British Regiments and the Men Who Led Them 1793-1815
By Steve Brown
|The British Army at Corunna
By Dionisio Álvarez Cueto
The lives of the Generals who led the British Army in the Napoleonic
Era, especially those who served in the Peninsula war, are generally
well documented. But what about the field officers beneath them, the
men with drawn swords at the heads of their squadrons or battalions?
This series aims to shine a light on those colonels, lieutenant-colonels,
majors (and occasionally even captains) who commanded the British Army’s
many battalions, regiments and artillery brigades in the period 1793
to 1815. Their biographies will show the regimental system in action,
officers routinely transferring between regiments for advancement or
opportunity, captains who were also (brevet) colonels, many who retired
early, some who stayed the distance to become Major-Generals and beyond.
I have chosen to cover the entire period from 1793 until 1815 (and
beyond, until 1818 in some cases) as this is the generally accepted
range of the
‘Napoleonic Wars’. This name is, of course, a misnomer,
since Napoleon was a mere junior officer at the start of it all. The
combats and stations of the British regiments chronicled will demonstrate
that the period was, in reality, the true First World War; European
troops fought and died in North America, South America, Egypt, India,
Java, Mauritius, the West Indies. The insular pre-radio society of
the time was unable to envisage, let alone understand, the bigger picture.
The continental view at the time was that Britain
would rather spend gold rather than lives to counter the Corsican Ogre;
a whiff of accusation that the British Army never truly ‘put
in’ to the same extent as the Austrians, Russians or Prussians.
However a reading of the service records in this series will show that
the British Army was in fact the busiest army in the world in the period.
Regiments routinely bounced between distant postings; some battalions
spent 15 years away from home. If there were few battalions on the
continent, it was because there were few battalions readily available.
The series will also show how the county titles were (for most part)
a façade; many regiments did not visit their ‘home’ county
in the entire period. Most regiments tended to be stationed in an arc
Winchester to Kent
- close to embarkation ports such as
Portsmouth - or in Ireland
. Battalions took recruits wherever they could find them; some Scots
regiments dropped their ‘
Highland’ titles after their ranks became predominantly Sassenach.
Formal battle honours are shown in BOLD;
the capriciousness of the War Office meant that some regiments did
not get honours that were deserved, whilst others received them for
being mere spectators. I have steered away from adding information
about regimental nicknames, mottos, badges, goats etc. as this information
is widely available from a number of other sources; the books
by Westlake, Sutcliffe and McKenna as excellent examples.
For brevity I have generally started biographies from the point that
the individual reached field officer rank, usually major. It was from
this point that the officer in question might have found himself in
command of an infantry battalion or cavalry regiment. For
some selected officers, and most artillery officers, biographies commence
from captain. Biographies show officers at the highest regimental
rank they achieved in the period, rather than in army (brevet) rank
or later elevation to general rank. After all, this series is about
that cornerstone of the British military - the regiment.
Editor's Note: The author only researches field officers for British army regiments in the period 1793-1815 and is not in a position to help individuals with their ancestors. He does not have access to the National Archives at Kew, which is the pre-eminent source for such material. As such he regrets he is unable to assist with enquiries about individual soldiers or other eras.
Placed on the Napoleon Series: April 2009 - January 2019