexts, such as the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Czechs are the people of Moravia and Bohemia, but they were above all in this latter region, and they are the 2/3 of the whole population. They could be divided into two large groups: those who dwelled the central part of the region and those who lived near the Saxon-Bavarian borders. True Bohemians were only those living in the central territories (Circles of Rakonitz, Prachin , Czaslau , Béraun and Kaurzim). There practically was utilized only the Bohemian language, while along the borders the largest part of the people spoke German.
In Austria people who spoke only Bohemian (Czech) were called Stokböhmisch while the German speaking people were the Utraquistes. 
Circles (Districts) see map-image above (datas from a 1814 gazeteer)
Beraun (Czech: Beroun). Beroun was originally called na Brodě (by the ford), and received the name of Bern, Berun or Verona in the 13th century, when it obtained the privileges of a city from the emperor Charles IV, who was specially attached to the place, calling it "Verona mea." It was on the Beroun river and siege of a battle (1744) between Austrians and Prussians. The whole Circle had around 132.500 inhabitants in 1814.
Budweis (Czech: České Budějovice - German: Budweis or Böhmisch Budweis, also Budjegowitz, often referred to simply as Budweis in English) was the largest city in the South Bohemian Region and main town of the District. Sited on the river Malsch near its confluence into the large Moldaw. Budweis in 1814 had over 600 houses and around 5500 inhabitants. Main towns were:
Krumau (Český Krumlov), south east of Budweis, at the Austrian border, had around 560 houses and 4000 inh. It had an unusually large castle for the town dimensions.
Tabor (Hradiště Hory Tábor or castle of the mount Tabor) was part of the same military Circle; its name means also camp) was a fortress (south east of Časlau), very close to the Moldaw river. In 1814 had 400 houses and around 3000 inhabitants. At the time part of the Budweis District.
Bunzlau (modern Jungbunzlau and current Mladà Boleslav in Czech). The old town (Starà Boleslav) is now part of city Brandýs nad Labem-Stará Boleslav (Brandeis-Altbunzlau). In the 17th and 18th centuries, Mladá Boleslav was an important Jewish center and a Royal castle. In this period, about one half of the town's population was Jewish. Sited on an hill named Hrohka it had 350 houses and 2580 inhabitants. Main towns of the Kreis were:
Bydzòw or Bidschow (Czech: Bydžov) had 390 houses and 2900 inhabitants. Main towns of this central Kreis were:
Časlau (German: Tschaslau, Csaslau; Czech also Čáslav) south of Königgrätz with only 200 houses and 2000 inhabitants, but site of the grave of Jan Ziska, chief of the Hussite movement. Main towns of the Circle were:
Chrudim During the reign of Maria Theresa, Chrudim became the centre of the region and, in 1751, the seat of regional offices. The town was not only the natural but also the administrative centre of Chrudim region which had 760 villages and around 248.000 inhabitants. Main towns of the Circle were:
Elbogen (Czech: Loket) a small town surrounded on three sides by the Ohře River, with 241 houses and 2000 souls. The Circle was practically the territory of Egerland, a German speaking land. Main towns of the Circle were:
Kaurim or Kaurzim (Czech: Kouřim) was a free Royal town on the Elbe river. It was a little town chief of a Circle of around 145.400 inhabitants. The main cities of the Kreis were: Kolin, site of a famous battle, with 400 houses and 2000 souls. Böhmisch Brod (Czech: Český Brod), Royal walled town, and Brandeis (Czech: Brandýs) then separated from Alt-Bunzlau.
Klattau (Czech: Klatovy) free Royal town at the Bavarian border with around 3000 inhabitants and 450 houses. The Circle had around 140.000 souls, mainly speaking German. Others town of the Circle were:
Königgrätz (Czech: Hradec Králové). Northern populated Kreis with around 264.000 souls at the Silesian borders, its main town was sited on the Elbe and had around 5000 inhabitants with 700 houses. Was one of the most famous Austrian fortresses. Several churches and convents were pulled down to make way for the fortifications erected under Joseph II, finally dismantled in 1884.
Another large fortress was at Josefstadt (Czech: Josefov, today Jaroměř). Over 1780 to 1787, the Emperor Joseph II built on the left bank of the Elbe and Mettau rivers, the imperial fortress Ples. Later this conurbation took the name of Josefstadt (Joseph town). In 1948 the fortress town was renamed Josefov and incorporated into Jaroměř.
Leitmeritz (Czech: Litoměřice) town of 3000 inhabitants close to the capital Prague on the river Elbe and close to the Saxon border. This Circle had around 300.000 inhabitants and had important border garrisons like Bilin and Tetschen.
Pilsen (Czech: Plzeň) a Royal town of around 5000 souls and 420 houses. The Kreis had around 170.000 inhabitants and the main town were Mies, Plan and Teinitz or Bischofteinitz (Czech: Horšovský Týn) walled town with an old fortress.
Prachin (Czech: Prácheň). It was a large Circle with around 270.000 inhabitants. Officially “Provincia Prachinensi”s or Prachens in German, autonomous region in the southwest of the present Bohemia, created in the late 13th century and abolished by the Austrian Empire's regional reform in 1848. Its boundaries extended through the Bohemian Forest (Gabreta, Böhmerwald or Šumava) in the south, on towards Budweis then to the north, close to the town of Příbram and from here southwest to Markt Eisenstein (Železná Ruda). Ethnic groups of the region included Jews, Roma, Czechs and Germans and by religion were Roman Catholics and Jews. The central geographical feature of the Prachens region is the Otava river or in the local dialect Wotāva. Other principal towns of the former Prachens are Pisek, Strakonitz (Strakonice), Rosenthal (Rožmitál), Winterberg (Vimperk) and Horaschdowitz (Horažďovice) feudal town of the Löwenstein family. These were alss the lands of the Schwarzenberg family.
Prague (Praha, the capital) on the Moldava river, it was the second city of the Empire. In 1814 had around 80.000 inhabitants, 32.000 houses and 8000 garrison soldiers. Since it was the capital of Bohemia, its citizens were commonly engaged in statal/regional jobs, schools and religious affairs. So there was an high number of recruitment exemptions, to which the city supplied with many volunteers and city troopers (Bürger units).
The people from suburbs were commonly enlisted in the nearby Districts like Rakonitz and Beraun.
Rakonitz (Czech: Rakovník) it was a Districts full of hills and woods with, only, 130000 inhabitants. Rakonitz on the Elbe river had around 2700 inhabitants and 347 houses in 1814. Its territory included also the great fortress of Theresienstadt (Czech: Terezín). Its construction started in 1780 and lasted ten years. The total area of the fortress was 3.89 km². The fortification was designed in the tradition of Sébastian le Prestre de Vauban. In peacetime it held 5655 soldiers, and in wartime around 11000 soldiers could be placed here, and neighbouring areas could be inundated.
Saaz (Czech: Žatec) it was another mainly German speaking District with around 116.000 souls. Saaz was a Royal town on the Eger river. Brüx (Czech: Most, bridge) was another walled and fortified (castle) town of this Kreis. Another important town of the area was Chomotau (Czech: Chomutov).
January 1809 Military Territorial Defense and Austrian Resident Units in Bohemia
Territorial Division GM Johann von Richter
Schüttenhofen Landwehr Brigade oberst Rosenhayn
Strakonitz Landwehr Brigade GM Johann von Richter
Territorial Division GM Johann Friedrich von Oberndorf
Elbogen Landwehr Brigade oberst von Ullrich
Elbogen Landwehr Brigade GM von Oberndorf
Territorial Division GM Johann von Schöntal
Sandau Landwehr Brigade Oberst Count Waldstein
Auscha Landwehr Brigade GM Johann von Schöntal (later GM Baron Am-Ende)
Territorial Division GM Count Carl Kinsky
Jungbunzlau Landwehr Brigade Oberst Novak
Liebenau Landwehr Brigade GM Count Carl Kinsky
Festungkommando Josefstadt GM Johann von Szénassy
Festungkommando Königgrätz GM Baron Franz Peter Ignaz De Baut
Territorial Division FML Baron Karl Joseph von Sterndhal
Prague Landwehr Brigade GM Count Franz Kinsky
At Prague it was organized an open bureau (an enlistment table or Werbtisch), where volunteers could enroll under a fee of 15 fl. (Konventionsmünze). The border Circles were now occupied by highest Corps Officers: Bellegarde at Saaz (I Corps), Hohenzollern at Prague (III Corps), prince Rosenberg at Pisek (IV Corps) and the Archduke Louis at Budweis (VI Corps). The Field commander of the Bohemian army was the Feldzeugmeister (FZM) Count Carl Kolowrat-Krakowsy, who went in war as commander of the II Corps.
January 1809 Austrian Regular Army Order of Battle in Bohemia
Field commander: FZM Count Carl Kolowrat-Krakowski
Pilsen Division FML Franz Weber von Trauenfels
Pilsen Brigade GM Baron Josef von Henneberg
1st Prague Division FML Baron Ludwig von Vogelsang
Prague Brigade GM chevalier Theodore de Wacquant-Geozelles
2nd Prague Division FML Baron Thomas von Brady
Jungbunzlau Brigade GM Johann von Szénassy
Chrudim Brigade GM Wenzel Buresch von Greifenbach
3rd Prague Division FML Baron Josef von Ulm
Budweis Brigade GM Johann von Schöntal
Leitmeritz Brigade GM Baron Carl Am-Ende
Prague 1st Cavalry Division FML Count Johann Klenau
Prague Cavalry Brigade GM Baron Ferdinand von Wintzingerode
Pardubitz cavalry brigade GM Baron Peter von Vécsey
Časlau cavalry brigade GM Count Johann Nostitz
Prague 2nd Cavalry Division FML Count Carl Fresnel von Hennequin
Saaz Cavalry Brigade GM Count Ludwig Wallmoden-Gimborn
Klattau Cavalry Brigade GM Count Carl Crenneville
Prague Division FML Anton von Szereday
Budweis Brigade Baron Ferdinand von Häring
Bohemian Regiments Recruitment 1809
Numbers in BOLD mean a temporary area of recruitment in order to help the main District to reach the stated strength.
Regular Infantry Regiments of Bohemia
K.K. IR 11 - FZM Erzherzog Rainer Joseph – 3 Bns (Archduke Rainer) 
2nd Owner (Inhaber): from 1801 FML Count Vincenz Kolowrath-Liebsteinsky
Recruitment: 2 Depot companies Brig. and Div. Karl Kinsky in Prague under Riesch and Loudon.
K.K. IR 54 – FML Baron Joseph Froon von Kirchrath – 3 Bns 
Recruitment: Bohemia - Moravia. 2 Depotcompanies Brig. and Div. Richter under Riesch and Loudon
The regiment recruited till 1806 in Franconia. After it was assigned to Beraun in Bohemia with a supporting District in Galicia (Sambor and Sanok). From 1807 Budweis-Tabor.
K.K. IR 21 – FML Viktor Ludwig Prinz Rohan – 3 Bns
Recruitment: Bohemia. 2 Depotcompanies Brig Szénassy in Jaromirz, fortress Josefstadt under Riesch and Loudon . In February the battalion was at Gitschin then to Prague.
K.K. IR 28 – FML Baron Michael Frelich (Frehlich, Fröhlich) – 3 Bns 
Recruitment: Bohemia. 2 Depotcompanies Brig. de Baut in Chrudim, fortress Königgrätz under Riesch and Loudon. Before 1806 it had recruited also in Upper Rhine territories.
K.K. IR 17 – FML-FM Heinrich XV Prince Reuss Plauen – 3 Bns
Recruitment: Jungbunzlau District 2 Depotcompanies Brig. and Div. Schönthal in Pilsen under Riesch and Loudon.
K. IR 18 – FML Count Patrick Stuart  (then) FML Baron Constantin D’Aspre – 3 Bns 
Recruitment: 2 Depotcompanies Brig. Szénassy in Jaromirz, fortress Josefstadt under Riesch and Loudon .
The Div. Dedovich was attached to the V Corps Hiller and was in reserve in the woods behind Ebelsberg, on the right Danube bank. The 3rd battalion was sent to support the Vienna Volunteers inside the town and it lost 16 men dead, 22 wounded, 10 prisoners and 208 missing. Then retreated to Vienna and joined the main army on the left Danube bank.
The other two battalions remained with the Brig. Wied Runkel, Div. Weber, II Corps in Bohemia. The three battalions assembled together before Aspern. On May 1st Major Kirchlebsky left for a different command. The 1st Bn was now under Boeck and the 3rd under Major Lorenz Volk.
K.K. IR 36 – FZM Count Carl Kolowrath-Krakowsky – 3 Bns 
Recruitment: 2 Depotcompanies Brig. and Div. Schönthal in Pilsen, under Riesch and Loudon.
- before Aspern: Brig. Am Ende, Div. FML Ludwig Vogelsang, I Corps Bellegarde then Brig. GM Baron Josef Henneberg, Div. Vogelsang, I Corps. Did not fight any battle.
Recruitment: Bohemia. 1 Depotcompanies Brig. Ullrich in Elbogen, Div. Karl Kinsky under Riesch and Loudon. Depotdivision at Theresienstadt.
K.K. IR 35 – Erzherzog Johann Nepomuk (from May) FZM Count Eugen Argenteau – 3 Bns 
Recruitment: Bohemia. 2 Depotcompanies Brig. and Div. Karl Kinsky in Pilsen under Riesch and Loudon.
K.K. IR 25 – FML Count Franz Julius Zedtwitz (but formally Vacant) – 3 Bns 
Till 1806 it was the “Bavarian” regiment having Reichswerbung at Salzburg, Passau and Ratisbon and it was supported by the Galician Kreis Stanislau. After 1807 it became a Bohemian unit recruiting in Pisek and partially at Klattau. That was the so called Prachiner area. Recruitment: 2 Depotcompanies Brig. and Div. Richter in Pisek under Riesch and Loudon.
Recruitment: Bohemia 2 Depotkomp Brig and Div. Karl Kinsky in Prague under Riesch and Loudon
(The Fatherland’s Shield calls us to new Events) or
1809 Austrian Resident Units in Bohemia
Situation after commitment of the Landwehr battalions with the Field Army and their following reorganization. Note some Depots approached the new Frontline.
Territorial commander (interim): FZM Count Riesch
Vice-comm. and Landwehrinspektor: FML Baron von Loudon
Territorial Division GM Johann von Richter
Landwehr Brigade Oberst Rosenhayn at Horazdiowitz
Landwehr Brigade GM Johann von Richter at Pisek
Territorial Division GM Count Carl Kinsky
Landwehr Brigade Oberst von Ullrich at Elbogen
Landwehr Brigade GM Count Carl Kinsky at Pilsen
Territorial Division GM Johann von Schöntal
Landwehr Brigade Oberst Count Waldstein at Pilsen
Landwehr Brigade Oberst Novak at Jungbunzlau
Landwehr Brigade GM Johann von Schöntal at Leitmeritz
Festungkommando Josefstadt GM Johann von Szénassy at Jaromirž
Festungkommando Königgrätz GM Baron Franz Peter Ignaz De Baut at Chrudim
Territorial Division GM Count Franz Kinsky
Landwehr Brigade GM Count Franz Kinsky – Prague Brigade
Landwehr Brigade GM von Oberndorf at Časlau
Landwehr Provisional Gruppe GM Joseph ? von Richter - Tabor
1809 Austrian Resident Units in Bohemia – May 1809
Army of Bohemia
Commander in Chief: Generalissimus FM Archduke Charles of Austria
III Corps or General Command of (Protection) Troops in Bohemia
FML Count Carl Kolowrat-Krakowsky
21000 inf., 1500 cav.
Division Marquis Hannibal Sommariva
Autonomous Brigade GM Paul von Radivojevich
7200 inf.; 200 cav. Originally attached to the III Corps, then sent from Eisenstein till Eger (Saxon Border).
Detachment Oberst Count Wenzel Sporck (commander of the 1st Caslau Bn.)
Detachment Oberst von Ullrich
Independent Brigade GM Baron Carl von Am-Ende
7200 inf., 600 cav. Originally attached to the III Corps, then sent to the Saxon Frontier.
Division Baron Philipp Vukassovich
Division Count Franz Saint Julien-Waldsee
Bohemian Detached Corps Oberst Rosenhayn
5500 inf. inside the forest called Böhmerwald
Independent Brigade GM Josef von Mayer
The Austrian Landwehr in 1809
"... eine bloss zur Vertheidigung des Vaterländischen
K.K. Patent of June 8, 1808
The farsighted and innovative Austrian Archduke Charles developed the idea of a territorial reserve, whose basic concept intended a kind of militia system with purely defensive character. Were to be considered 3 essential motives in order to this provision:
On June 9th, 1808 an Imperial Patent for the people did the organizing of the Landwehr institute. The Emperor Franz said in it:
“We have opened, in our Patent, Our beloved matter with the intention of an institution connected to the reserve establishment, namely for the defence of the Monarchy with such means which grant the possibility to Us to facilitate the finances of the State by decreasing those of the active Army.
In just this intention We think for good to organize a territorial Force (Landwehr) aimed only on the defence of the Fatherland.... For its execution We have appointed authorized persons, already known for their proficiency, their zeal and their devotion to Us and to the government, namely for Styria, Carinthia, Krain, Trieste and Salzburg: our esteemed Brother Imperial Highness Archduke John; our Court Commissioner Count Saurau: for Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia... ”.
Archduke John did come on June 22, 1808, at Salzburg with Count Franz von Saurau in order to start the organizatione of the Landwehr. At the time they had to raise 4 battalions, the Staff Officers of which could have been retired military officers of the former Bishopric or Electoral Principate (of Salzburg), who had decided to be a volunteer in the new project. Only 4 officers and 1 Corporal for each Landwehr company had to come from the K.K. regular Army.
After this first examples, since 1808, in the German Hereditary lands (Germany, Outer and Inner Austria, Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Tirol), they raised this Militia, organized with men fit to combat in each imperial province. I t was estimated that Austria would raise 180000 Landwehr and Hungary 50000, but such numbers were never attained; the Hungarian Diet refused to sanction it, and it was thought dangerous to raise it in Galicia, whose Poles were believed disaffected. In Bohemia, this force, (how it will be stated by Hofkriegsrat Notification of June 13, 1811), had to be of about 50000 men.
Landwehr based its organisation upon the new concept of Reserve duty or Service which could lead towards a true national army, rather than towards another kind of Militia. It stated that:
But who could enlist with the Landwehr?
The service in the Landwehr was allowed to:
The Landwehr soldiers’ service was compulsory for all men aged between 18 and 45, unless they belonged to exempt categories or were army reservists. Initially they had to train themselves on every Sunday and holiday, while monthly they were gathered in larger units, coming from the nearby villages, and sent to the battalion manoeuvres, which did not have to last more than three hours. Later this system was changed and they had to instruct themselves with the weapons in short periods of 14 days, under the military Rule (generally half of the total force trained itself in Spring, the others in Autumn, or in periods stated by the territorial regiment command). When employed in these training camps, the militians were supplied by the provinces. The trainings periods was recorded by the Districts-Commissariate (which maintained the Landwehr’s lists) and signed in the personal Folios (Karten). These were managed directly by the Kreis-Hauptmanns or the Bataillons-Commandanten. In the case of a War call-to-arms the Landwehr men had to:
The Landwehr generally wore a grey jacket (Rock) with red facings (later various colours), had a cartridge-box (Patronentasche) with 36 cartridges, bayonet, and hats (every land battalions could have personal hats). Every battalion had also to form a special section of snipers (Scharf-schützen) generally armed with the best rifles and with the Jägerstutzen (see also Feldjäger battalions and Tirol’s Schützen).
The Model in the figure is a Waadtland Swiss type, used in all lands of Alps, for hunting. This weapon allowed a secure fire result up to 300 paces, while the common infantry muskets cannot go over a 100 paces. Landwehr firearms depended upon availability; muskets of 1754, 1774 or 1784 pattern were used, with hunting rifles, cavalry carbines, even Crespi breech loaders and air rifles among the Jägers.
In practice, shortage of equipment resulted in wide variations. Though officers and NCOs usually wore regulation dress, other ranks were permitted different uniform providing all members of a company were dressed alike. In 1808 civilian dress was adapted (sometimes simply by adding a cockade to the hat!), the only issue items being the coat and the leather equipment.
The Landwehr was proportioned to the width of the Circle (Kreis) in which it could be raised one or more battalions. Each battalion (800 men) had 4 companies; each company (200 men) had 4 platoons (Züge); each platoon (50 men) had 2 Squads or Korporalschäften of 25 men each. The companies were led by an Hauptmann and 3 other officers.
In each province the Landwehr was split in two parts (Abtheilungen), the first formed by the best fit men, the second by the less fit to comBns. In this second section of that new regional armies it could be found what more resembled to the old Landmiliz or to the Town-Guards (Bürgereinheiten). It was the first draft of the nineteenth-century K.K. Landwehr (national army), in competition with the K.u.K. (gemeinsame) Heer (imperial army), while the second military choices went to form what in the future will be the K.K. Landsturm.
Therefore, in this second Corps, were also the men aged from 45 till 50 years, the family fathers (Hausväter) and all who owned a firearm (till the age of 50 years); provided, all the above mentioned, they were not completely fit for the Landwehr duty. This early prototype of Landsturm had the task to provide to the order and discipline of the inner land, to defend the inner ways of communications and villages, to garrison the fortresses and towns, to escort prisoners and other military services. The 2nd Class Landwehr had less difficult duties, often ordered directly by provinces. These civil governments provided also to the soldiers uniforms and equipments. During war-time these forces were led by former Officers in retirement, recalled on duty.
The Supreme Patent Act (Allerhöchstes Patent) of June 9, 1808, stated also that the towns, villages, in which was no military unit (regular or Landwehr) had to form (with armed citizens), during wartimes, Security patrols (Sichereitswachen) and had to give men for transports duties to the army.
After the defeat of 1809 Napoleon demanded the deactivation of the Landwehr; but registers were kept, and in 1811 it was decreed that when re-formed, they would form the fourth battalions of each Line regiment.
Lantveři National Army of Bohemia 1809
In Bohemia on October 31, 1808, the local Parliament (Landtag) convened in the Prague Castle, granted the sum of 1.509.000 fl. to cover the expense for the Landwehr equipments.
The Bohemian Landwehr wore “Hungarian” type uniforms of a brown “Spencer”-style jacket with red facings and braid, a round hat with black and yellow pompon, Hungarian breeches, high boots and black equipment. Otherwise those uniforms, perhaps, were those of the 1800 Archduke Charles volunteers. See after for some detail.
Other sources quoted the Prague Student Corps wore similar dress plus a bicorn with a red-tipped white feather. The Prague city Landwehr had long, singlebreasted brown coats with green collar, cuffs and piping; white breeches, black (white ?) gaiters and equipment, and a shako with brass badge and black and yellow pompon. 
Two Words upon Uniforms
In the Web and in the interesting site www.primaplana.cz has appeared a notable historical article of Karel Sáček and Karl Bag, which tries to make light on the type of military uniform worn by the Bohemian Landwehr in 1809. The article has, unfortunately, the defect to be written in Czech language, not comprehensible to all. I tried to make here a summary of what was written there.
A man dressed in a knee-long coat and Corsican hat on his head is probably the first image that will strike you, speaking about the Landwehr, years 1808-1810. Right a man so dressed was immortalized by painter Johann Peter Krafft in 1813 in his famous “Farewell of the Territorial” (in Czech: zeměbrance from země = Land and branec = recruit) painting, which became a symbol of the modern Austrian patriotism (the image is not provided for copyright rights). The subject, in effects, is wearing the same uniform as the Landwehr men on the front page of another quoted publication on the matter: the book “Landwehr Anno Neun”.
However these uniforms applied to the Landwehr battalions formed in Vienna, Lower Austria and other neighborhoods. Their numerous options are set as in the synthesis of the book “Das Heer unter dem Doppeladler”, where, in addition, authors even wrote a warning label: “In fact, Landwehr uniforms were very dissimilar in different regions." 
How, then, looked the Landwehr from the Czech lands? The absence of detailed description of their uniforms (or yet to be discovered), forces to refer briefly to the regulation in force in Lower and Upper Austria,
“The service coat must be such that a man could wear it in winter over the other clothes in the summer only over a shirt. It should have two pockets. The Landwehr long coat extends up to the knees, so that the trousers colour may not be uniform. The man receives his own rounded hat (Runden-Hut), in which front is attached a brass plaque, where one can read to the provincial and district number of the battalion. The Landwehr training team should walk with their own clothes as jackets, but together homogeneous for weaponry. This weaponry belongs to a little bag (Sack) for 36 rounds, which is worn on a black lacquered wide strap, two and a quarter inches over the right shoulder strap of the bayonet, as for the infantry. Men wear the bags over the right shoulder.
The men were armed by the Central Government with rifles and bayonets, which had weapons for every local security group, watched in a safe place. For the officer corps, however, and also for men was issued a special “Landwehr uniform”, adapted to the national costumes of each Crown’s region, usually not homogeneously prescribed. This uniform consisted, by the main part, of a long overcoat, in different colours, with a single series of white buttons, with a rigid hat having a brim bent up on one side and a brass plate on which were embossed the letters LW (Land Wehr), then region and number of the battalion.
Each man was to be provided with one cartridge bag for 36-40 rounds, sack for bread and the suspension strap (belt) for a bayonet. Equipment and military clothing were provided by the Regional Administration.”
In relation to the Moravia-Silesia Landwehr battalions, however, this booklet provided only:
“They were wearing a gray coat with blue facings.” 
Otakar Frankenberger, with reference to primary sources collected in Prague, limited himself to stating that “Landwehr of Czech lands wore a gray coat, blue epaulettes, trilby hat with rosette-shaped pins and brush.” At the same time he added that: “There was a proposal under which each Region should have a different colour of the facings. The buttons should be for Czech (white) and for Moravian Landwehr (yellow)”. 
According to other sources, Moravia decided that: “the uniform had to be a gray coat with red facings and a round hat with a brass plate ... at least every battalion had to have the same wearing.” 
According to Dave Hollins’ Czech, Moravian and Silesian simulated uniforms of Landwehr battalions and Lower Austrian peasant hats, their facings was to be officially light blue, but many units used to copy the same colour as the ordinary infantry regiment linked to the District (so the Saaz Landwehr battalion loaded Orange “County” facings as did the Erbach Infantry Regiment No. 42). In Moravia, probably, they wore more Landwehr black “peasant hats”, because of the large presence of farmers. 
Excerpts for Landwehr equipments were recorded in eastern Bohemia: “The train group attended the exercises in their own clothes, but each one should have had a strange high hat with brass letters and badges and the same cartridge sacks, all were available in Prague: a badge for 21 kr., an hat for 2 zl. 24 kr.” 
Another, although very bizarre, source describing the equipment is a Landwehr mocking song, that was sang by regular army soldiers of Frelich Infantry Regiment No. 28:
“Lantveři (Landwehr) with linen trousers, back too much “tanestry” / rifles are old, “pagnety” red, on their heads pig wool hats. /Those are the words, by honour, run Brethren, Jesus Maria!” 
So far written sources. More attention must be paid to iconographic sources. Among them it occupies a privileged position a series of 13 Landwehr images of the Imperial Countries, which Josef Eder issued at Vienna in 1810. 
Three of those images relate to the Bohemian lands. As for the “Czech Landwehr of the Royal Capital city of Prague” it must be told that this may not be the right guide for recreating the appearance and the idea of Landwehr uniforms in the Czech lands. The intention was to distinguish that units as much as possible, as in the case of the Student Volunteer battalion, which had to be different from the Archduke Charles Legion of 1800 – The red epaulet on the officer's right shoulder is probably a symbolic reference for continuing that tradition.
In Moravian and Silesian Duchy Landwehr, the gold metal letters in the hats look different than the above-illustrated Prague Landwehr - in this case, it can be also clearly recognized the letter "M" referring probably to the Moravian territory.
They have classical Landwehr coats and equipment. However the hat is decorated with letters LW. Why? Rigid hats, round hats, etc ... these features suggest only that the so-called typical Corsican hat did not predominate on Bohemian territory. This is confirmed by other contemporary illustrations of Czech Landwehr, camped, on June 23, 1809 at Dresden.  This iconographic source derived from a collection published by Peter Hofschrörer and Dave Hollins and shows seven captured soldiers with the cylinder-shaped hat having bents reversed on both sides.
The Bohemian hat of the “Dresden camp” is similar to that immortalized by Eder in 1810 for Moravians. This is the same type, that was widespread among Czech Archduke Charles Legion volunteers already since 1800.  The cylindrical hat with a bent brim, then, was probably the most typical element for the Czech Landwehr in 1809 and distinguished them from other countries. This just let's add that officers who were assigned to the Landwehr from the army, have the right to retain their original former uniform.
General Count Kinsky, in whose brigade were included three Landwehr battalions of the Loket region and two from Saaz and Rakovnik, indicated the actual state of the Landwehr’s equipment in a report to the FML Sommariva (early May 1809): “The bad state of uniforms and lack of shoes is the cause of many diseases among the units. The 2nd Königgrätz Battalion had to be again completely withdrawn, due to bad arming, from the South Bohemian border and replaced by the 4th Chrudim battalion.” 
This may suggest that the Landwehr, like in a common volunteer battalion, should have to be equipped with different uniforms, based on the regular infantry-style. Maybe this manifestation was captured by Josef Eder and was confirmed by several other sources.
The third image “Moravian Landwehr (?) A volunteer corps” illustrated a “Moravian Landwehr” with a typical Jäger clothing - here the author obviously made a mistake in the description. In 1809 in Moravia no volunteer Jäger formation emerged, which could be incorporated into the Feldjäger corps; those uniforms are likely to be perhaps accredited to the Prague volunteers (Watterich) battalion, or to the Feldjäger or to the the Lobkovitz Kinsky formation.
In order to end this short trip among the Czech Landwehr uniforms ther is a rather “hot and picquant” note related to the Legion troops of Archduke Charles, left by FML Klenau in his report dated March 24, 1809:
“The Landwehr men serving in the legion, as well as the new recruited ones, do not wear underwear (kleinen Montur) under the coat. Therefore I consider it necessary to allocate shirts and underwear (Gati) to the men, in order, at least, to partially hide their nudities. This deficiency results from poverty and from the fact that the majority, when Legion was rallied, took with him only one shirt, which is by now completely worn”. 
Joking with Landwehr in 1809 
War preparations continued in Prague so zealously that, on October 31, 1808, Czech Lords resolved to give the State Council cash of 1.509.000 zl. for the newly established army, the Landwehr, and, in addition, to provide a further 4.000.000 zl. contribution to be spending by the war fund.
Over the winter, certain of the pending war, all became tense and eager to setting up the Land’s defense, Landwehr, which were quickly dressed in uniform and trained to the field service of war.
The hurry and the rush of training territorials inspired confidence in the regular troops, by their supposed military superiority, and they became jealous, so they laughted at their old land-soldiers upon the meaning of the letters LW (which meant Land Wehr), saying the letters meant “Lauf weg !“, in German “Run away !” and questioned about their fitness and the various antics uttered by this new army. Also even there were composed skittish songs about Territorials. So sang soldiers of the regiment Vogelsang in Prague:
“Not far from Vienna in a village small and fine - Flagbearer Landwehry at the waist carrying a swine .....”
And perhaps they would have even more teased Territorials, when an abrupt spring called to arms people from Prague up to the field, against Napoleon. Therefore, on May 1st, 1809, after the Territorials, volunteers and students got the 1800 flags and went from Prague to the Klattau region, occupying the Bohemian border. That year the month of May was, in Bohemia, same as “Month of War”, so that even during the feast of St.John Nepomucene in Prague, instead of wandering devout pilgrims, walked brilliant fellows singing war songs and ballads against the detested Napoleon, pro the celebrated Archduke Charles and laughing at the Territorials ... For the security and the safety of Prague had been discarded the palisades and the city was fortified with trenches with embankments around, where several thousand people worked for a day pay of 30 kr.
THE LANDWEHR INFANTRY
Ordered by Recruitment District
Bohemia commanders Archduke Ferdinand and BurgCount FZM Wallis
BERAUNER Kreis – Beraun
BIDZOWER (Bydzower) Kreis - Bydzow
BUDWEISER Kreis – Budweis (České Budějovice)
I Bn. Budweis - Major Count Carl Wratislaw
II Bn. Wittingau - Major Leonhard Halpert.
III Bn. Krumau - Major Anton von Künstlern after Major Alois von Reisinger
BUNZLAUER Kreis (Jung-Bunzlau)
VI Bn. Melnitz - Major-Oberstleutnant Prince Anton Isidor Lobkowitz.
ČASLAUER Kreis – Časlau
I Bn. Deutsch Brod (Havlíčkův Brod) - Oberstleutnant Wenzel Sporck then Major Plauser
II Bn. Časlau - Major Plauser , later from Aspern to Wagram: Major Prince Wilhelm Auersperg
III Bn. Kuttenberg (Kutná Hora) - Major Count Sebastian Trautmannsdorf.
CHRUDIMER Kreis – Chrudim
I Bn. Leitomischl (Litomyšl) - Oberst Count Georg Waldstein later Major Count Anton Borosini von Hohenstern
II Bn. Landscron (Lanškroun) - Major Carl Strauss
III Bn. Pardubitz (Pardubice) - Major Count Johann Breda
IV. Bns. Hermann-Mestetz (Hermanuv Mestec) - Major Christian von Geisztler
ELBOGENER Kreis – Elbogen (Loket)
I Bn. Eger (Cheb) - Major Carl Frasmüller Edler von Weidenburg later Hauptmann Johann Werbeck, finally Major Sérenyi
II Bn. Schlackenwerth - Major Peter von Pfisterer
- Facts: in the Bayreuth campaign
III Bn. Buchau - Major Fortunatus Erdelly
KLATTAUER Kreis – Klattau (Klatovy)
I Bn. Bischofsteinitz - Major Baron Wenzel Kotz von Dobrz
II Bn. Klattau - Major Count Anton Thun
III Bn. Nepomuk - Major Count Friedrich Schönborn
KÖNIGGRÄTZER Kreis – Königgrätz (Hradec Králové)
LEITMERITZER Kreis – Leitmeritz (Litoměřice)
PILSENER Kreis - Pilsen
I Bn. Pisek - Major Count Carl Berchtold
II Bn. Brzeznitz - Oberst Hartmann von Hartenthal later Major Count Prokop Hartmann von Klarstein
III Bn. Schüttenhofen - Major Count Leonhard Rumerskirch
IV. Bns. Welschbirken - Oberst Wenzel chevalier von Puteani, then Major Prokop Neukirchen
- Facts: before Aspern was part of the brig. Richter, IV Corps. At Wagram was in the outposts of the Böhmerwald
PRAGUE city District
1st Bn.in the brig. and Div. Franz Kinsky in Prag under Riesch and Loudon.
I Bn. - Oberst Count Johann Wratislaw
- Facts: was at Prague and in Bohemia till Wagram, then was split in parts.
II Bn. – Major Count Johann Pachta
Combined Landwehr battalion of Prague- Oberst Count Johann Wratislaw
I Bn. Welwarn - Major Prince Ferdinand Kinsky, then, interim, Hauptmann Ambros Hubel, later Major Joseph Kurz
II Bn. Rakonitz - Major Joseph Hofmann later Major Baron Bohusz.
I Bn. Komotau - Oberstleutnant Prince Joseph Lobkowitz
II Bn. Saaz - Major Baron Anton Wodniansky
I Bn. Pilgram - Major Joseph Kriegern von Maisdorf
II Bn. Tabor - Major Count Joachim Woracsiesky later Major-Oberstleutnant Baron Vinzenz Zesner
Alphabetic Index of the Landwehr Battalions Commanders - 1808-1810 - Bohemia
Maj.-Obstl. = Major-Oberstleutnant --- města Prahy = City of Prague
1809 – Volunteers Units of Bohemia
On March 1st, 1809, the Government allowed also the creation of volunteers’ battalions for the incoming war. The 1808 Landwehr Patent contained many exemptions, especially for students, skilled workers, merchants and townspeople, but they could always enroll as volunteers for the so-called “Freiwillige” units, sometimes augmented by the Landwehr itself and prepared to serve outside their districts. Volunteers signed up for the duration of the war. All officers and NCOs had to have military experience and so were retired or drafted regulars. The distinguishing uniform feature of all western volunteer battalions was the cuffs red.
FREIWILLIGE or the true free-corps of Volunteers (Freikorps, often also Jäger Bns. or only Jäger named), set up in the empire by nobles (who called themselves also as proprietaires) or early nationalist (Schill) or a mixture of both (the Duke of Brunswick - Braunschweig, i.e.) and the Freiwilligenbattalione (FreiBns. in the contemporary literature).
The Archduke Charles Legion
Legion Erzherzog Carl
The former uniform was completely dark-grey with crimson facings and white buttons. On November 1800 the Legion was raised again (with one Jäger Corps and 22 Militia battalions) but it never fought.
On 1801, after the Luneville Treaty it was again disbanded and raised in 1809.
About the Students' Legion of 1800 ... the Dr. Mudroch Tale
In a student pub, the beer hall at Michelská Ovocny market, young doctor in Law, Antonín Mudroch, remembered the students’ legion of 1800. He recalled the glorious period and younger companions told him to tell that, with enthusiasm and admiration, listening to what happened and how it was the matter.
“We had our equipments!” Boasted Dr. Mudroch. “Brown suits with red Epaulettes on shoulders and six rows of lines on the chest, blue trousers, boots to the knees, black and white cock feathers and an alongside sabre!” “When the Archduke Charles came to Prague for the academic establishment of the Legion of students on November 9, 1800, he called on its members and promised various benefits, it was addressed with cheers and more praised when Archduke said that the Academic Legion will reach the rank of a battalion, not only that of a company.”
Dr. Mudroch searched in his cuir bag and lit his pipe emitting a massive cloud of smoke, before continuing:
“Indeed, the idea that the voluntarily signing up students legion, from about one company it will become now four companies, an entire battalion of 638 men, prompted the Archduke welcomed! So instead of the students Corps company there was a student Corps battalion, which had its own special commander and each company had its own leader, lieutenants, feldwebel and corporals, selected from a field regiment here quartered. Legionnaires had no rank between them and, unlike other volunteers, have adorned Epaulettes of silver and red silk, porte-epée in leather with black and white silk laces. We got the uniform (Montur) from the clothing Commission at 4 gold pieces and 30 kr. And in order to avoid to go far away from school and to not neglect lectures, we were under exercise during weekdays, in the morning, from quarter to eleven to quarter to one, in the large refectory “Klementina”.
So far, the war reached a danger alarm of such size that it was decreed that the Supreme commander of the army against Napoleon, would have been the Archduke Charles himself, in the midst of December. Earlier than it happened, ignoring the Prague set up, three battalions of volunteers, the Count Černin battalion, the battalion of Count Desfours battalion and the Academic Corps marched in Parade. Wow ... that was on Saturday, December 13, at the Cattle Market, where half of Prague came together to the show. Our Archduke gave us his special attention as students and the day after he went to the army, at Vöcklabruck, to get the Generalissimus title. The commander of the Students Legion was Count Jan Vratislav. He also donated the state flag with, on one side the Czech lion and, on the other, the imperial emblem. Above the lion were the Latin words: “Legio Archiducis Caroli Bohema-Moravica-Silesiaca” and underneath “Pro Rege”. Above the eagle and the metal tip of the battalion it was engraved: ”Sieg oder Todt” (Victory or Death). The ribbons, which Countess Schliková gave the legion battalion were embroidered, “We defend Motherland, Let us stand firm, God and Carl with us!”
At this point Dr. Anton Mudroch grabbed his hair with the right hand, as his storytelling was inside his head, then continued to revive memories.
“The Consecration ceremony of the Academic Legion battalion, with battalion flags and battalions Černín and Desfours, was held on the second Christmas holiday, on St. Stephen, at 10 hours in the morning, in the Týn Temple. The Archbishop of Prague, Prince Salm-Salm celebrated the pontifical Mass, with the sacred flags laying on a table before the main altar and all officers of the three battalions standing around them in two rows. After the Mass, the Archbishop consecrated banners and then they were brought to the large Old Town market place, where the battalions were in a large quarry. The next day, on 27 December, 10 hours in the morning, in the university square Klementina, the Academic Legion swore to serve our country as brave and honorable soldiers. And then we went against the enemy”.
The eyes of the young doctor filled with tears as he told:
“No matter what happened on Sunday, 28 December morning, when we were gathered in the Klementina and quietly, after the Holy Mass, we marched through the Cattle Market street towards Vysehrad gate and into the field. ... “
In 1809 six battalions were raised in Bohemia and each consisted of four normal companies armed with the musket and two jäger companies. The First Battalion, raised from students of the Prague University, wore the bicorn hat with national cockade and red-over-white plume, the Jäger companies wearing the “Corsehut” with yellow-and-black pompon and the normal companies wearing the new 1806 Shako. Coats were tobacco brown with scarlet collar, cuffs and turnbacks and piping and decorated with scarlet braid on the breast. Breeches were sky-blue and worn with black leather knee boots. All belting was black leather and as for the line infantry or jägers. Officers wore the “Schiffhut” and coats of infantry officer pattern with facings and decoration as for the men. The officers of this Legion were permitted to wear the waist-sash.
I Battalion or Wattrich Jäger Battalion
II Battalion – Major Prince Ferdinand Kinsky
III Battalion Major Count Carl Laugier (Lougier)
Recruitment: from the Bohemian Landwehr districts Chrudim and Königgrätz
- Before Aspern: Brig. Moritz Liechtenstein, Div. Vukassovich, III Corps
then attached to the autonomous Div. Dedovich
- At Aspern: not engaged.
- At Wagram: Brig. Adler, Div. Hohenfeldt, VI Corps
IV Battalion Major Count Ludwig Trogeff
V Battalion - Major Count Joachim Woracziewsky
VI Battalion – Major Count Wolfgang Czernin (Černin)
The Lobkowitz Jägerkorps
 Marcel de Serres, Voyage en Autriche, ou essai statistique et géographique sur cet empire: avec une carte physique, des coupes de nivellement, et divers tableaux comparatifs sur l'étendue et la population de l'Autriche, Arthus Bertrand, 1814.
 Grenz-Kordon troops (not to be confused with the Military Border southern regiments) were rather Militia than infantry, whose duties were to serve at Customs watching the borders of the hereditary lands. The Kordon troopers of Bohemia were six companies led by an Oberstleutnant, whose office was at Prague. Each such company had an Hauptmann or a Capitän-leutnant, 1 Oberleutnant and 2 Unterleutnant, some taken from the retired officers (Pensionsstande) and some from the so called half-invalid men of the Line regiments (from which ranks also came the half-invalids Kordon troopers).
 Vacant (Vakat) meant without actual Owner, while the former Owner’s name is provided.
 Masak, Wenzel Stefan, Die tapferen und ausgezeichneten Thaten des k. k. Infanteire- Regimentes Nr. 11 seit seinem Errichten 1629 bis zum Jahre 1887, Prague 1887.
 Neuwirth Victor Ritter von, Geschichte des k. u. k. Infanterie-Regimentes Alt Starhemberg Nr. 54, Olmütz 1894.
 Baron Andrássy was a very skilled commander. Born 1762 at Raab, enlisted in the 32nd regiment (1778) in which he became Oberleutnant. After the 1809 campaign he fought in Russia (1812) commanding the 33rd regiment distinguishing at Podubie where he obtained the rank of Generalmajor for his bravery. He died during the Dresden battle (1813) and was buried at Räcknitz.
 Another (old) way to define the village of Essling.
 Streffleurs (Österreichische) Militärische Zeitschrift, 1819 band 3 pag 293.
 The regiment lost half of its strength (1727 men). Before the battle it had 4 Staff’s and 60 officers, 236 NCOs and 3336 troopers for a total of 3701 men.
 Schmedes Emil, Geschichte des k. k. 28. Infanterie-Regiments FZM. Ludwig Ritter von Benedek, Vienna 1878.
 Streffleurs (Österreichische) Militärische Zeitschrift, 1847 band 2, pag 299.
 FML Count patrick Stuart died at Prague on April 21, 1808, a year before the campaign beginning.
 Amon von Treuenfest, Gustav Ritter von, Geschichte des k. k. Infanterie-Regimentes Nr. 18, Constantin Grossfürst von Rußland, von 1682 bis 1882, Vienna,1882. The Imperial Order G 2900 of May 24 assigned the regiment to Baron d’Aspre. He however will die at Wagram, so the regiment was forced to change Inhaber for the second time and became “property” of FZM Fürst Heinrich XIII Reuss-Greitz (November 18, 1809).15>
 FML Bersina von Siegenthal, directly led the Light brigade Hardegg, during the battle.
 Bleibtreu S., Geschichte des k. k. 36. Linien-Infanterie-Regiments, Prague 1875.
 Mayerhofer von Grünbühl, E. Frhr, Geschichte des Infanterie-Regimentes Nr. 42, Vienna: 1874.
 May Joseph, Geschichte des kaiserlich und königlichen Infanterie-Regimentes No. 35, Pilsen 1901.
 Count Zedzwitz died at Vienna on April 14, 1808.
Trautsch Alois, Geschichte des k. k. 25. Infanterie-Regiments FZM Freiherr Lazarus von Mamula, Prague 1875.
 It was the former brigade Fölseis and will be the future brigade Paar at Wagram; the future brigade Quallenberg after Wagram.
 Amon von Treuenfest, Gustav Ritter von, Geschichte des k. u. k. Infanterie-Regimentes Nr. 47, Vienna 1882.
 Capitulanten: former soldiers who did voluntarily extend their duty period (weiterdienen).
 Franz Kurz, Geschichte der Landwehre in Oesterreich ob der Enns, Band I – II, Verlag Haslinger, 1811.
 Haythornthwaite Philip, Fosten Bryan, Austrian Army of the Napoleonic Wars (I): Infantry, Osprey Publishing Men at Arms Series # 176.
 Allmayer-Beck Johann Christoph - Lessing, Erich. “Das Heer unter dem Doppeladler. Habsburgs Armeen 1718-1848“, Wien, 1981. p. 215
 From Zehetbauer, Ernst, „Landwehr gegen Napoleon. Österreichs erste Miliz und der Nationalkrieg von 1809“, Vienna 1999 and from „History ck zeměbraneckého Kromeriz Infantry Regiment No. 25“ (edited by Karel Langer), Kroměříž, 1909.
 Frankenberger, Otakar, „Landwehr of Czech lands in 1809“. In: Historie a vojenství, n. 2/1969, s. 227.
 Radimský, Jiří, “Contributions to the history of military reform in the year 1808” In: Časopis Vlasteneckého spolku musejního v Olomouci, roč. (Journal of the Homeland Association of Olomouc Museum), Vol. 57, 1948, No. 209 and 210, p. 51.
 Hollins Dave - Younghusband Bill. “Austrian Auxiliary Troops 1792-1816”, Osprey Publishing, Men-at-Arms, 1996 (reprint 2002), s. 34. Although the central processing of English history should be approached very critically and with great caution, it was not the case of Hollins’ “Ospreys”. His knowledge, also under relative absence of appropriate references to sources, currently is specialized in military uniforms and it is well known the author is a reference guide for several military historians about life and culture of the Austrian Empire. Only in the case of attribution of facings with the same color as their territorially competent ordinary infantry regiments, just the lacking of the source can raise doubts that Hollins made a mistake in the description of the state of 1813.
Zástěra Karel, “Acts and attractions, cultural and other images from the Bohemian East.” Skutč, 1896, s. Works, 1896, p. 223. 223. Referring to the above provisions for the Austrian battalions is wrong to assume that Landwehr were not uniformed. They had only to issue uniform coats only during fire exercises.
 Tanestry = tornistry, pagnety = bayonets. Řezníček, Vácslav. Naše zlatá matička, Díl II. “Our golden nut”, Storm, Prague, 1923, p. 140.
 Source: Austrian Landwehr in 1809: the Uniform Plates of Joseph Eder. Also in the Napoleon Series (Copyright by Markus Stein).
 In Saxony came the X Corps of Am Ende (June 1809) which included six battalions of Bohemian Landwehr: 2, 3, 4, 5 Leitmeritz, the 6th of Hradec Kralove and the 6th of Boleslav. Coincidentally, in the city historical museum of Leipzig there is an Austrian Landwehr hat of 1809 - the classic Corsican type.
Hollins – Younghusband, “Austrian Auxiliary Troops”, p. 39. It is very interesting also the similar representation of the Czech Landwehr of 1813, which comes from the Lipperheide Berlin gallery. Soldier has his “blanket” on head, which Hollins describes as “Corsican hat”.
 Similar headgears between Bohemian Landwehr 1809 and Czech volunteers of 1800 became the cause of several mistakes. The first was committed by Gilbert Anger,”Illustrirte Geschichte der kk Armee”, II. Band, Vienna, 1887, p. 1772 - 1178, whenunder the image of a 1800 volunteer he placed the label “Czech Landwehr”, while the following text clearly shows that it was 1809 Landwehr. The same mistake repeated Haythornthwaite Philip - Fosten Bryan, “Austrian Army of the Napoleonic Wars (I): Infantry”, Osprey Publishing, Men-at-Arms, 1986, s. 31 which were apparently inspired by Anger.
 Zehetbauer, „Landwehr gegen Napoleon“, p. 269, 293 (see above).
 Zehetbauer, „Landwehr gegen Napoleon“, p. 238, 245.
 Řezníček Vácslav, “Naše zlatá matička”, Díl II. Bouřky, kapitola Stíny. Praha, 1923
 Řezníček Vácslav, “Naše zlatá matička”, Díl II. Bouřky, kapitola Stíny. Praha, 1923
 The Lobkowicz family (Lobkovicové in modern Czech) is one of the oldest still existing Bohemian noble families dating back to the 14th century. Historically, the best known member of the Lobkowicz family is probably Joseph Franz Maximilian Lobkowicz (1772-1816), one of Beethoven's patrons. The Lobkovice estate is situated in Bohemia on the river Elbe in the region of Kourim. It is situated three miles from Prague, about half way between Melník and Brandýs. It consists of: the Lobkovice castle and the village of Lobkovice with 29 houses and 464 inhabitants, both situated on the left bank of Elbe, the village of Neratovice with 31 houses and 213 inhabitants and one subject in the village of Kojetice.
Placed on the Napoleon Series: May 2010