Treaty of Luneville
Treaty of Peace concluded at Luneville, Feb. 9, 1801, between the French Republic, and the Emperor and the Germanic Body.
His majesty, the emperor and the king of Hungary and Bohemia, and the first consul of the French republic, in the name of the French people, having equally at heart to put an end to the miseries of war, have resolved to proceed to the conclusion of a definite treaty of peace and amity.
His said imperial and royal majesty, not less anxiously desirous of making the Germanic empire participate in the blessings of peace, and the present conjecture not allowing the time necessary for the empire to be consulted, and to take part by its deputies in the negotiation; his said majesty having, besides, regard to what has been agreed upon by the deputation of the empire at he preceding congress at Rastadt, has resolved, in conformity with the precedent of what has taken place in familiar circumstances, to stipulate in the name of the Germanic body.
In consequence of which the contracting parties have appointed as their plenipotentiaries, to it,
His imperial and royal majesty, the *sieur?* Louis Cobentzel, count of the holy Roman empire, knight of the golden fleece, grand cross of the royal order of St Stephen and of the order of St. John of Jerusalem, chamberlain, and privy counsellor of his imperial and royal majesty, his minister for the conference, and vice-chancellor of the court of state;
And the first consul of the French republic, in the name of the French people, has appointed citizen Joseph Bonaparte, counsellor of state; who, after having exchanged their full powers, have agreed tot he following articles:
Art. I. There shall be henceforth and forever, peace, amity, and good understanding, between his majesty the emperor, king of Hungary and Bohemia, stipulating, as well in his own name as that of the Germanic empire, and the French republic, is said majesty engaging to cause the empire to give ratification in good and due form to the present treaty. The greatest attention shall be paid on both sides to the maintenance of perfect harmony, to preventing all hostilities by land and by sea, for whatever cause, or on whatever pretence, and to carefully endeavouring to maintain the union happily established. No assistance or protection shall be given, either directly or indirectly, to those who would do any thing to the prejudice of either of the contracting parties.
II. The cession of the ci-devant Belgic provinces to the French republic, stipulated by the 3rd article of the treaty of Campo Formio, is renewed there in the most formal manner, so that his imperial and royal majesty, for himself and his successors, as well in his own name as that of the Germanic empire, renounces all his right and title to the said provinces, which shall be possessed henceforth as its sovereign right and property by the French republic, with a l the territorial property dependant on it. There shall also be given up to the French republic by his imperial and royal majesty, and with the formal consent of the empire:
III. In the same manner, in renewal and confirmation of the 6th article of the treaty of Campo Formio, his majesty the emperor and the king shall possess in sovereignty, and as his right, the countries below enumerated, viz. Istria, Dalmatia, and the Venetian isles in the Adriatic dependant upon those countries, the Bocca de Cattaro, the city of Venice, the canals and the country included between the hereditary state of his majesty the emperor and king; the Adriatic sea, and the Adige, form its leaving the Tyrol to the mouth of the said sea; the towing path of the Adige serving as the line of limitation. And as by this line the cites of Verona and of Porto Legnano will be divided, there shall be established, on the middle bridges of the said cities, drawbridges to mark the separation.
IV. The 18th article of the treaty of Campo Formio is also renewed thus far, that his majesty the emperor and king binds himself to yield to the Duke of Modena, as an indemnity for the countries which this prince and his heirs had in Italy, the Brisgau, which he shall hold on the same terms as those by virtue of which he possesses the Modenese.
V. It is moreover agreed, that his royal highness the grand duke of Tuscany shall renounce, for himself and his successors, having any right to it, the grand dutchy of Tuscany, and that part of the isle of Elba which is dependant upon it, as well as all right and title resulting from his rights on the said states, which shall be henceforth possessed in complete sovereignty, and as his own property, by his royal highness the infant duke of Parma. The grand duke shall obtain in Germany a full and complete indemnity for his Italian states. The grand duke shall dispose at pleasure of the goods and property which he possesses in Tuscany, either by personal acquisition, or by descent from his late father, the emperor Leopold II, or from his grandfather the emperor Francis I. It is also agreed, that other property of the grand dutchy, as well as the debts secured on the country, shall pass to the new grand duke.
VI. His majesty the emperor and king, as well as in his own name as in that of the Germanic empire, consents that the French republic shall possess henceforth in complete sovereignty, and as their property, the country and domains situated on the left bank of the Rhine, and which formed part of the Germanic empire: so that, in conformity with what had been expressly consented to at the congress of Rastadt, by the deputation of the empire, and approved by the emperor, the towing path of the Rhine will henceforth be the limit between the French republic and the Germanic empire; that is to say , from the place where the Rhine leaves the Helvetic territory, to that where it enters the Batavian territory.
In consequence of this, the French republic formally renounces all possession whatever on the right bank of the Rhine, and consents to restore to those whom it may belong, the fortresses of Dusseldorff, Ehrenbreitstein, Philipsburgh, the fort of Cassel, and other fortification opposite to Mentz, on the right bank, the fort of Kehl, and Old Brisach, on the express condition that these places and fortresses shall continue and remain in the state in which they were at the time of their evacuation.
VII. And as, in consequence of the cession which the empire makes to the French republic, several princes and states of the empire will be dispossessed, either altogether or in part, whom it is incumbent upon the Germanic empire collectively to support, the losses resulting from the stipulations in the present treaty, it is agreed between his majesty the emperor and king, as well in his own name as in that of the Germanic empire, and the French republic, that in conformity with the principles formally established at the congress of Rastadt, the empire shall be bound to give to the hereditary princes who shall be dispossessed on the left bank of the Rhine, an indemnity, which shall be taken from the whole of the empire, according to arrangements which on these bases shall be ultimately determined upon.
VIII. In all the ceded countries, acquired or exchanged by the present treaty, it is agreed, as had already been done by the 4th and 10th articles of the treaty of Campo Formio, that those to whom they shall belong shall take them, subject to the debts charged on the said countries; but considering the difficulties which have arisen in this respect, with regard to the interpretation of the said articles of the treaty of Campo Formio, it is expressly understood, that the French republic will not take upon itself any thing more that the debts resulting from the loans formally agreed to by the state so the ceded countries, or by the actual administrations of such countries.
IX. Immediately after the change of the ratifications of the present treaty, the sequestration imposed on the property, effects, and revenues of the inhabitants or proprietors, shall be taken off. The contracting parties oblige themselves to pay all they may owe for money lent them by individuals, as well as by the public establishments of the said countries and to pay and reimburse all annuities created for their benefit on every one of them. In consequence of this, it is expressly admitted, that the holders of stock in the bank of Vienna, become French subjects, shall continue to enjoy the benefit of their funds, and shall receive the interest accrued, or to accrue, not withstanding the infringement which the holders aforesaid, become French subjects, sustained by not being able to pay the 30 and 100 percent. Demanded by him imperial and royal majesty, of all creditors of the bank of Vienna.
X. The contracting parties shall also cause all the sequestrations to be taken off, which have been imposed on account of the war, on the property, the rights, and revenues of the emperor, or of the empire, in the territory of the French republic, and of the French citizens in the states of the said majesty or the empire.
XI. The present treaty of peace, and particularly the 8th, 9th, 10th and 15th articles, are declared to extend to, and to be common to the Batavian, Helvetic, Cisalpine and Ligurian republics. The contracting parties mutually guaranty the independence of the said republics, and the right of the people who inhabit them to adopt what form of government they please.
XII. His imperial and royal majesty renounces for himself and his successors, in favour of the Cisalpine republic, all rights and titles arising from those rights, which his majesty might claim on the countries of the 8th article of the treaty of Campo Formio, now form part of the Cisalpine republic, which shall possess them as their sovereignty and property, with all the territorial property dependant upon it.
XIII. His imperial and royal majesty, as well in his own name as in that of the Germanic empire, confirms the agreement already entered into by the treaty of Campo Formio, for the union of ci-devant imperial fiefs to the Ligurian republic, and renounces all rights and titles arising from these rights on the said fiefs.
XIV. In conformity with the 2d article of the treaty of Campo Formio, the navigation of the Adige, which serves as the limits between his majesty the emperor and king, and the navigation of the rivers in the Cisalpine republic, shall be free, nor shall any toll be imposed, nor any ship of war kept there.
XV. All prisoners of war on both sides, as well as hostages given or taken during the war, who shall not be yet restored, shall be so within forty days from the time of the signing of the present treaty.
XVI. The real and personal property unalienated to this royal highness the archduke Charles, and of the heirs of her royal highness the archduchess Christina, deceased, situated in the countries ceded to the French republic, shall be restored to them on condition of their selling them within three years. The same shall be the case also with the landed and personal property of their royal highnesses the archduke Ferdinand and the archduchess Beatrice, his wife, in the territory of the Cisalpine republic.
XVII. The 12th, 13th, 15th, 16th 17th, and 23d articles of the treaty of Campo Formio, are particularly renewed, and are to be executed according to their form and effect, as if they were here repeated verbatim.
XVIII. The contributions, payments, and war impositions, of whatever kind, shall cease from the day of the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty on the one hand, by his imperial majesty and the Germanic empire, and on the other by the French republic.
XIX. The present treaty shall be ratified by his majesty the emperor and king, by the empire, and by the French republic, in the space of thirty days or sooner if possible; and it is agreed that the armies of the two powers shall remain in the present positions, both in Germany and in Italy, until the ratification shall be respectively, and at the same moment, exchanged at Luneville.
It is also agreed, that ten days after the exchange of ratifications, the armies of this imperial and royal majesty shall enter the hereditary possessions, which shall, within the same space of time, be evacuated by the French armies; and thirty days after the said ratifications shall be exchanged, the French armies shall evacuate the whole of the territory of the said empire.
Executed at Luneville, Feb. 9, 1801
Louis Count Cobentzel.