A Century of The Russian Ministry of War
General Staff Historical Department
(Translated into English from the original Russian by Peter Phillips)
The Development of Tactics & Training In The Russian Army, 1801 to 1814.
Cavalry Regulations 1801-1814.
Dmitry Vladimirovich Golitsyn
Cavalry regulations post 1796.
1805: The practise of instruction concerning exercises and manoeuvres by a cavalry regiment, compiled from the writings of the gentlemen squadron commanders of the Military Order Cuirassier Regiment in 1805.
1812: Preliminary decree on cavalry service in combat.
Regimental establishments. – Turns. – Squadron training. – Columns. – Evolutions. – The attack. – Open order attacks. – Flankers. – Conclusions.
Cavalry regulations post 1796
The influence of Inspector General of the entire cavalry, Grand Duke Tsarevich Konstantin Pavlovich, in issuing cavalry regulations throughout Emperor Alexander I’s entire reign was very great, if not exceptional, evidently predominant even. An indication of this may be the fact that our cavalry regulations were published firstly in Warsaw, in Russian and Polish, and only then, about a year later, the same text was published in the Russian language alone. There is, however, other evidence of this, two examples of which will be discussed below. The first publication of new cavalry regulations dates back to 1812; before that, the Regulations For Line Cavalry Service, 1796 by Emperor Paul I remained extant in our army.
Our cavalry regulations of 1796, as seen above, explained the role of the cavalry on the march and in combat, in detail and indicated the methodology for launching attacks; but with regard to individual training, equally in the case of breaking in horses, the instructions were brief and were of the nature of general requirements, without a detailed explanation of the methods and route along which the rider and horse should be trained. Also, the self-styled section of exercises had been compiled without acknowledging the necessary transition from more easy to more difficult exercises. It must be assumed that it was precisely these shortcomings, due to the low prevalence of practical knowledge of breaking in young horses among us at the time, that led to the fact that, despite the existence of our regulations of 1796, there was no uniformity in individual training for riders and for breaking in horses in cavalry regiments at the beginning and in the first half of the reign of Emperor Alexander I, and only partially in the “exercises.” The perceived need at that time for a detailed guide to all the aforementioned elements of training is indicated by the following work, compiled in 1804 and published in 1805 by the gentlemen squadron commanders of the Military Order Cuirassier Regiment.
The practise of instruction concerning exercises and manoeuvres by a cavalry regiment,
compiled from the writings of the gentlemen squadron commanders
of the Military Order Cuirassier Regiment in 1805
This composition has the appearance of regulations, being divided into lessons and words of command. There is no evidence that this unofficial publication was authorised for use in our cavalry regiments. Nevertheless, this publication may be of some interest in two respects. It shows that in 1804 there were men in our army who were well aware of what kind of pedagogical requirements, so to speak, should be made for good cavalry regulations, and can therefore serve as a counter to the biased claims of some contemporaries, who pointed out the crudeness of the methods practised in our country in the first half of the reign of Emperor Alexander I, both in breaking in young horses and in teaching riding. In addition, many of the concepts from this work are repeated in our later published cavalry regulations. The work itself was not original but had been compiled according to the model of the French cavalry regulations of 1791, which is stated directly in the introduction. We are not going to present the entire contents of the work but will confine ourselves to two or three extracts from the introduction, in which the author, who signed in initials: Prince D.V.G… [Dmitry Golitsyn], disputes some of the prevailing opinions of his time; further provisions, insofar as they have a connection to the cavalry regulations issued to us in 1812, will be stipulated every time a suitable opportunity arises.
“The truly essential and extremely difficult task is to prescribe (in regulations) the first principles and show the methods of training, such that everyone can absorb them little by little and without any struggle. Indeed, the whole importance of education lies therein, and is something to which every Colonel-in-Chief is obliged to apply all their care. But few men consider this, and in contrast, in many regiments there are a not inconsiderable number of such officers who consider themselves great manoeuvrers, without any grounds.
And so this is the true objective of good regulations; this is their sole purpose. Having asserted and having properly explained these principles once and for all, it will be possible to begin to describe some of the most common combat manoeuvres…
In the practise now proposed by us on the method of training the regiment… we have also taken pains to determine the ideal extent of training for a private in riding school; as our intention is not to educate the bereitors [riding masters], and cares even less about offering the knowledge and skill in riding that is necessary for a young nobleman to possess; but, in contrast, we wish to present the knowledge that a soldier needs, so that they can always be ready to easily execute all the movements used at the front. One should never lose sight of the fact that soldiers are being trained, and it is necessary to inspire them such that everything they learn in the winter is nothing but the essentials or first principles of rank, squadron and regimental training… The greatest difficulty in establishing incremental… improvement is the observance of this algebraic rule, which is necessary in any educational work, i.e. always proceed from the known to the unknown…
There may be some who will accuse us of pedantry. They will tell us on the contrary that they have themselves achieved the same success as we have, without expending as much effort, and that, consequently, all this training is nugatory. But these critics do not pay attention to the fact that the methods they use to obtain success are exhausting for soldiers, producing an aversion to service in them and nourishes a spirit of despondency and displeasure, very unpleasant for any commander, who somehow expects the soldiers to have admiration for himself; that such methods often induce men to desert. Moreover, they do not consider how often they have ruined the horses and made them unfit for service by applying their slapdash methods.”
As mentioned above, the latter remark was, apparently, quite accurate: one can find sufficient evidence in the notes of contemporaries of that era that there were many ruined horses in our cavalry regiments at that time, such that it was rare for a regimental exercise to be carried out without serious incidents with the men. This phenomenon also occurred due to insufficient training of the lower ranks in horsemanship.
Also very interesting are the considerations of the gaits with which to perform various formations in general and charges in particular during the exercises. Here the idea was postulated that there was an obsession with speed of movement in our cavalry, based on the premise that “the main advantage of cavalry is their speed.” Moreover, it was necessary to make the distinction between evolutions carried out under enemy fire and those carried out beyond their reach. In the former case, speed of movement was justified, in the latter; “such speed is unnecessary, yet is highly praised in our exercises. However, having advised to spare the horses, I mean by this phrase that these movements should be made only at a walk or trot, not at a gallop. To accelerate the gait at this time would be a great mistake, as the horses will necessarily become tired during the preparatory movements, and when the real action begins, i.e. an attack that must be carried out with all possible speed, then they will have neither strength nor vigour. One must spare them for these decisive moments… Charges… should, in my opinion, also be made at a gallop, but not at full speed… Only the assault should be executed at full tilt by the horses… But force of habit is so great that, without even noticing it, we daily do things that are completely contrary to common sense.” Nevertheless, despite such an emphatic opinion on this issue in the introduction, this concept is not captured in the Practise of Instruction. “If, in the course of this Instruction, we have not built upon these concepts, then we did it precisely for the reason that we want to hear from those who are skilled in these matters before we dare to offer these thoughts in the form of regulations.”
Preliminary Decree on Combat Cavalry Service, 1812
From 1812, new cavalry regulations began to be issued to us in instalments. Namely, this year the Preliminary Decree on Combatant Cavalry Service was issued, which contained two sections:
- Foundation training.
- Squadron training.
The participation of Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich in the publication of this decree, originally called, simply, the book, is evident from the following words from an order to the entire cavalry, signed in Warsaw on 10  March, 1815. “… I hope that the gentlemen officers have a solid knowledge of everything contained in the book, Preliminary Decree on the Cavalry Service, issued by me…”
Foundation Training covered: the establishments of squadrons and regiments; combat formations for squadrons and regiments, and types of column.
Regimental Establishment: When in line, squadrons and the regiment were formed in two ranks, which formation was preserved from Paul’s regulations, except the second rank did not stand close behind the first but were back one pace. The regiment consisted of six squadrons, with a seventh replacement, which corresponded to the establishments dated 30 April [12 May], 1802 and 17  December 1803. The squadron was divided into two half-squadrons, the half-squadron into two platoons, the platoon into squads, each squad consisting of three files.
Turns: The assignment of making turns in threes was a novelty in our cavalry regulations: in Paul’s regulations, as mentioned above, turns were made in twos. The execution in threes was simple only in the event that the number of files in a platoon was a multiple of three, i.e. 9, 12, 15, 18. When a remainder was obtained after dividing by three, counting off was repeated, besides being quite complicated:
- To move to the right in threes and in threes to the right about, the platoon was counted off into squads of three or four files, and the regulations clearly indicated that, for example, with eight files, two squads each of four files should be counted off; with ten files, they were assigned in squads of four, three and three files respectively; with 11 files – in four, three and four files and so on, until, with 20 files – in four, three, three, three, three, four files.
- For moves to the right or to the left in threes, performed by each rank independently, in the squads there were to be, counting the front and rear ranks together, no less than five and no more than six riders, such that when turning to the right or to the left in threes, the new ranks would have a frontage of at least five and no more than six riders. And again, the regulations indicated precisely how to count off in the event of eight files in a platoon, in the event of ten, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17, 19 and 20 files. For example, in the event of eight files in a platoon, three squads were counted off, moreover, in the front rank the squads formed up in order from the right: three, two and three riders, while the rear rank had three, three and two riders; in the event of 16 files, the squads formed thus:
from the left flank, front rank: three, three, two, three, two, three… to the right flank.
from the left flank, rear rank: three, two, three, two, three, three… to the right flank.
It is impossible to identify any guiding rule in this sequence of numbers, and these allocations, which are very tiring to memorise, therefore had to be learned by rote, or the regulations had to be constantly at hand for reference from the drawings, since for each exercise the same squadron could, due to detachments or the loss of men, ride out with a slightly modified strength. This initial foray, so to speak, into the new regulations alone did not bode well for its simplicity.
The combat formation of the regiment is referred to as the formation of six squadrons in line, stretched out in a single echelon, with platoon intervals.
Squadron Training: the presentation of squadron training began by falling into line, which was to be executed initially by platoons, to the front and to the rear (for which three files had to be reined in from the left flank), with closed and open order files, with the rear rank advanced and retired. The alignment of the squadron was dressed to the right or left.
The march “of a deployed squadron was directly” indicated to be made in three gaits: walk, trot and gallop. In addition to a direct march, an oblique or indirect march was also indicated.
Wheels were on a fixed pivot or on a moving pivot. The difference being a wheel and a wheel leading with the shoulder. Wheeling by platoon in place “is always done at a full gallop… on the march the platoon should under no circumstances wheel at a full gallop, but always wheel leading with the shoulder… Wheeling in place leading with the shoulder is always done on a fixed pivot and at a walk, unless there is a preliminary command to trot. Squadron wheels in place and on the march on a fixed pivot and always at a full gallop. A squadron wheel on the march leading with the shoulder is always done on a moving pivot, except when several squadrons are in a column at full distance and are to be commanded to form line in combat formation: squadron right or left shoulders forward, march; whereupon the squadrons wheel on a fixed pivot.”
Wheeling as an entire squadron was instructed to be performed not only for an arc of a circle, but also a whole circle. In addition, wheeling a squadron by files was indicated, after which the squadron was deployed in line once more, but in a new direction. Finally, wheels in threes to the right or left, which have already been mentioned above, were indicated to be made on a fixed pivot.
Columns: the forming of columns, and deploying from them into line, is half of the entire squadron training. Columns were only to the right or left, moreover, they were formed solely by wheeling or by moving the lead element forwards, in exactly the same way as was also recommended in the Practise of Instruction, in accordance with the model of the French regulations of 1791. The alignment of the frontage could be dressed both on the leading element or on the centre ones. We have listed the main structures below.
Columns were classed as: columns at full distance, closed columns and columns of route.
“Platoon column is more adaptable than the others for all movements… Platoons should never be doubled up by half platoons in cases where it is not possible to pass a whole platoon, they are to be formed up by the right or left in sixes… Closed columns are formed up by squadron and half-squadron…”
Columns of route were formed up as: platoon columns or by sixes, while for narrow roads – by threes and from the flank by files.
Columns were described as follows, but only the latter two could be closed:
- To the right by files.
- In threes or to the right in threes.
- To the right in threes.
- Half squadron.
The evolutions were listed as follows:
- “Wheel from line by platoons to the right or left.
- Advancing by platoons from the right flank, forming up on the right in sixes.
- From sixes, form up on the right in threes.
- Advancing in files from the right, forming up on the right individually.
- Advancing from the right individually, forming up on the right by files.
- Advancing by files from the right, forming up on the right in threes.
- From threes, form up in sixes.
- From sixes, form up in platoons.
- Advancing by platoons from the right flank, forming up on the right in threes.
- Advancing by the right in threes, forming up in platoon column.
- Advancing by platoons from the right flank, forming up by the right by files and by the right individually.
- Advancing by the right by files, forming up by platoon.
- Advancing by the right individually, forming up by platoon.
- Advancing by platoon from the right (or left) flank, wheeling by platoon to the left (or right) about.
- From platoon column, when the right flank is leading, form line aligned with one of the centre platoons or aligned with the trailing platoon.
- From such a column, form line to the rear aligned with the second, third or fourth platoon.
- Squadrons, formed up in combat formation, move forward.
- Wheel in threes to the right about and in threes to the left about.
- From line, in place or on the march, wheel by platoons to the right or left about.
- Doubling up platoons in the event of encountering an obstacle.
- An oblique march by platoons from line, formed up in combat formation.
- March giving way by platoons from platoon column.
- Change of front on one of the end platoons forwards or to the rear, or on one of the centre platoons or on a half squadron.”
As can be seen, the evolutions were very complex, but the execution of them was complicated by the fact that when forming up in line, a constant return to the originally defined order of the platoons was required (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th).
The countermarch was performed in two ways: following a wheel in threes to the right or left and following a wheel by files.
The charge: “begin to train for the charge by platoon.” The platoon walked the first 50 paces, then 100 paces at a trot, then 80 paces at a gallop, after which the ‘march-march’ command was given for a full gallop, and the last 80 paces were covered at this gait. It should be said that this sequence of gaits was exactly the same as that, forming the basis of French Regulations of 1791, and was also indicated in the Practise of Instruction, 1805. “Never charge more than 80 paces at full gallop, which is also necessary to observe against the enemy; the closer a cavalry line approaches the enemy at a trot, the stronger it strikes, while the farther from the enemy the command ‘march-march’ is given, the weaker it will be, and the more it will subject the line to disorder, and the horses will be completely blown… Having repeated all this by half-squadrons, the squadron commander is to perform a charge with the whole squadron…”
The regulations also specify charging at full gallop from the halt.
Dispersed charge: “In order to accustom the squadron to swiftly reform after a charge, during which the men, having cut into the ranks of the enemy, are often scattered, the squadron commander moves in line at a walk, trot, or gallop, commanding after the charge: ‘scatter’ ‘march-march.’ On the second command, the squadron scatters at a full gallop, and the men fire pistols, if ordered, they are to perform various moves with broadsword, sabre or lance, but in order to determine at what distance to move forward, the squadron commander orders the platoon commanders, who, being ahead of the line, will stop the men having ridden up to the appointed distance; where the scattered men, as much as possible, have moved to the right and left and flanks… In order to rally the squadron, the squadron commander orders the recall to be sounded. at which the men immediately cease firing (if this was ordered) and swiftly ride back; having galloped a little behind the remaining ranks, the men form up in line, entering the ranks from behind, without a sound, as quickly as possible, not trying to get to their place, but only into the correct platoon and rank.”
This dispersed charge has been extracted from the regulations of 1796. It is not mentioned in the Practise of Instruction of 1805, modelled on the French regulations of 1791; it is easy to recognise therein the so-called ‘small charge’ from our cavalry regulations of 1755 and 1763.
Regarding withdrawal: The squadrons are always to withdraw by half-squadron. The first half-squadron having gone forward one bound, the second half-squadron, after wheeling about by platoons leading with the right shoulder, if there is no contrary order, also moves one bound, and after passing this distance, on command, wheels about by platoons leading with the right shoulder and halts until such time as the first half-squadron, after wheeling about by platoons leading with the left shoulder, has passed behind the second half-squadron, which remains at the halt, and so on. Thereafter, forming line obliquely during a withdrawal was described.
Regarding flankers: Usually one platoon or 16 carabiniers (in those regiments which have them) are sent out as flankers; flankers, having spread out in front of the squadron, are to secure both its frontage and the flanks. When a platoon moves out as flankers, then two-thirds of them are to spread out from the right flank, while one-third remain in reserve… Flankers are always to form up in two ranks; the rear rank moves to the left so that each man in the rear rank covers off the centre of the gap between two men in the front rank, having his comrade to his right; each man in the rear rank is a wing-man to his lead man; equally each lead man is a wing-man to his rear. The distance between ranks is to be 20 to 25 paces, while between files – however much is needed to cover the frontage and flanks.
The scattered flankers are divided into two squads; on the right flank of each there is to be a non-commissioned officer in the front rank. The officer, on the other hand, is not assigned a place, as he must go wherever his presence might be needed for good order. Scouting is divided into three types: in place, advancing and retreating.
Scouting in place: For this, one platoon, for example the fourth, is called forward. “The men are to hang broadswords or sabres from the wrist-strap, but if they have lances, then loop them onto the shoulder, draw pistols and disperse at the gallop… they are not to shoot without orders… The reserve, having ridden out 25 paces from the line, halts… and does not draw pistols.
Once the flankers have spread out, and their commander, depending on the circumstances, has not ordered them to fire, then the scattered flankers ride about to right and left, for example: the first man in the front rank, turning his horse to the left, rides to the place where the second man had been standing, there he turns right about and rides back to his place; having reached it, he turns left about and goes to the place of the second man once more; his comrade does the same, always turning the horse in the opposite direction, that is: when the front man rides to the right, then the rear man goes to the left, and when the front man goes to the left, then the rear man goes to the right; thus, the flankers are always riding about when they are in place, without exchanging fire.
Once it becomes necessary to engage in a firefight, the officer orders a signal (alarm) to be given, according to which, having stopped riding about, the first man of the first squad leaves his post at a gallop and, having drifted a little to the right, breaks to the left, without moving more than 15 or 20 paces forward from his place; having made the quick break turn, he is to halt and, having aimed appropriately, opens fire; after firing, he swiftly returns his pistol to the holster, raises his broadsword or sabre, or takes up his lance, and, parrying at close quarters, as if from a pursuing enemy, retires at a gallop; having passed the front rank, he halts at the second one where his comrade had been, hangs his broadsword or sabre from the wrist-strap and immediately reloads his pistol. The first man from the rear rank is to move forward the moment the first man from the front rank leaves his post, and takes his place.
Once the first man, having made his dash and having passed the front rank, has halted in the place of his comrade in the rear rank, then the second man in the front rank leaves in turn and does exactly the same; after the second, the third, and thus all the men from the first squad set off one after the other. Once the last man of the first squad has finished, then they start again from the right flank. The men from the rear rank, now being in front, perform as has been described for the front rank.
The second squad is to begin to ride out at the same time as the first and performs in exactly the same way.
When on the advance… the flankers move forward by bounds and continue to scout in exactly the same manner as is done in place; the reserve is to proceed behind the flankers…
When withdrawing… When it becomes necessary to perform a fighting withdrawal, then, stopping the withdrawing rank 20 paces behind the rear rank, the signal is given (fighting withdrawal), at which those standing in the front begin to fire in the same manner as… described above, with the only difference being that the flanker who is intending to fire, does not make a dash forwards, but turns his horse to the left on the spot, fires and then falls back 20 paces behind his comrade, who does not move forward to take his place, but only moves into the gap to his right…
Whenever the flankers need to be recalled, the squadron commander orders the recall to be sounded; the flankers cease firing on the recall, holster their pistols, gallop via the shortest route to the line, and having passed it, they are to rejoin from behind. Once the flankers have left their posts, the reserve moves forward 20 paces at a trot, and then, wheeling about leading with the right or left shoulder, withdraws and retakes its post.
When necessary, the reserve is to spread out and reinforce the flankers, and thereafter the entire squadron becomes their support.
When a squadron is formed up in platoon column and is to move forwards, the flankers protect it, also spread out, while the reserve proceeds in front of the lead platoon…
If a squadron commander wants to send out the carabiniers, then the carabiniers scout in place, advancing and withdrawing in the same manner as has been described for flankers above, with the difference being that the carabiniers ride straight ahead when scouting, halt, turning their horses a little to the right so that they can fire their carbines more effectively.
All hussars, without exception, may scout with carbines when this is specifically ordered.
In conclusion, it is necessary to teach flanking in order to keep the men agile, dexterous and teach them how to operate against the enemy by dispersing; it goes without saying that it is impossible to shoot in turn in combat; there, each must be able to take advantage of his adversary’s fleeting lapses on his own initiative, to harm the enemy and, moreover, spare his horse; as for maintaining order in the line, both at the halt, withdrawing and advancing, and so that the men do not move like a mob, this is also dependent on the quick wits of the officers and non-commissioned officers in combat…
Officers and non-commissioned officers when scouting should be solely concerned with maintaining order and directing the activities of the flankers. Only in the event of necessity are the officer to engage in individual action, in order to set an example and encourage their subordinates.”
Conclusions: the Preliminary Decree on Combat Cavalry Service, 1812, is based on the same concepts as compiled in 1804 by the works of the squadron commanders of the Military Order Cuirassier Regiment on the model of French cavalry regulations of 1791, the work Practise of Instruction Concerning Exercises and Manoeuvres by a Cavalry Regiment, introduced us to: turns in threes, numerous evolutions in column, besides which, the established sequence of platoon numbering which had to be maintained during every reforming, Scouting or dispersed order in the cavalry, with firing from horseback. The latter form of application by the cavalry was a development begun with the regulations of 1796 and did not correspond with the provisions of the General Practise of Tactics, 1807.
Diagrams: the Preliminary Decree on Combat Cavalry Service, 1812 was abundantly supplied with drawings, published somewhat later under the title: Plans for the Preliminary Decree on Cavalry Service Engraved at His Imperial Majesty’s own Mapping Depot. We present the table of contents for all 59 diagrams placed in the indicated plans.
Explanation of symbology.
- Numbering off in platoons turning to the right in threes and in threes to the right about.
- Numbering off turning to the right in threes and to the left in threes.
- Squadron in combat formation.
- Regiment in combat formation.
- Turning to the right by files, and to the right in threes.
- Turning right about in threes and left about in threes.
- Platoon column.
- Closed column of half-squadrons, closed column of squadrons.
- Alignment by files.
- Alignment by platoons.
- Alignment on the march.
- Training to advance straight ahead by squadron.
- Squadron advance straight ahead.
- Wheeling by ranks.
- Wheeling on a fixed pivot.
- Wheeling on a moving pivot.
- Wheeling the squadron by files.
- Advancing obliquely.
- Wheeling in line by platoons to the right and left, wheeling in line by half-squadron to the right and left.
- Form line from platoon to the right in sixes.
- Form line from sixes to the right in threes.
- Form line from threes to the right in files.
- Form line to the right individually moving to the right in ranks.
- Form line to the right in ranks moving to the right individually, form line to the right in threes moving to the right in ranks.
- Form line to the right in sixes from threes.
- Form platoon line from sixes.
- Wheeling by platoon to the left about changing front to the right, wheeling by platoon to the right about changing front to the left.
- Halting a platoon column at full interval, changing front to the right, and wheeling into line.
- Halting a platoon column at full interval, changing front to the left, and wheeling into line.
- Marching by platoons to the right.
- Wheeling moving by platoons.
- Changing front to the right by platoons, forming line to the right.
- Marching by platoons by the right to the rear.
- Form line facing ahead on the first platoon, from platoon column in which the right flank is leading.
- Form line facing forwards on the first platoon in reverse order from platoon column in which the right flank is leading.
- Form line facing rearwards on the first platoon from platoon column in which the right flank is leading.
- Form line on the third platoon from platoon column in which the right flank is leading.
- Form line facing rearwards on the second platoon from platoon column in which the right flank is leading.
- Wheeling in threes to the right about.
- Wheeling in line by platoons to the right about, in place and on the march.
- Marching to the right by platoons in place and on the march.
- Changing direction having halted the column.
- Marching by platoons obliquely to the right.
- Reforming the squadron from platoon column.
- Form line of half-squadrons moving by platoons.
- Reforming the squadron from half-squadrons.
- Doubling of platoons when negotiating obstacles.
- Marching obliquely by platoons in line.
- Changing front by advancing the first platoon.
- Changing front rearwards on the first platoon.
- Changing front of the left flank rearwards on the second platoon.
- Changing front obliquely withdrawing tactically.
- Flankers and their deployment without firing. Flankers firing in place.
- Flankers in the withdrawal.
- Movement of the flankers during a change of front in place.
- Scouting by carabiniers.
Figure 1. Numbering off in platoons turning to the right in threes and in threes to the right about.
Figure 2. Numbering off turning to the right in threes and to the left in threes.
Figure 3. Squadron in combat formation.
Figure 7. Platoon column.
Figure 17. Wheeling the squadron by files.
Figure 33. Marching by platoons by the right to the rear.
Figure 37. Form line on the third platoon from platoon column in which the right flank is leading.
Figure 38. Form line facing rearwards on the second platoon from platoon column in which the right flank is leading.
Figure 47. Doubling of platoons when negotiating obstacles.
Figure 49. Countermarching.
Figure 51. Changing front rearwards on the first platoon.
Figure 55. Changing front obliquely withdrawing tactically.
Figure 56. Flankers and their deployment without firing. Flankers firing in place.
Figure 54. Scouting by carabiniers.
 A copy is held in the Library of the General Staff.
 A copy is held in the Miscellaneous Archive of the General Staff. A copy of Diagrams Accompanying the Preliminary Decree is also held there.
 Moscow Independent Miscellaneous Archive of the General Staff, Op. 161, Sv. 601, No. 195, l. 14.
 Book of Establishments, Vol. XXVII, No. 21080 and No. 21091. According to the establishments of 1803, regiments of cuirassiers and dragoons, except those in the inspections of the Caucasus, Orenburg and Siberia, had a replacement half-squadrons, hussars and ulans having a replacement squadron.
 The text of the Practise of Instruction states that one should trot 150 paces, while the diagram attached to the text indicates 100 paces.
 A copy of these plans is held in the Miscellaneous Archive of the General Staff.
 Those diagrams, which appear in bold font, are contained in our appendices. These drawings were taken from the originals by a photo-lithographic method at half size.