Treaty of Alliance between Great Britain and Russia.
April 11, 1805.
F. Martens, Traites ... Russia, II, 433-448.
This treaty presents numerous points of interest. Among those calling for particular notice are: (1) as the basis of the Third Coalition it shows the character of the arrangements by which the coalitions against France were built up; (2) in its stipulations regarding the general peace it foreshadows the meeting of the Congress of Vienna and some of its decisions.
In the name of the most holy and indivisible Trinity,
His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias and His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, animated by the desire to secure for Europe the peace, independence and well being of which it is deprived through the unmeasured ambition of the French Government and the degree of influence out of all proportion which it tends to arrogate to itself, have resolved to employ all the means which are in their power, in order to obtain this salutary aim and to prevent the renewal of such distressing circumstances, and in consequence they have appointed to arrange and agree to the measures which their magnanimous intentions demand.
- As the state of suffering in which Europe finds itself demands prompt remedies, their Majesties the Emperor of all the Russias and the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland have agreed to consult upon the means of causing its cessation, without waiting for the case of further encroachments on the part of the French Government. They have agreed, in consequence, to employ the most prompt and efficacious measures in order to form a general league of the States of Europe, and to bind them to accede to the present concert and to gather, for the purpose of fulfilling the aim, a force which, independent of that which His Britannic Majesty shall furnish, shall amount to 500,000 effective men and to employ them with energy in order to bring the French Government by inclination or by force to assent to the re-establishment of the peace and the equilibrium of Europe.
- This league shall have for its aim the accomplishment of that which is proposed by the present concert, to wit:
- The evacuation of the country of Hanover and of the North of Germany.
- The establishment of the independence of the republics of Holland and Switzerland.
- The re-establishment of the King of Sardinia in Piedmont, with an enlargement as considerable as circumstances will permit.
- The future security of the Kingdom of Naples and the entire evacuation of Italy, including therein the Island of Elba, by the French forces.
- The establishment of an order of things which guarantees effectively the security and independence of the different states and presents a solid barrier against future usurpations.
- His Britannic Majesty, in order to co-operate effectively on his side for the happy purposes of the present concert, agrees to contribute to the common efforts by the employment of his land and sea forces, including his vessels suitable for the transport of troops, according to what shall be determined upon in this respect in the general plan of operations. He will aid, besides, the different Powers which shall accede hereto by subsidies, the amount of which shall correspond to the respective forces which it is decided to employ; and in order that these pecuniary aids may be apportioned in the manner most suitable for the general welfare, and to assist the Powers in the measure of the efforts which they shall make to contribute to the common success, it is agreed, that these subsidies shall be furnished (except by special arrangements) in the proportion of 1,250,000 pounds sterling per annum for each hundred thousand men of regular troops and thus in proportion for a greater or less number, payable under the conditions specified below.
- Their Majesties agree that in case a league is formed such as has been specified in article 1, they will not make peace with France except with the consent of all the Powers which shall be parties in the said league, and in case the continental Powers shall not recall their forces until the peace, His Britannic Majesty agrees to continue the payment of the subsidies for the entire duration of the war.
- The High Contracting Parties are agreed that it enters into the aim of the present Concert to procure for Holland and for Switzerland, according to circumstances, suitable enlargements, such as the former Austrian Low Countries in whole or in part for the first and Geneva and Savoy for the second.
They likewise agree that the arrangements which shall be made as the result of the war shall include in favor of Austria an augmentation of territory, such as is stipulated for it by its convention with the Emperor of all the Russias, and in favor of other States which may co-operate in the aim of the present Concert acquisitions proportioned to their efforts for the common cause and compatible with the equilibrium of Europe.
- Mis Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias and His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, having been induced to establish an energetic concert between themselves only with a view to assure to Europe a stable and solid peace founded upon the principles of justice, equity and international law, which are constantly guiding them, have recognized the necessity of agreeing even at present upon various principles which they shall bring forward according to a previous agreement as soon as the fortunes of war shall furnish the necessity therefor.
These principles are, not to interfere in any manner with the national will in France relative to the form of the Government, nor in the other countries in which the combined armies may come to act; not to appropriate in advance of the peace any of the conquests which may be made by one or the other of the belligerent parties, and to take possession of the cities and territories which may be wrested from the common enemy only in the name of the Country or State to which they belong by recognized right and in every other case in the name of all the members of the league.
Finally, to assemble at the end of the war a general congress, in order to discuss and settle upon the most precise foundations, what unfortunately has not been possible until now, the precepts of international law, and to assure the observance of them by the establishment of a federative system based upon the situation of the different States of Europe.
Fyffe, Modern Europe, I, 278-279 (Popular ed., 187-188); Fournier, Napoleon, 295-297; Rose, Napoleon, II, 7-8; Lanfrey, Napoleon, III, 4-8; Lavisse and Rambaud, Histoire Generale, IX, 94-95.
Placed on the Napoleon Series 7/00