By Leopold Kudrna, with Biographical Essays by Digby Smith.

 
 

 

Key to the Biographies

 

Every personal record is subdivided into the following items:

 

1. Full Name

With all changes of status from birth to death.

 

2. Personal Information

A. Place of birth

Because German was the official language of the Austrian army German versions of place names (if ascertainable) are preferably used except when names has become part of the common English usage (vernacular and also today‘s renditions within brackets). For easier localization the places in Hungary are rendered together with the Comitat (Hungarian county), except when the name coincide with the name of the Comitat.

B. Native country

Country names are rendered according to the exact political situation at the time of birth.

See also 2/A

C. Date of birth

day.month.year

E. Place of death

See 2/A

F. Country

Country names are rendered according to the exact political situation at the time of death.

See also 2/A

G. Date of death

See 2/C

 

3. Name Variants (omitted if unascertainable)

List of all different spellings found in contemporary or modern sources.

 

 

4. Family Status (omitted if unascertainable)

A. Relationship with another general in this dictionary (i.e. father, brother, son, grandfather, grandson, nephew, uncle, father-in-law, brother-in-law, son-in-law (greatuncle and greatnephew only in exceptional cases); more distant relationships are not listed.

B. Personal family status (i.e. single, married, divorced, seperated); indication of wife(s) with maiden name (eventually also with former family name) and dates of life (only year of birth and death)

 


5. Promotions


A.
Austrian military ranks
1
All ranks in German and from field officer level upwards

Stabsoffiziere

Field Officers

Major (old: Obristwachtmeister)2

Major

Oberstleutnant

Lieutenant Colonel

Oberst (old: Obrist)

Colonel

Generäle

General Officers

Generalmajor (old: General-Feldwachtmeister / Obrist-Feldwachtmeister)2

Major General

Feldmarschalleutnant

Lieutenant General

Feldzeugmeister3 (coequal with: General der Kavallerie)

General of Infantry, Artillery or Engineers

General der Kavallerie (coequal with: Feldzeugmeister)

General of Cavalry

Feldmarschall

Field Marshal

1) In Austria called "Chargen"
2The military rank designations of Major and Generalmajor were officially introduced with the Austrian "Generals-Reglement" of 1769. Until that time these ranks were named Obrist-Wachtmeister (for Major) and Obrist-Feldwachtmeister or General-Feldwachtmeister (for Major General). Within the next half a century both designations were used simultaneously (e.g. in the very same contemporary document one can find alternately the old as well as the new nomination). In the course of time the usage of Major and Generalmajor became more and more established and finally (around 1830/40) superseded completely the old designations.
3) Literally: "Master of Ordnance"


 

B.
General ranks of the Holy Roman Empire

(until 1806)

Reichs-Generalmajor

Imperial Major General

Reichs-Generalfeldmarschalleutnant

Imperial Lieutenant General

Reichs-Generalfeldzeugmeister (coequal with: Reichs-General der Kavallerie)

Imperial General of Infantry

Reichs-General der Kavallerie (coequal with: Reichs-Generalfeldzeugmeister)

Imperial General of Cavalry

Reichs-Generalfeldmarschall

Imperial Field Marshal

  

C. Foreign military ranks

Rank at the time joining the Austrian Army and all general-ranks obtained within a foreign army

 

6. Social Status (nobility) (omitted if not occured)

List of all titles of nobility obtained during life (Austrian titles and/or titles of foreign countries)

The Nobility within the Holy Roman Empire (Austria, German Countries)
(roughly scheme of hierarchy)

Hochadel

High Nobility

Kaiser

Emperor

König

King

Kurfürst

Prince-Elector

Erzherzog

Archduke

Großherzog

Grand Duke

Herzog

Duke

Fürst

Prince

Prinz

Prince

Landgraf

Landgrave

Markgraf

Margrave

Graf

Count

titles of heir apparents:

Kronprinz

Crown Prince

Erbprinz

Heredetary Prince

Niederer Adel

Low Nobility

Freiherr

Baron

Ritter / Chevalier

Knight

Edler

"knightly" nobleman

von / zu

plain nobleman

 

 

7. Posts and Offices (Army, Politics, Court) (omitted if not occured)

A.
High offices and positions within the Austrian military establishment

Minister of War

Kriegsminister

President of the Aulic War Council

Hofkriegsrats-Präsident

Vice-President of the Aulic War Council (or Court Council of War)

Hofkriegsrats-Vizepräsident

Chief of the Quartermaster General Staff (i.e. General Staff)

Chef des Generalquartiermeisterstabes

Adjutant-General of the Emperor

General-Adjutant des Kaisers

Director-General of Artillery

General-Artillerie-Direktor

Vice-Director-General of Artillery

General-Artillerie-Vizedirektor

Director-General of Engineers

General-Genie-Direktor

Vice-Director-General of Engineers

General-Genie-Prodirektor / General-Genie-Vizedirektor

Director-General of Imperial Recruitment

Direktor der Reichswerbung

President of the Military Appellate Court

Präsident des Militär-Appellations-Gerichtes

Inspector-General of the Military Border

General-Grenz-Inspektor

Inspector-General of Military Provisions

General-Verpflegs-Inspektor

Vice-Inspector-General of Military Provisions

General-Verpflegs-Vizeinspektor

Inspector of the Remount Branch

Remontierungs-Inspektor

Inspector of Military Clothing

Militär-Monturs-Inspektor

Director-General of the River-Navigation and Commander of the Oberst-Schiffamt (= Chief of the Pontooneers)

General-Direktor des Flußschiffwesens und Oberst-Schiffamts-Kommandant (= Chef des Pontonierwesens)

Commander of the Military Transport Corps

Kommandant des Militär-Fuhrwesen-Korps

Director of the Office of Invalids

Direktor des Invalidenamtes

Commander of the Austrian Navy

Kommandant der Kriegsmarine

Commanding General

Kommandierender General

Adlatus of the Commanding General

Adlatus des kommandierenden Generals

Military Commander

Militär-Kommandant

Fortress Commander

Festungs-Kommandant

Supreme Director of the Wiener Neustadt Military Academy

Oberdirektor der Maria Theresianischen Militär-Akademie

Local Director of the Wiener Neustadt Military Academy

Lokaldirektor der Maria Theresianischen Militär-Akademie

Director of the Academy of Engineers

Oberdirektor der Ingenieur-Akademie

Local Director of the Academy of Engineers

Lokaldirektor der Ingenieur-Akademie

 

 

B.
High offices within the Austrian government or diplomatic corps

Governor-General

General-Gouverneur

Governor

Gouverneur

Vice-Governor

Vizegouverneur

State and Conference Minister

Staats- und Konferenz-Minister

Austrian Plenipotentiary with the Military Central Commission at the German Diet in Frankfurt

Österr. Bevollmächtigter bei der Militär-Zentralkommission am Bundestag in Frankfurt

Envoy extraordinary and Minister plenipotentiary

Außerordentlicher Gesandter und bevollmächtigter Minister

 

 

C.
High offices within the Imperial or within an archducal houshold

Grand Master of the Household

Obersthofmeister

Grand Chamberlain

Oberstkämmerer

Grand Marshal

Obersthofmarschall

Grand Equerry

Oberststallmeister

Captain of the First Arcièren Life Guard

Kapitän der Ersten Arcieren-Leibgarde

Lieutenant Captain of the First Arcièren Life Guard

Kapitänleutnant der Ersten Arcieren-Leibgarde

Captain of the Hungarian Noble Life Guard

Kapitän der Ungarischen Leibgarde

Lieutenant Captain of the Hungarian Noble Life Guard

Kapitänleutnant der Ungarischen Leibgarde

Captain of the Trabanten Life Guard and the Hofburgwache

Kapitän der Trabantenleibgarde und Hofburgwache

Captain of the Bohemian Noble Life Guard

Kapitän der Böhmischen Leibgarde

 

 
 

8. Field Service (1792-1815) (omitted if not occured)

A. Posts as army or corps commander during war time

B. Posts as chief of staff of an army

C. Posts as adjutant-general of an army

D. Posts as supreme commander in a battle or combat, or during a siege

 

9. Chivalric Orders (omitted if not occured)

Membership within a sovereign chivalric order (i.e. Order of Malta, Order of St. John, Teutonic Order)

 

 
10. Orders, Decorations, Honorary Appointments (Austria)

List of all orders, decorations, medals and honorary appointments in Austria

CC = Commander's Cross 
GC = Grand Cross 
KC = Knight's Cross

Type

Title

Classes

House Order

Order of the Golden Fleece

Orders of Merit

Military Maria Theresian Order

GC / CC / KC

Order of St. Stephen

GC / CC / KC

Order of Leopold

GC / CC / KC

Order of the Iron Crown

1st / 2nd / 3rd Class

Decorations of Honor

Decoration of the Elisabeth Theresian Military Foundation

Military Honor Cross 1813/14 ("Canon Cross")

Civil Honor Cross 1813/14

gold / silver

Bohemian Noble Cross

 

Military Distinctions of Honor

Colonel Proprietorship of a Regiment

Court Titles of Honor

I.R. Privy Councillor

I.R. Chamberlain

 

 

11. Orders, Decorations, Military Honorary Appointments (Foreign Countries)

List of all orders, decorations, and foreign titles

CC = Commander's Cross
GC = Grand Cross 
GCC = Grand Commander's Cross
GOC = Grand Officer's Cross 
KC = Knight's Cross
OC = Officer's Cross 

Country

Title

Classes

Anhalt-Köthen

Order of Albert the Bear

GC / CC / KC

Baden

Order of Fidelity

GC / (CC)

Order of Military Merit of Charles Frederick

CC / CC / KC

Order of the Lion of Zähringen

GC / CC / KC

Bavaria

Order of St. Hubert

Order of St. Michael

GC / CC / KC

Military Order of Maximilian Joseph

GC / CC / KC

Civil Order of Merit of the Bavarian Crown

GC / CC / KC

Belgium

Order of Leopold

GC / (GOC) / CC / OC / KC

Brasilia

Order of the Southern Cross

GC / OC / KC

Order of Dom Pedro I.

Denmark

Order of the Elephant

Order of the Dannebrog

GCC / GC / CC / KC

France

Order of the Holy Spirit

Order of St. Michael

Order of St. Lazarus and Our Lady of Mount Carmel

CC / KC

Military Order of St. Louis (for catholics)

GC / CC / KC

Order of Military Merit (for non-catholics)

GC / CC / KC

Order of the Légion d'Honneur

GC / GOC / CC / OC / KC

Great Britain

Order of the Garter

Order of the Thistle (or St. Andrew)

Order of St. Patrick

Order of St. Michael and St. George

GC / CC / KC

Order of the Bath

GC / CC / KC

Greece

Order of the Redeemer

GC / GCC / CC / Golden KC / Silver KC

Hannover

Order of St. George

Guelphic Order

GC / CC 1st cl. / CC 2nd cl. / KC

Hessen-Darmstadt

Order of the Golden Lion

GC / CC 1st cl. / CC 2nd cl. / KC

Order of Ludwig

GC / CC 1st cl. / CC 2nd cl. / KC 1st cl. / KC 2nd cl.

Hessen-Kassel

Order of the Golden Lion

GC / CC 1st cl. / CC 2nd cl. / KC

Order of William

GC / CC 1st cl. / CC 2nd cl. / KC

Order of Military Merit

Order of the Iron Helmet

GC / KC 1st cl. / KC 2nd cl.

Hohenlohe

Order of the Phoenix

GC / CC / KC

Hohenzollern

Princely House Order of Hohenzollern

1st cl. / 2nd cl.

Holland

Order of the Reunion

GC / CC / KC

Italy (France)

Order of the Iron Crown

GC / CC / KC

Lucca

see: Parma

Modena

Order of the Eagle of Este

GC / CC / KC

Naples-Sicily

Order of St. Januarius

Order of St. Ferdinand and of Merit

GC / CC / KC

Constantinian Order of St. George

GC / CC / KC

Military Order of St. George and of the Reunion

GC / CC / KC

Order of Francis I.

GC / CC 1st cl. / CC 2nd cl. / KC 1st cl. / KC 2nd cl.

Netherlands

Military Order of William

GC / CC / KC 3rd cl. / KC 4th cl.

Civil Merit Order of the Netherland Lion

GC / CC / KC

Ottoman Empire

Order of Glory (Nichan-Iftikhar)

1st cl. / 2nd cl. / 3rd cl. / 4th cl. / 5th cl.

Oldenburg

House Order of Merit of Duke Peter Frederick Ludwig

GC / GCC / CC / KC

Papal State

Order of Christ

Order of St. Pius

GC / CC / KC

Order of St. Gregory

GC 1st cl. / GC 2nd cl. / CC / KC

Parma (Lucca)

Military Order of St. Louis

1st cl. / 2nd cl. / 3rd cl.

Constantinian Order of St. George

GC / CC / KC

Persia

Order of the Sun and the Lion

1st cl. / 2nd cl. / 3rd cl. / 4th cl. / 5th cl.

Poland (Russia)

Order of the White Eagle

Order of St. Stanislas

1st cl. / 2nd cl. / 3rd cl.

Portugal

Order of Christ

GC / CC / KC

Order of St. Benedict of Aviz

GC / CC / KC

Order of the Tower and the Sword

GC / CC / KC

Prussia

Order of the Black Eagle

Order of the Red Eagle

1st cl. / 2nd cl. / 3rd cl. / 4th cl.

Order Pour-le-Mérite

– (w. or w/o oakleafs)

Order of the Iron Cross

KC 1st cl. / 2nd cl.

Russia

Order of St. Andrew

Order of St. Alexander Nevskij

Order of St. George

1st cl. / 2nd cl. / 3rd cl. / 4th cl.

Order of St. Vladimir

1st cl. / 2nd cl. / 3rd cl. / 4th cl.

Order of St. Anne

1st cl. / 2nd cl. / 3rd cl. / 4th cl.

Salzburg

Military Order of St. Ruppert

 

Saxony

Order of the Rue Crown

Military Order of St. Henry

GC / CC 1st cl. / CC 2nd cl. / KC

Order of Civil Merit

GC / CC / KC

Saxony-Weimar

Order of the White Falcon

GC / CC / KC

Combined Saxonian Duchies

Ernestine House Order

GC / CC 1st cl. / CC 2nd cl. / KC

Sardinia-Piedmont

Order of the Annunziata

Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus

GC / KC

Spain

Order of the Golden Fleece

Order of Charles III.

GC 1st cl. / GC / CC 1st cl / CC / KC

Military Order of St. Ferdinand

GC / CC / KC 1st cl. / KC 2nd cl. / KC 3rd cl.

Sweden

Order of the Seraphim

Military Order of the Sword

GC / CC / KC 1st cl. / KC 2nd cl. / KC 3rd cl.

Tuscany

Order of St. Stephen

GC / CC / KC

Order of St. Joseph

GC / CC / KC

Order of Military Merit

1st cl. / 2nd cl. / 3rd cl.

USA

Order of the Cincinnati

Württemberg

Order of the Golden Eagle

Order of the Crown of Württemberg

GC / CC / KC

Order of Military Merit

GC / CC / KC

Order of Frederick

 

 

13. Biographical Essays

 

14. Printed Sources

 

15. Internet Sources

 

16. Notes




Placed on the Napoleon Series: March 2008

 

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