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  By Leopold Kudrna, with Biographical Essays by Digby Smith.


Abbrevations and Symbols



ad honoris (honorary)




Commander’s Cross






Comitat (Hungarian County)




plus the following page


plus following pages


Feldmarschalleutnant (= lieutenant general)


Feldzeugmeister (= general of infantry, artillery or engineers)


Grand Cross


Grand Commander's Cross


General der Kavallerie (= general of cavalry)


Generalmajor (= major general)


Grand Officer's Cross


Hauptmann (= Captain)




Knight’s Cross


Marechal de Camp (Rank of Major General in Royal France)

 min. aet.

minoris aetatis = underage




Military Maria Theresian Order


(city / village) not locatable (i.g. if more cities with equal names, wrong designations in the sources, etc.)


Oberst (= colonel)


Oberstleutnant (= lieutenant colonel)


Officer’s Cross








Rittmeister (= Captain of horse)


with diamonds


with rank from *




approximate, about, around


victory (of a battle, engagement, siege)


defeat (of a battle, engagement, siege)

 (?) [?]

probably, uncertain, not exactly known


*) In Austria, military promotions of officers always came with two dates:

1. The actual date of promotion (= date of the promotion document or date of the supreme Imperial resolution). From that day on the promotion became effective and the officer hold his new rank (in Austria called: Charge).

2. The date of the rank. This date defined only the ranking order (= Anciennität) within all equal military ranks (important for the promotion to the next higher military rank, in question of subordination or superordination of generals with equal responsibility during a campaign etc).

For example:

Colonel Burnham and colonel Smith are promoted on the very same day (31.12.1800) to major general. Colonel Burnham with rank from 01.01.1780 and colonel Smith with rank from 01.01.1790. From this day onwards (31.12.1800) both actually are holding the same military rank (major general) but major general Burnham have a much higher degree of rank than general major Smith. So major general Burnham's "Anciennität" is higher than MG Smith's, and therefore he might be promoted to the next military rank (= lieutenant general) much more quicker than MG Smith.

Placed on the Napoleon Series: March 2008


Return to Biographical Dictionary of All Austrian Generals ]